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中级美国英语美国学校英语教学课程

所属教程:中级美国英语

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一.本课要点及示例

   在这一课里, 我们来复习以前教过的一些基本语法, 同时也谈一谈在美国学校里的英语教学课程.首先我们还是先听一段对话,   内容是说鲍勃和珍妮在校园里谈到了暑假里计划作些什么. 请你注意两位老师的发音和语调.

   M: Well,  Jenny,  the  school  year   is  almost   over.  We  just  have  two more weeks before exams. What do you plan to do this summer?
   F:  I'm  going  to  teach  English  to    some  immigrants  in  the university's community service program.
   M: That sounds interesting. Don't you need to speak a foreign language for a job like that?
   F:  No,  you  don't.  You  just  have  to present  the language simply and give the students a chance to practice speaking.
   M: Come to think of it, that's the way I was  taught  to speak Chinese. But speaking  Chinese didn't help me learn to read and write Chinese.
   F:  My  students  won't  want  to read  and  write  English,  at  least  not now. They are more interested in speaking.
   M: You sound very knowledgeable about all this, How do you know so much?
   F:  I  took  a Teaching  English as  a  Second  Language course last year when you were in China. I've also talked with  the  program  administrators quite  a  lot. I think I would like to be an ESL teacher when I graduate.

   今天我们要复习的语法包括时态, 语态, 动词词组,    时间从句和形容词从句等等. 现在我们再把整段对话听一遍. 这次请你特别注意句子的语法构造.

   M: Well,  Jenny,  the  school  year   is  almost   over.  We  just  have  two more weeks before exams. What do you plan to do this summer?
   F:  I'm  going  to  teach  English  to    some  immigrants  in  the university's community service program.
   M: That sounds interesting. Don't you need to speak a foreign language for a job like that?
   F:  No,  you  don't.  You  just  have  to present  the language simply and give the students a chance to practice speaking.
   M: Come to think of it, that's the way I was  taught  to speak Chinese. But speaking  Chinese didn't help me learn to read and write Chinese.
   F:  My  students  won't  want  to read  and  write  English,  at  least  not now. They are more interested in speaking.
   M: You sound very knowledgeable about all this, How do you know so much?
   F:  I  took  a Teaching  English as  a  Second  Language course last year when you were in China. I've also talked with  the  program  administrators quite  a  lot. I think I would like to be an ESL teacher when I graduate.

二.时态复习

   现在我们开始作练习.  首先我们复习不同时态. 练习的作法是老师根据对话的内容提出各种不同时态的问题,  请学生作肯定的答覆. 学生作练习的时候请你也一起作, 并且特别注意时态的用法.

   M: Is the school year almost over?
   F:  Yes, the school year is almost over.
   M: Is Jenny talking to Bob?
   F:  Yes, Jenny is talking to Bob.
   M: Has she gotten a job for the summer?
   F:  Yes, she has gotten a job for the summer.
   M: Is  she  going to  teach English  to some   immigrants   in   the  university's  community service program?
   F:  Yes, she is going to teach English  to  some    immigrants  in  the  university's  community service program.
   M: Will it be a helpful experience for her?
   F:  Yes, it will be a helpful experience for her.
   M: Did she take an English as a Second Language course last year?
   F:  Yes, she took an English as a Second Language course last year.
   M: Had she thought about being an ESL teacher before she took that course?
   F:  Yes, she had thought about being an ESL teacher before she took that course.

三.复习动词 + TO + 动词

   下面我们复习动词加上 to, t-o, to  再加上动词的用法. 练习的内容说到移民到美国之后需要学英文的原因.    练习的作法是老师念一个句子,   学生跟着说一遍,  接着老师念一个词组, 学生就把词组代换到原来的句子里. 这组练习里的词汇都是以前学过的. 请你跟学生一起作练习.

   M: The immigrants would like to learn English.
   M: enroll in an English class
   F:  The immigrants would like to enroll in an English class.
   M: need to
   F:  The immigrants need to enroll in an English class.
   M: make a living in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants need to make a living in the U.S.
   M: talk to people in English
   F:  The immigrants need to talk to people in English.
   M: want to
   F:  The immigrants want to talk to people in English.
   M: communicate with people in English
   F:  The immigrants want to communicate with people in English.
   M: resettle in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants want to resettle in the U.S.
   M: hope to
   F:  The immigrants hope to resettle in the U.S.
   M: establish themselves in the U.S.
   F:  The immigrants hope to establish themselves in the U.S.
   M: become American citizens
   F:  The immigrants hope to become American citizens.

四.复习表明时间的从句

   下面我们复习用来表明时间的从句. 练习的内容说到移民学英文的情况. 练习的作法是老师提出问题,比方:  "自从他们搬到美国以来,    他们学到了一些俗语吗?"   Have  they  picked  up  some    idiomatic  expressions  since  they moved to the U.S.? 学生就作肯定的答覆.请你跟学生一起作练习的时候特别注意时间从句的用法. 现在开始.

   M: Did some of them study English before they left their homelands?
   F:  Yes, some of them studied English before they left their homelands.
   M: Did some of them enroll in school as soon as they resettled in the U.S?
   F:  Yes, some of them enrolled in school as soon as they resettled in the U.S.
   M: Did some of them go to night school after they started working full time?
   F:  Yes, some of them went to night school after they started working full time.
   M: Have they picked up some idiomatic expressions since they moved to the U.S.?
   F:  Yes, some of them have picked up some idiomatic expressions since they moved to the U.S.
   M: Do they try to speak English whenever they have a chance?
   F:  Yes, they try to speak English whenever they have a chance.

