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中级美国英语英文字后头加上字母 s

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里,  我们要复习五种在英文字后头加上字母 s 的说法. 头两种是把两个字简化为一个字, 比方把 he  is 说成 he's, 或是把   he  has 说成 he's;  第三种是用来表示复数名词,比方  teachers, students, 第四种是第三人称单数动词, 比方  "买"  buys, "吃" eats 等等; 最后一种是用来表示所有格,  比方   "美国人的"American's,  "政府的"  government's 等等.   同时我们也要学习跟美国赋税制度有关系的词汇.

   现在我们来听今天这一课的对话,    内容是说亨利跟凯特谈起了缴所得税的事情. 请你注意两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   F:  Henry, our income tax is due soon. Did you call our accountant?
   M: He's  figuring  out  our  taxes  right  now.   I gave  him  all  the  records  on our  income and expenses last week.
   F:  The government has deducted taxes from our paychecks all year. I hope   we get some of that money back or at least that we won't have to pay more.
   M: Remember the money your aunt left us when she died, and the money you    made when you taught night school?
   F:  Yes.
   M: Well, that's all taxable income.That money has put us in a higher tax bracket.
   F:  What does that mean?
   M: It means we have to pay more taxes.
   F:  Well, it looks like we'll have to make more money this year just to pay last  year's taxes.

   现在我们把整段对话再听一遍 

  F:  Henry, our income tax is due soon. Did you call our accountant?
   M: He's  figuring  out  our  taxes  right  now.   I gave  him  all  the  records  on our  income and expenses last week.
   F:  The government has deducted taxes from our paychecks all year. I hope   we get some of that money back or at least that we won't have to pay more.
   M: Remember the money your aunt left us when she died, and the money you    made when you taught night school?
   F:  Yes.
   M: Well, that's all taxable income.That money has put us in a higher tax bracket.
   F:  What does that mean?
   M: It means we have to pay more taxes.
   F:  Well, it looks like we'll have to make more money this year just to pay last  year's taxes. 

   现在老师把对话里包含了我们今天要学的语法的句子再念一遍给你听.

   M: He's figuring out our taxes right now.
   M: I gave him all the records on our income and expenses last week.
   F:  The government has deducted taxes from our paychecks all year.
   M: That's all taxable income.
   M: It means we have to pay more taxes.
   F:  It looks like we'll have to make more money this year just to pay last year's taxes.

二.SHE'S和HE'S

   首先我们根据对话内容一方面练习把she is 简化为 she's, 把 he is简化为 he's,一方面也复习对话里的新词汇.   练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 比方:   Kate is talking to Henry.  学生就把句子改为: She's talking to Henry.  请你跟学生一起作练习. 现在我们开始.

   M: Kate is talking to Henry.
   F:  She's talking to Henry.
   M: Kate is asking Henry about their income tax.
   F:  She's asking Henry about their income tax.
   M: Kate is suggesting that Henry call their accountant.
   F:  She's suggesting that Henry call their accountant.
   M: Henry is telling Kate about their taxable income.
   F:  He's telling Kate about their taxable income.
   M: Henry is explaining the higher tax bracket to Kate.
   F:  He's explaining the higher tax bracket to Kate.

   下面我们还是根据对话内容一方面练习把 he has 简化为 he's, 把 she has 简化为 she's, 一方面也复习词汇.   练习的作法是老师提出一个问题, 比方: Has Kate talked to Henry? 学生就用简化的方式作肯定的答覆,   所以答案就是: Yes, she's talked to Henry. 还是请你跟学生一起作练习. 现在开始.

   M: Has Kate talked to Henry?
   F:  Yes, she's talked to Henry.
   M: Has Kate asked Henry about their income tax?
   F:  Yes, she's asked Henry about their income tax.
   M: Has Henry kept records on their expenses?
   F:  Yes, he's kept records on their expenses.
   M: Has Henry given the records to their accountant?
   F:  Yes, he's given the records to their accountant.
   M: Has Henry explained the higher tax bracket to Kate?
   F:  Yes, he's explained the higher tax bracket to Kate.

三.在名词后加S或E-S来表示复数

   下面我们复习在名词后面加上 s 或是 e-s 来表示复数. 练习的内容说到美国人必须缴什么税,  比方对话里提到所得税,  还有 "购物税" 或是 "营业税"  sales tax, 买奢侈品的时候付的税  luxury tax, 承继遗产的时候付的税 inheritance tax 等等. 现在请你听男老师念句子, 并且跟着女老师把句子重复一遍.

   M: Different kinds of taxes are paid in the U.S.
   F:  Different kinds of taxes are paid in the U.S.
   M: Most American citizens pay income taxes every year.
   F:  Most American citizens pay income taxes every year.
   M: The income tax is usually deducted from paychecks.
   F:  The income tax is usually deducted from paychecks.
   M: Americans keep records on their expenses.
   F:  Americans keep records on their expenses.
   M: They pay sales taxes when they make purchases.
   F:  They pay sales taxes when they make purchases.
   M: They pay property taxes for the houses they own.
   F:  They pay property taxes for the houses they own
   M: They pay luxury taxes when they buy luxury items.
   F:  They pay luxury taxes when they buy luxury items.
   M: They pay inheritance taxes when they inherit properties or money.
   F:  They pay inheritance taxes when they inherit properties or money.

