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中级美国英语家庭生活有关的词汇

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习几个很有用的常用语,  比方 "打定主意"   make up one's mind, "解决" work out, "应付" cope with 等等. 我们还要学习一些跟家庭生活有关系的词汇.

   首先我们依照惯例听一段对话,    内容说到亨利的同事南希要跟丈夫史蒂夫分居的事情. 请你注意两位英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Kate, Nancy and Steve are breaking up.
   F:  It's really a shame. I've heard that they quarrel, but they've always made up  afterward.
   M: Things are not working out this time. They are getting a separation soon.
   F:  What is going to happen to their daughter, Bonnie?
   M: Nancy is going to take her.
   F:  The cost of living is so high. It will be difficult for her to   take  the responsibility.   She  had better think the whole thing over.
   M: She seems to have made up her mind.  She  said  she   would  rather be a single  parent than cope with an unhappy marriage.
   F:  Well, I hope her parents will be able to talk her out of it.

   现在我请英文老师再把对话念一遍. 请你注意听. 

   M: Kate, Nancy and Steve are breaking up.
   F:  It's really a shame. I've heard that they quarrel, but they've always made up  afterward.
   M: Things are not working out this time. They are getting a separation soon.
   F:  What is going to happen to their daughter, Bonnie?
   M: Nancy is going to take her.
   F:  The cost of living is so high. It will be difficult for her to   take  the responsibility.   She  had better think the whole thing over.
   M: She seems to have made up her mind.  She  said  she   would  rather be a single  parent than cope with an unhappy marriage.
   F:  Well, I hope her parents will be able to talk her out of it. 

   现在老师把对话里包含了常用语的句子再念一遍给你听.

   M: Nancy and Steve are breaking up.
   F:  It's really a shame.
   F:  They've always made up afterward.
   M: Things are not working out this time.
   F:  It will be difficult for her to take the responsibility.
   F:  She had better think the whole thing over.
   M: She seems to have made up her mind.
   M: She would rather be a single parent than cope with an unhappy marriage.
   F:  I hope her parents will be able to talk her out of it.

二.BREAK UP

   现在我们从你刚才听到的句子里挑出一些常用语分别作练习.   首先我们学习break up, b-r-e-a-k u-p, break up 的用法. 这个词组的意思就是 "分裂, 解散".  用来说人, 尤其是夫妻的时候, 意思就是 "分手". 现在老师用这个词组作句子,提出一些有关南希和史蒂夫的问题,   比方他们是不是已经决定分手;   他们夫妻分居或是离婚会不会造成家庭分裂等等问题.   这些问题学生都一一地作肯定的答覆.  在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Have Nancy and Steve decided to break up?
   F:  Yes, Nancy and Steve have decided to break up.
   M: Do Henry and Kate know that they are breaking up?
   F:  Yes, Henry and Kate know that they are breaking up.
   M: Are Henry and Kate concerned about their breaking up?
   F:  Yes, Henry and Kate are concerned about their breaking up.
   M: Does their family break up when they get a separation?
   F:  Yes, their family breaks up when they get a separation.
   M: Does their family break up when they divorce?
   F:  Yes, their family breaks up when they divorce.

三.MAKE UP

   下面我们练习 make up, m-a-k-e  u-p, make up  的用法.   这个词组可以用来表示"和好如初". 现在老师用这个词组提出一些有关南希跟史蒂夫的问题,比方"如果他们不彼此怨恨,他们会不会和好如初呢?" Would they make up if they didn't resent each other? 然后老师提出 yes 或是 no, 学生就根据他所听到的作肯定或否定的答覆. 在学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Have Nancy and Steve always made up before?
   M: yes
   F:  Yes, Nancy and Steve have always made up before.
   M: Are they willing to make up this time?
   M: no
   F:  No, they are not willing to make up this time.
   M: Would they need a separation if they were willing to make up?
   M: no
   F:  No, they wouldn't need a separation if they were willing to make up.
   M: Would they make up if they didn't resent each other?
   M: yes
   F:  Yes, they would make up if they didn't resent each other.
   M: Would it be better for their daughter if they made up?
   M: yes
   F:  Yes, it would be better for their daughter if they made up.

