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中级美国英语与时间有关的常用语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习几个跟时间有关系的常用语,比方 "准时"on time,"及时"   in time, "总是" all the time, "有时候"  from time to time, 等等.   另外我们要谈美国人的时间观念, 顺便谈一谈在这套教材里出现过的人物.

   首先我们依照惯例听一段对话, 内容是说珍妮早晨起来去跑步, 作运动,  回家路上遇到鲍勃, 两个人谈话的经过. 请你注意听英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Jenny, I haven't seen you for a long time. How have you been?
   F:  I've been busy, Bob. How are you?
   M: I'm fine. You have been running, haven't you? Where do you find the time?
   F:  It does take a lot of time, but I really enjoy it. Why don't   you try it?
   M: Well, I think about it from time to time, but it seems like I never have enough time.
   F:  Speaking of not having enough time, I really need to get home and take a shower. I have a class in an hour. I want to be on time for it.
   M: Okay, I'll talk to you some other time.

   现在我们听老师用慢速度再把整段对话念一遍.

   M: Jenny, I haven't seen you for a long time. How have you been?
   F:  I've been busy, Bob. How are you?
   M: I'm fine. You have been running, haven't you? Where do you find the time?
   F:  It does take a lot of time, but I really enjoy it. Why don't   you try it?
   M: Well, I think about it from time to time, but it seems like I never have enough time.
   F:  Speaking of not having enough time, I really need to get home and take a shower. I have a class in an hour. I want to be on time for it.
   M: Okay, I'll talk to you some other time.

   刚才那段对话里包含了许多跟时间有关系的俗语.   现在我把这些有俗语的句子挑出来, 请老师再念一遍给你听.

   M: I haven't seen you for a long time.
   M: Where do you find the time?
   F:  It does take a lot of time.
   M: I think about it from time to time.
   F:  I want to be on time for it.
   M: I'll talk to you some other time.

二.ON TIME

   现在我们挑出几个表明时间的常用语分别作练习. 首先我们练习 "准时" 或是"守时" on time, o-n t-i-m-e, on time 的用法. 下面男老师用这个词组作一些句子说明珍妮很守时,   比方  "珍妮无论作什么事总是想着要准时."  Jenny  is preoccupied  with  being  on  time. "她总是准时赴约会."   She is always on  time for an appointment. 等等. 请你注意听男老师念句子, 并且跟女老师一起把句子重复一遍.

   M: Jenny wants to be on time for her class.
   F:  Jenny wants to be on time for her class.
   M: She was taught to be on time when she was small.
   F:  She was taught to be on time when she was small.
   M: She feels that being on time is a good habit.
   F:  She feels that being on time is a good habit.
   M: She thinks that being on time is important.
   F:  She thinks that being on time is important.
   M: She is preoccupied with being on time.
   F:  She is preoccupied with being on time.
   M: She is always on time for an appointment.
   F:  She is always on time for an appointment.
   M: She is always on time for work.
   F:  She is always on time for work.
   M: She tells her boss if she cannot be on time for work.
   F:  She tells her boss if she cannot be on time for work.
   M: She wants to be on time because she values time.
   F:  She wants to be on time because she values time.

   下面我们作一组代换练习, 一方面练习 on time 这个词组,一方面看一看什么样的人通常比较准时.   练习的作法是老师念一个有从句的问题, 然后老师念另外一个从句, 请你把从句代换到原来的句子里. 这组练习里有些词汇可能你不熟,比方  "珍贵" precious,  "注重时间的"   time-oriented,  "繁忙的"  hectic, "时间表"schedule,  "认真地" conscientiously,   请你在作练习的时候特别注意. 每作完一句老师就把正确答案念一遍给你听.  现在开始.

   M: Are those who have a watch usually on time?
   M: who worry about being late
   F:  Are those who worry about being late usually on time?
   M: who value time
   F:  Are those who value time usually on time?
   M: who consider time precious
   F:  Are those who consider time precious usually on time?
   M: who live in a time-oriented society
   F:  Are those who live in a time-oriented society usually on time?
   M: who have a hectic schedule
   F:  Are those who have a hectic schedule usually on time?
   M: who work conscientiously
   F:  Are those who work conscientiously usually on time?

三.IN TIME

   下面我们练习怎么用 "及时" in time, i-n t-i-m-e, in time 作句子. 练习的作法是鲍勃问珍妮一些问题, 比方"你今天早上赶上那班直达车了吗?" Did  you catch the express bus this morning? 珍妮就用 in time 作肯定的答覆. 请你注意听.

   M: Did you catch the express bus this morning?
   F:  Yes, I caught it in time.
   M: Did you make it to your class?
   F:  Yes, I made it in time.
   M: Did you finish the exam?
   F:  Yes, I finished it in time.
   M: Did you talk to your advisor before he left the office?
   F:  Yes, I talked to him in time.
   M: Did you make it to the doctor's appointment after school?
   F:  Yes, I made it in time.
   M: Did you get home before the traffic hour started?
   F:  Yes, I got home in time.

   下面我们再作一组练习.  首先老师说一句话, 比方: Jenny talked to her advisor just before he left  the office. 请你把句子改成: She  talked to her advisor  in time.这组练习不但提到珍妮还提到其他在这套教材里出现过的人物跟他们做过的一些事情, 希望你还记得.现在我们开始作练习, 每作完一句,   就请你听老师念正确答案.