   下面我们再作一组练习复习复数名词.    练习的内容是说政府收了税用来作什么, 比方付国家开支,  提供服务,  建桥梁, 修公路, 帮助失业的工人,  补助低收入家庭等等.  练习的作法是老师念一个句子,   接着老师提出一个词组,学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里.   在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Taxes are used to pay for national expenses.
   M: provide public services
   F:  Taxes are used to provide public services.
   M: build bridges
   F:  Taxes are used to build bridges
   M: repair highways
   F:  Taxes are used to repair highways.
   M: help unemployed workers
   F:  Taxes are used to help unemployed workers.
   M: support low-income families
   F:  Taxes are used to support low-income families.

四.在动词后加S或E-S表第三人称单数

   现在我们练习在动词后面加上 s 或是 e-s 来表示主语是第三人称单数. 练习的内容说到美国的购物税, 比方每个州的税率是否不同,   税率是不是各州自己定的等等.练习的作法是老师提出一个以第三人称为主语的问句,    请你一一地作肯定的答覆.  这组练习里有些词汇可能你不熟,   比方 "居民" residents ,   "百分比" percentage,  "不同"  vary,  "累进税制度" graduated  taxation, 请你在作练习的时候特别注意. 每作完一句老师就会把正确答案念给你听. 现在开始.

   M: Does New York State require its residents to pay sales tax?
   F:  Yes, New Yowk State requires its residents to pay sales tax.
   M: Does everyone who makes a purchase pay it?
   F:  Yes, everyone who makes a purchase pays it.
   M: Does the sales tax percentage vary from state to state?
   F:  Yes, the sales tax percentage varies from state to state.
   M: Does each state set its own tax percentage?
   F:  Yes, each state sets its own tax percentage.
   M: Does every state use graduated taxation?
   F:  Yes, every state uses graduated taxation.
   M: Does a customer pay more sales tax when he makes more purchases?
   F:  Yes, a customer pays more sales tax when he makes more purchases.

五.在名词后面加 's 来表示所有格

   最后一组练习是在名词后面加上 's 来表示所有格. 比方有一句话:  "税收是政府收入的一个主要来源",这句话可以这样说: Taxes are the main source of  the revenue  of  a government. 这句话也可以简便一点用所有格这样说: Taxes are the main source  of a  government's  revenue. 现在我们作一组练习把这两种说法作个比较.   练习的作法是老师念一个包含了of 的句子,  请你把句子改为所有格说出来. 练习的内容谈的还是美国的税, 比方付税是人民的义务;  房地产税的高低是按照房地产的价格而定的;   遗产税应该在继承死者的财富的时候缴等等. 现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句老师就会把正确答案念给你听.

   M: Taxes are a part of the life of every American.
   F:  Taxes are a part of every American's life.
   M: It's the obligation of a citizen to pay taxes.
   F:  It's the citizen's obligation to pay taxes.
   M: Taxes are the main source of the revenue of a government.
   F:  Taxes are the main source of a government's revenue.
   M: When the income of a family rises, its income tax increases too.
   F:  When a family's income rises, its income tax increases too.
   M: The property tax is based on the value of the property.
   F:  The property tax is based on the property's value.
   M: Inheritance  tax  should  be  paid  when   the  wealth  of  a  dead  person  is inherited  by someone.
   F:  Inheritance tax should be paid when the dead person's wealth is inherited by someone.

六.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听一篇介绍美国赋税制度的文章. 文章里许多词汇都是我们练习过的. 现在请你注意听.

   There are many different kinds of taxes paid in the U.S.  The most common tax is the sales tax.   When  someone  buys  something,  he   pays  the  price  of  his  purchase  plus a small additional percentage. This percentage is the sales tax. The revenue  from  the  sales tax goes to  the  state  government  to  help pay   for  public schools, public safety, roads, parks and benefits for the poor.  Each state sets its own tax percentage. Some states  are   considerably  lower  than others.  In some states there is no sales tax.  A second type of tax is the income tax. This tax is a percentage of all the money earned by a family each year.  Americans pay  income  taxes to  the   federal government  which  uses the  revenue  for national expenses such as  defense,   help  for  the  needy and other public services.  Some  states  also  have  a state   income tax.  The  income  tax, like other taxes, is usually  graduated.   This  means  the  tax   percentage  increases  as  a  family's  income increases.  A third kind of tax is the property tax. This tax is paid by anyone who owns land  or  a house.  The amount  of  the  tax  is  based on the property's value. The revenues  from this tax go to local governments for schools and community services.  In  addition  people  must  pay  the  luxury   tax  when  they  purchase  certain  things  such as cigarettes and alcoholic beverages.  A fifth kind of tax is the inheritance tax.  When someone dies, usually  his  family  inherits the dead person's wealth and property. However, those who inherit must  pay a percentage of  this wealth to the government as an inheritance tax.  As we have heard, there are five kinds of taxes that Americans pay.  Most Americans don't want more taxes.

   现在请你回答问题. 在你回答之后老师会念出正确答案给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are the five kinds of taxes Americans pay?
   F:  They are sales tax, income tax, property tax, luxury tax and inheritance tax.

   第二个问题是:
   M: Does the federal government set the sales tax percentage?
   F:  No, it doesn't.

   第三个问题是:
   M: What are some of the public services Americans get by paying taxes?
   F:  National defense, public schools, public safety, roads, parks and help for the needy are some  of  the public  services Americans get for  paying taxes.

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