四.MAKE UP ONE'S MIND

   下面我们学习用make up one's mind 来表示 "打定主意". 比方有一句话:  "南希已经决定不跟史蒂夫和解." 这句话的英文可以这样说:Nancy has made up her mind not to reconcile with Steve.

   现在我们作一组代换练习学学这个常用语. 练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 接着老师念一个词组, 学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 这组练习里的句子都是说到南希决定怎么样处理她的婚姻和家庭问题. 现在请你注意听, 并且跟学生一起作练习.

   M: Nancy has made up her mind to break up her marriage.
   M: not to reconcile with Steve
   F:  Nancy has made up her mind not to reconcile with Steve.
   M: to get a separation
   F:  Nancy has made up her mind to get a separation.
   M: to be a single parent
   F:  Nancy has made up her mind to be a single parent.
   M: to keep her daughter
   F:  Nancy has made up her mind to keep her daughter.
   M: to take the responsibility
   F:  Nancy has made up her mind to take the responsibility.

五.WORK OUT

   下面我们学习怎么用   work  out,  w-o-r-k o-u-t, work out.  这个词组可以用来表示"解决";  比方  "他们不能够解决彼此间的歧见."  They   cannot   work  out   their differences. 也可以用来表示 "顺利"; 比方 "他们的婚姻不顺利."   Their  marriage isn't working out. 下面老师问学生一些跟南希的婚姻生活有关系的问题.每问一个问题, 老师就会提出 yes  或是 no, 学生就根据他所听到的作肯定或否定的答覆. 在学生作练习的时候请你一起作.

   M: Can Nancy and Steve work out their problems?
   M: no
   F:  No, Nancy and Steve cannot work out their problems.
   M: Can they work out their differences?
   M: no
   F:  No, they cannot work out their differences.
   M: Is their marriage working out?
   M: no
   F:  No, their marriage isn't working out.
   M: Would it work out if they didn't resent each other?
   M: yes
   F:  Yes, it would work out if they didn't resent each other.
   M: Would it work out if they reconciled?
   M: yes
   F:  Yes, it would work out if they reconciled.

六.COPE WITH

   下面我们学学怎么用 cope with,  c-o-p-e  w-i-t-h, cope   with  来表示 "对付"  或是"应付". 比方,  "对付心理问题是不容易的."    这句话英文可以这样说:   To cope with psychological problems is not easy. 现在我们作一组代换练习,学学这种用法. 首先老师念一个句子,  学生跟着重复一遍,   接着老师念一个词组,   学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 学生作练习的时候,请你也一起作.

   M: To cope with an unhappy marriage is not easy.
   M: single parenthood
   F:  To cope with single parenthood is not easy
   M: the high cost of living
   F:  To cope with the high cost of living is not easy.
   M: emotional problems
   F:  To cope with emotional problems is not easy.
   M: psychological problems
   F:  To cope with psychological problems is not easy.
   M: financial problems
   F:  To cope with financial problems is not easy.

七.HAD BETTER

   下面我们学习用  had  better,  h-a-d  b-e-t-t-e-r,   had  better  加上原型动词来表示"最好" 作某件事情. 比方  "她最好开始找个托儿所."   这句话英文可以 这样说:She had  better  start looking for a child-care center. 现在我们作一组代换练习学学这种用法. 练习的内容是说到南希既然决定跟丈夫分居,自己带大孩子, 她最好作些什么安排, 比方存钱, 找公寓, 找托儿所等等. 请你跟学生一起作练习.

   M: Nancy had better save some money.
   M: get herself a car
   F:  Nancy had better get herself a car.
   M: find an apartment
   F:  Nancy had better find an apartment.
   M: start looking for a child-care center
   F:  Nancy had better start looking for a child-care center.
   M: ask her parents to help
   F:  Nancy had better ask her parents to help.