   M: Jenny talked to her advisor just before he left his office.
   F:  She talked to her advisor in time.
   M: Bob got back from China the day before the semester started.
   F:  He got back from China in time.
   M: Henry and Kate paid their income tax before it was too late.
   F:  They paid their income tax in time.
   M: Henry and other firemen put out  the fire just  before it started to spread.
   F:  They put out the fire in time.
   M: Nancy finished typing the fire report an hour before it was due.
   F:  She finished typing the fire report in time.
   M: Kate picked up her car just before the garage close.
   F:  She picked up her car in time.
   M: Peter got into his parents' trailer before it started to rain.
   F:  He got into his parents' trailer in time.
   M: Mary got her graduation cap and gown the day before the graduation ceremony.
   F:  She got her graduation cap and gown in time.
   M: Linda bought a swimming suit for Jenny on the last day of the sale.
   F:  She bought a swimming suit for Jenny in time.

四.FROM TIME TO TIME

   现在我们练习怎么用  from  time  to  time, f-r-o-m  t-i-m-e  t-o t-i-m-e,  from time to time 这个词组的意思就是 "不时" 或是  "有时候". 下面老师用这个词组提出一些跟工作有关系的问题, 比方美国人有时候感到工作沉重, 有时候觉得受到时间的束缚等等,   请你一一地作肯定的答覆.  你回答之后老师会把答案再念一遍给你听.

   M: Are Americans preoccupied with their jobs from time to time?
   F:  Yes, Americans are preoccupied with their jobs from time to time.
   M: Do they feel job pressure from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they feel job pressure from time to time.
   M: Do they cope with a hectic schedule from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they cope with a hectic schedule from time to time.
   M: Do they work extra hours from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they work extra hours from time to time.
   M: Do they complain about their jobs from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they complain about their jobs from time to time.
   M: Do they need to relax from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they need to relax from time to time.
   M: Do they need to get away from their jobs from time to time?
   F:  Yes, they need to get away from their jobs from time to time.

五.ALL THE TIME

   下面我们学习怎么用 all the time, a-l-l t-h-e t-i-m-e, all the time. 这个词组可以用来表示 "总是". 比方:  He's always busy. 可以改成: He's busy all the time. 现在老师作一些句子说明在这套教材里出现过的一些人物.比方: Peter doesn't like to wear a watch. He's always late. 学生就把句子改成: Peter doesn't like to wear a watch. He's late all the time.   学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: Jenny is preoccupied with time. She always worries about  being late.
   F:  Jenny is preoccupied with time. She worries about being late all the time.
   M: Peter doesn't like to wear a watch. He's always late.
   F:  Peter doesn't like to wear a watch. He's late all the time.
   M: Henry has a hectic schedule. He's always busy.
   F:  Henry has a hectic schedule. He's busy all the time.
   M: Kate is persuasive. Her students always listen to her.
   F:  Kate is persuasive. Her students listen to her all the time.
   M: Bill is a competitive coach. He always talks about winning a game.
   F:  Bill is a competitive coach. He talks about winning a game all the   time.
   M: Bob likes politics. He always campaigns for somebody.
   F:  Bob likes politics. He campaigns for somebody all the time.
   M: Nancy has financial problems. She always complains about the high cost of living.
   F:  Nancy has financial problems. She complains about the high cost of living all the time.
   M: Bonnie has psychological problems. She's always upset.
   F:  Bonnie has psychological problems. She's upset all the time.

六.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章谈到美国人很重视时间. 这一点从语言, 生活习惯等等方面都可以看出来. 文章里许多词汇都是我们刚刚练习过的. 现在请你注意听.

   Americans  think  a  great  deal  about  time.  They constantly refer to time and the value of keeping busy.   From childhood, they learn to value  time,   and  their  language reflects this preoccupation with it.  As children, they are taught  to be on time for events and  to do  work  on  time.  They  learn that  the price of  committing a  crime is to do time in prison.  When  they are having a good time, they say that time flies;  they say sadly of someone who  is   dying  that  he  is  living on borrowed   time.  From  the  time of  its  beginning,  American  English has reflected  this preoccupation with time.  Nowhere can this sense of  time be seen more clearly than in  the working place.  Working Americans are bound to the clock.  It  is  a  commonly   held  belief that one should balance work against a set time, for example an 8 hour day or a 40 hour  week. Anything over these time limits is overtime, and the worker should receive  more money per hour for work  done during overtime.  Time  during  nonworking  hours is  also considered very  precious. Whether an American decides  on  a  hectic  weekend schedule,  when Saturday and Sunday  are filled  with activities,or on a relaxed weekend,the time will be regarded as valuable. Some Americans feel  they have a  love / hate  relationship  with time. They  love  the comforts that progress has brought  through work, but they hate the  bondage to the clock and  the  pressures  of  a time-oriented society.  There  is  little  doubt that  many  Americans feel  they have become servants of the clock.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 回答之后老师会念正确答案给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What are some of the expressions reflecting Americans' preoccupation with time?
   F:  To be on time, have a good time, live on borrowed time and to do time are some  of the expressions reflecting Americans' preoccupation with time.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What is overtime?
   F:  Anything over an 8 hour day or a 40 hour week is overtime.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Why do many Americans feel they have become servants of the clock?
   F:  It is because they live in a time-oriented society.

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