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中级美国英语与移民有关的词汇

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们学习几个连接词, 比方 "既然" since, "虽然" although, "可是"nevertheless, "为了要" in order to 等等. 我们还要谈一谈有关移民的事情. 首先我们来听今天这一课的对话,   内容是说凯特跟她的同事比尔谈到了学校里的外国学生. 请你注意听英文老师的发音和语调.

   M: Kate, how's the new student in your class doing?
   F:  The  kid  from  Haiti?  He's  having a rough time communicating since he doesn't  speak much English. However, the other kids seem to include him pretty well.
   M: Our students are used to new kids who don't speak much English since we have had so many new immigrant families move into our school district.
   F:  Don't  I  know  it! This year I have had a   Vietnamese, an Ethiopian, a  Cuban and the kid from Haiti in my class. I spend a lot of time with them after class so that they can catch up.
   M: It must have been hard for you since you have to give them special attention in  order  to help them.
   F:  It has been. Nevertheless, it's really rewarding to see them progress and make friends.

   现在我们再把对话听一遍. 请你注意听. 

   M: Kate, how's the new student in your class doing?
   F:  The  kid  from  Haiti?  He's  having a rough time communicating since he doesn't  speak much English. However, the other kids seem to include him pretty well.
   M: Our students are used to new kids who don't speak much English since we have had so many new immigrant families move into our school district.
   F:  Don't  I  know  it! This year I have had a   Vietnamese, an Ethiopian, a  Cuban and the kid from Haiti in my class. I spend a lot of time with them after class so that they can catch up.
   M: It must have been hard for you since you have to give them special attention in  order  to help them.
   F:  It has been. Nevertheless, it's really rewarding to see them progress and make friends. 

   现在老师把对话里包含了连接词的句子再念一遍给你听

   F:  He's having a rough time since he doesn't speak much English.
   F:  However, the other kids seem to include him pretty well.
   F:  I spend a lot of time with them after class so that they can catch up.
   M: You have to give them special attention in order to help them.
   F:  Nevertheless, it's really rewarding to see them progress and make friends.

二.SINCE

   首先我们练习用 since, s-i-n-c-e, since 来表明一件事情的原因. 比方,有一句话"他觉得别扭因为他长得跟别的孩子不同." 这句话英文可以这样说:   He feels awkward since he looks different  from the other kids. 现在请你注意听比尔提出跟海地来的那个学生有关系的问题, 比方: Why doesn't he speak English?接着凯特说出原因: He was never taught the language. 请你跟凯特一起这样回答问题:  He  doesn't  speak   Englihs because   he  was never  taught  the  language.

   好, 现在我们开始.

   M: Why doesn't he speak English?
   F:  He was never taught the language.
   F:  He doesn't speak English since he was never taught the language.
   M: Why does he have a rough time communicating?
   F:  He doesn't speak much English.
   F:  He has a rough time communicating since he doesn't speak much English.
   M: Why doesn't he play with the other kids?
   F:  He has a rough time communicating.
   F:  He doesn't play with the other kids since he has a rough time communicating.
   M: Why does he feel awkward?
   F:  He looks different from the other kids.
   F:  He feel awkward since he looks different from the other kids.
   M: Why is he behind?
   F:  He doesn't understand much English.
   F:  He's behind since he doesn't understand much English.

三.THEREFORE

   下面我们练习用therefore, t-h-e-r-e-f-o-r-e,therefore来表明一件事情的结果. 比方"他还小, 因此他会很快学好英文."   这句话可以这样说: He's  young.  Therefore he'll pick up English quickly.   现在还是请你注意听比尔提出一些跟从海地来的那个学生有关系的问题,   比方:  Will  he   make  friends?   接着凯特说: Yes, the other kids like him. 请你跟凯特一起这样回答: The other kids like him. Therefore he'll make friends. 现在我们开始.