   下面一组代换练习的内容是说凯特认为南希应该跟父母谈一谈,最好三思而后行等等. 请你跟刚才一样作练习.

   F:  Nancy had better talk to her parents.
   M: think the whole thing over
   F:  Nancy had better think the whole thing over.
   M: work out the problems with Steve
   F:  Nancy had better work out the problems with Steve.
   M: make up with Steve
   F:  Nancy had better make up with Steve.

八.WOULD RATHER

   最后我们学习怎么用英文来表示 "宁愿怎么样也不愿意怎么样". 比方 "婚姻不美满还不如分居."      Having  a   separation  is  better  than  having  an  unhappy marriage. 这句话可以换一个方式用   would  rather,    w-o-u-l-d  r-a-t-h-e-r,  would rather 加上原型动词开头的词组再加上 than, t-h-a-n, than 改成 "我宁愿分居也不愿意有不美满的婚姻."I would rather have a separation than have an unhappy marriage. 下面我们作一组练习把这两种说法作一个比较.   练习的作法是南希用 is better than说一句话, 请你用南希作主语再加上would rather ...than 把句子说出来. 下面就是一个例子:

   F:  Coping  with  the  high cost  of  living  is  better  than coping with emotional problems.
   M:  Nancy would rather cope with the high cost of living than cope with emotional problems.

   这组练习比较难, 请你特别用心. 每作完一句老师就会把正确答案念给你听.

   F:  Having a separation is better than having an unhappy marriage.
   M: Nancy would rather have a separation than have an unhappy marriage.
   F:  Breaking up with Steve is better than having quarrels with him.
   M: Nancy would rather break up with Steve than have quarrels with him.
   F:  Being a single parent is better than staying with Steve.
   M: Nancy would rather be a single parent than stay with Steve.
   F:  Coping with financial problems is better than living with Steve.
   M: Nancy would rather cope with financial problems than live with Steve.
   F:  Coping with the high cost of living is better than coping with emotional problems.
   M: Nancy would rather cope with the high cost of living than cope with emotional problems.

九.听短语回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章谈到美国一般人的家庭和婚姻状况.请你注意听.

   In  the  past,  American  families  tended  to be  quite  large.   Parents  raising  five  or   more children were common. Over the years the size of the family has decreased.  One reason for this is an increase in the cost of living.  On the average, children  attend schools  for  more years  than they used to, making  them financially  dependent  on their families longer.  Moreover,  children  nowadays  are  better dressed and have more money to spend on entertainment.   The parents  usually  take the responsibility for all the expenses.  Meanwhile, families are less close than they used to be. More and more American mothers work away  from  home. The  break   up  of  the  family  occurs  when  the  parent  divorce.  A  lot  of  children in the U.S. live part of their young lives with only one parent.  Broken families usually result in problems  for  children and parents alike.  Children  blame themselves  when  their  parents  separate.  They grow  up feeling  unsettled  as  they  are moved back and forth between parents.  Usually one parent takes the responsibility for raising the children.  These single  parents must  care  for  the children's  emotional   and  psychological  needs  while also supporting them financially. This is  very  demanding  and  leaves   very  little time for  the parent's own personal interests.  Single parents often marry other single parents.  In  this   type  of  family,  unrelated children are  forced  to  develop  brother  or  sister   relationship. The situations  of  many  American families today are not good.  However, recent signs  indicate that things are getting better. The divorce rate is declining.  The rate  of childbirth is rising. Perhaps Americans have learnd how important families are.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 在你回答之后请你听老师念正确答案.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Why have American families become smaller?
   F:  It is because the cost of living has increased.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What problems might children have when their parents break up?
   F:  They might have emotional and psychological problems.

   第三个问题是:
   M: What is a single parent?
   F:  A single parent is a person who raises his or her child alone.

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