五.复习 WHEN 开头的时间从句和形容词

   下面我们一边复习用 when 开头的时间从句, 一边复习形容词. 练习的内容说到一般学英语的人在学习过程中的心情. 比方有困难的时候觉得气馁, 说错了觉得很窘等等. 练习的作法是老师念一个句子, 接着老师念一个从句或是一个主要句子. 学生必须要斟酌情况正确地把句子代换到原来的整句话里. 你跟学生一起作练习的时候要特别注意应该代换哪个部分. 现在开始.

   M: They feel discouraged when they have difficulties.
   M: when they make a mistake
   F:  They feel discouraged when they make a mistake.
   M: They feel embarrassed.
   F:  They feel embarrassed when they make a mistake.
   M: when they don't understand what people say
   F:  They feel embarrassed when they don't understand what people say.
   M: They feel helpless.
   F:  They feel helpless when they don't understand what people say.
   M: They feel nervous.
   F:  They feel nervous when they don't understand what people say.
   M: when they express their thoughts in English
   F:  They feel nervous when they express their thoughts in English.

六.复习 WHEN 开头的形容词从句

   刚才我们作的几组练习都是说到外国人在美国学英语的情况.    现在我们作一组练习一方面复习用 when, w-h-e-n,  when    开头的形容词从句, 一方面谈一谈许多美国人学外国话的原因.    练习的作法是老师说一句话,  接着老师念一个从句.  学生就把从句代换到原来的句子里.    请你跟学生一起作练习的时候一边注意语法结构, 一边复习词汇. 现在开始.

   M: Those who want to understand a foreign culture need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to do business with a foreign company
   F:  Those who want to do business with a foreign company need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to negotiate with a foreign corporation
   F:  Those who want to negotiate with a foreign corporation need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to communicate with foreigners
   F:  Those who want to communicate with foreigners need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to travel in a foreign country
   F:  Those who want to travel in a foreign country need to learn a foreign language.
   M: who want to live in a foreign country
   F:  Those who want to live in a foreign country need to learn a foreign language.

七.复习被动语态

   下面我们作一组练习一方面复习被动语态, 一方面谈一谈鲍勃学中文的经验.练习的作法是老师念一个主动语态句子,请你把句子改成被动语态说出来. 每作完一句, 老师就把正确答案念给你听.

   M: Foreign languages impress Bob.
   F:  Bob is impressed with foreign languages.
   M: His parents have always encouraged him to study a foreign language.
   F:  He has always been encouraged to study a foreign language.
   M: His mother had taught him Chinese when he was small.
   F:  He had been taught Chinese when he was small.
   M: His  Chinese  instructor  told  him  about  the   study-abroad  program   when   he     was  a university student.
   F:  He was told about the study-abroad program when he was a university student.
   M: He hopes that a university in China will offer him a scholarship to study there someday.
   F:  He hopes that he will be offered a scholarship to study in China someday.

八.听短文回答问题

   今天我们要听的文章谈到美国学校为了帮助外国人学英语而设立的英语教学计划.请你注意听.

   The United States is primarily an English speaking country. The majority of   the population speaks English as  their native language.  Business,  education  and most  public aspects of life are conducted in English. Across  the country,  people  pronounce    English  sounds  in several  different  ways    and some regional  vocabulary  differences  exist,  but  for  the most part, Americans speak one common language.  This language is sometimes called  American English.  However, not everyone  in  the U.S.  is  a  native  speaker of  English.  Most immigrants to the country are speakers of other languages. There are hundreds  of communities around  the  U.S. where English  is  not  the most commonly  used  language.  Chinese, Italian,  German,  Armenian, Greek, Vietnamese and French  are all spoken in numerous communities in the U.S. Spanish  is  the  second most  commonly spoken   language   after  English  in    the  U. S. It is widely spoken in New York and across the southern part of the country. For speakers of other languages, learning English is  important,   but  traditionally  teaching people  to  speak  English as  a  second    language  was given little attention.  Non-English speakers were expected to "pick up" the language through contact in public. Recently, this has  changed.  Today, most   large  public schools  and community  colleges  have  ESL, English as a  Second  Language, programs.  American English  teachers feel that English students should learn the language  the way they will be using it.  Therefore, ESL programs teach  different  English  lessons  to  different  students.  Some programs  teach students  to communicate  in English in public.  Other  programs teach  the  kind of  English people  will need on their jobs. American  ESL  instructional   methods  emphasize  the importance of  communication  to language learning. These methods do not feature grammatical explanations and translation. The instructional goal is to get the English learners to learn by using  their target language.

   现在请你回答下面三个问题. 你回答之后老师会把正确答案念给你听.

   第一个问题是:
   M: What languages are spoken in the United States?
   F:  Many languages are spoken in the United States.

   第二个问题是:
   M: Where can one take English as a Second Language courses in the U.S.?
   F:  One can take ESL courses in public schools and community colleges.

   第三个问题是:
   M: What do American methods of teaching ESL emphasize?
   F:  They emphasize communication.

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