   M: Will he pick up English quickly?
   F:  Yes, he's young.
   F:  He's young. Therefore he'll pick up English quickly.
   M: Will he catch up?
   F:  Yes, he studies hard.
   F:  He studies hard. Therefore he'll catch up.
   M: Will he make progress?
   F:  Yes, He's in the special programs.
   F:  He's in the special programs. Therefore he'll make progress.
   M: Will he be accepted by his classmates?
   F:  Yes, he's not the only foreign student in his class.
   F:  He's not the only foreign student in his class. Therefore he'll be accepted.
   M: Will he make friends?
   F:  Yes, the other kids like him.
   F:  The other kids like him. Therefore he'll make friends.

四.HOWEVER和ALTHOUGH

   下面我们作一组练习,   比较连接词   "然而"   however, h-o-w-e-v-e-r, however 跟"虽然" although, a-l-t-h-o-u-g-h, although 在用法上的分别.比方老师念两个句子,第一个句子是: "他是移民."  He's an  immigrant. 第二个句子是  "然而他不觉得受排斥."  However, he doesn't  feel rejected. 学生就把两个句子合并成一句, 变为  "虽然他是移民,  但是他不觉得受排斥."     Although  he's  an  immigrant,  he doesn't feel rejected.   这组练习里的句子都是说到凯特班上那个从海地来的新学生, 比方他英文说得不好, 又有口音, 可是他不气馁, 还是设法跟同学交往等等. 请你跟学生一起作练习.

   M: He's an immigrant. However, he doesn't feel rejected.
   F:  Although he's an immigrant, he doesn't feel rejected.
   M: He looks different. However, he's accepted.
   F:  Although he looks different, he's accepted.
   M: He has a rough time communicating. However, he isn't discouraged.
   F:  Although he has a rough time communicating, he isn't discouraged.
   M: He cannot express himself clearly. However, he tries to make friends with the other kids.
   F:  Although he cannot express himself clearly, he tries to make friends with the other kids.
   M: He speaks English with an accent. However, the other kids understand him.
   F:  Although he speaks English with an accent, the other kids understand him.

五.NEVERTHELESS

   除了 however 这个字以外, 另外一个字,也就是 nevertheless, n-e-v-e-r-t-h-e-l-e- s-s, nevertheless  也可以用来表示 "然而". 现在我们作一组练习, 一边学习这个连接词的用法, 一边谈一谈外国移民移居美国的经历.    练习的作法是老师用 although 作一个句子, 比方 "虽然移居很因难, 但是许多移民还是迁移到美国来了." Although it was difficult  to  resettle, many immigrants migrated  to   the United States.  学生就把句子改成:    It  was difficult  to  resettle.  Nevertheless, many immigrants migrated to the United States.   这组练习里有些词汇可能你不熟,  比方 "谋生"  make a living, "适应"   adapt  to,  "苦难"  hardship  等等,  请你跟学生一起作练习的时候特别注意. 现在开始.

   M: Although it was difficult to resettle, many immigrants migrated to the United States.
   F:  It was difficult to resettle. Nevertheless, many immigrants migrated to the United States.
   M: Although they were born in foreign countries, they've become Americans.
   F:  They were born in foreigh countries. Nevertheless, they've become Americans.
   M: Although their English wasn't good, they had other skills to make a living.
   F:  Their English wasn't good. Nevertheless, they had other skills to make a living.
   M: Although  it  wasn't  easy  to  cope  with   the  new  environment, they finally adapted to the new life style.
   F:  It wasn't easy to cope  with  the new environment.   Nevertheless,  they  finally  adapted to the new life style.
   M: Although they suffered hardships, they don't feel regret.
   F:  They suffered hardships. Nevertheless, they don't feel regret.

六.IN ORDER TO

   现在我们学习用 in order to, i-n o-r-d-e-r t-o, in order to. 这个词组可以用来表示"为了要".比方有两句话: "他们移居到新大陆."They migrated to the New World."他们要有新生活." They wanted to have a new  life. 这两句话用 in order to   连接起来就变成:They migrated to the New World in order to have a new life. 现在我们作一组练习, 由老师念两句话, 学生就用   in order to  把两句话变为一句.这组练习的内容说的是外国人离乡背井移居美国的原因. 练习里有些词汇可能你不熟,   比方 "信仰宗教"  to worship a religion. "政治动荡不安" political unrest, "先进技术" advanced technology,  "团圆" to be united with 等等,请你跟学生一起作练习的时候特别注意. 现在开始.

   M: They migrated to the New World. They wanted to have a new life.
   F:  They migrated to the New World in order to have a new life.
   M: They resettled in  America. They wanted to worship their religions freely.
   F:  They resettled in America in order to worship their religions freely.
   M: They moved to the U.S. They wanted to avoid political unrest.
   F:  They moved to the U.S. in order to avoid political unrest.
   M: They relocated in this country. They wanted to study advanced technology.
   F:  They relocated in this country in order to study advanced technology.
   M: They came from their native countries. They  wanted  to  be   reunited with their families in the U.S.
   F:  They came from thier native countries in order to be reunited with their families in the U.S.

七.IN ORDER TO 和 SO THAT 的区别

   下面我们作一组练习比较 in order to 跟 "因此" so that, s-o  t-h-a-t, so that 在用法上的分别,   同时也谈一谈到美国的移民.    练习的作法是老师说:   They left their homelands in order to have better working conditions. 学生就把句子改成: They  left  their homeland  so  that they  could   have  better  working  conditions. 学生作练习的时候请你也一起作.

   M: They migrated to the New World in order to have a new life.
   F:  They migrated to the New World so that they could have a new life.
   M: They resettled in America in order to worship their religions freely.
   F:  They resettled in America so that they could worship their religions freely.
   M: They moved to the U.S. in order to avoid political unrest.
   F:  They moved to the U.S. so that they could avoid political unrest.
   M: They relocated in this country in order to study advanced technology.
   F:  They relocated in this country so that they could study advanced technology.
   M: They left their homelands in order to have better working conditions.
   F:  They left their homelands so that they could have better working conditions.

八.听短文回答问题

   首先老师给你念一篇文章介绍到美国定居的各国移民, 并且谈到美国为什么是个大熔炉. 请你注意听.

   America  is  a  country  of  immigrants.  Nearly  the  entire  population  can trace its origins to someplace outside of the U.S.  The  group of   people with the longest period of residence in North America are  American Indians. It is believed that they migrated from Asia several thousand years ago. The next people to come  to  what   is  now  the U.S. were Europeans.  They came as colonists between 350 and  250 years ago.  Many of  these colonists came from England and settled along the  Atlantic coast.   Other  colonists came  from  Spain and settled  in  Florida  and  in  the   southwestern  part  of  the country.  When  the  colonists  had established themselves,  large numbers of  Africans were forced to come to North America as slaves. Through  the 19th  century,   many immigrants   came  to  the U.S.  The  earlier  ones were largely from Ireland, Germany and other parts of  western Europe.  Later,  many immigrants came  from  northern  and  southern  Europe   and  from  Asia. In  this  century many Eastern Europeans have come to the U.S. and more recently  thousands of people from  Southeast Asia and the Caribbean  area  have  come to live in the U.S.  These  people  have  come  to  the U.S. for   many  reasons.   Some came in order to make better lives for themselves in a new country.  Others came so  that   they could  worship their religions more freely. Many immigrants left their homelands because of war, political unrest or bad  economic and living conditions.  Although  most  immigrants  chose  to  come  to   the  U. S.  themselves,  they  often  suffered hardships getting to the country.  The conditions in which many people lived when they  first arrived  were  very  difficult.   However, most   immigrants  managed to establish themselves and have good lives in the U.S.   The  U.S.  today is called  the  melting  pot  since  people who  came  from  different  countries  have  all become  Americans.

   现在请你回答问题. 你回答之后老师会把正确答案念给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: Where did American immigrants come from?
   F:  They came from all over the world.

   第二个问题是:
   M: What were some of the reasons for immigrants to leave their homelands?
   F:  Religion,  war,  political  unrest,  bad   economic  and  living conditions were some of  the reasons for immigrants to leave their homelands.

   第三个问题是:
   M: Was it difficult for immigrants to get to the U.S.?
   F:  Yes, it was often difficult.

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