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一篇考研的真题,从做题到文章的全面分析和展示。看起来是有点痛苦的,而且还要反复直至熟练,少不了痛心疾首捶胸顿足的时候。但如此死磕五篇,当小有所成;死磕十篇,应上了台阶;死磕二十,必手到擒来。

  够你们喝一壶了,哈哈!

A history of long and effortless success can be a dreadful handicap, but, if properly handled, it may become a driving force. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. Its scientists were the world's best, its workers the most skilled. America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed. 

It was inevitable that this primacy should have narrowed as other countries grew richer. Just as inevitably, the retreat from predominance proved painful. By the mid-1980s Americans had found themselves at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness. Some huge American industries, such as consumer electronics, had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition. By 1987 there was only one American television maker left, Zenith.(Now there is none: Zenith was bought by South Korea's LG Electronics in July.) For a while it looked as though the making of semiconductors, which America had which sat at the heart of the new computer age, was going to be the next casualty.

All of this caused a crisis of confidence. Americans stopped taking prosperity for granted. They began to believe that their way of doing business was failing, and that their incomes would therefore shortly begin to fall as well. The mid-1980s brought one inquiry after another into the causes of America's industrial decline. Their sometimes sensational findings were filled with warnings about the growing competition from overseas.

How things have changed! In 1995 the United States can look back on five years of solid growth while Japan has been struggling. Few Americans attribute this solely to such obvious causes as a dued dollar or the turning of the business cycle. Self-doubt has yielded to blind pride." American industry has changed its structure, has gone on a diet, has learnt to be more quick-witted," according to Richard Cavanagh, executive dean of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government." It makes me proud to be an American just to see how our businesses are improving their productivity, says Stephen Moore of the Cato Institute, a think-tank in Washington, DC. And William Sahlman of the Harvard Business School believes that people will look back on this period as" a golden age of business management in the United States."

51.The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱbecause_____ .
[A]it had made painstaking efforts towards this goal
[B]its domestic market was eight times larger than before
[C]the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors
[D]the unparalleled size of its workforce had given an impetus to its economy
52.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the[A]TV industry had withdrawn to its domestic market
[B]semiconductor industry had been taken over by foreign enterprises
[C]machine-tool industry had collapsed after suicidal actions
[D]auto industry had lost part of its domestic market
53.What can be inferred from the passage?
[A]It is human nature to shift between self-doubt and blind pried.
[B]Intense competition may contribute to economic progress.
[C]The revival of the economy depends on international cooperation.
[D]A long history of success may pave the way for further development.
54.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the____ .
[A]turning of the business cycle
[B]restructuring of industry
[C]improved business management
[D]success in education

  解题第一步:读题干

51.The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War Ⅱbecause_____ .
题型:问事情原因,细节题,需定位句子
给定信息:美国achieved its predominance after World War II
定位信息:World War II, because
52.The loss of U.S. predominance in the world economy in the 1980s is manifested in the fact that the American_____ .
题型信息:问支撑观点的事实,例证题,当从观点后面找事实
给定信息:1980s美国predominance的失去,表现于相关的事实
定位信息:1980s
53.What can be inferred from the passage?
题型信息:题干无具体信息,直接就文章提问,为判断题,当先搁置,最后直接看选项来做。
给定信息:无
定位信息:无
54.The author seems to believe the revival of the U.S. economy in the 1990s can be attributed to the____ .
题型信息:问原因,细节题,需定位
给定信息:1990s美国经济复苏,作者对其原因有自己的看法
定位信息:1990s
题干综合:两道细节问原因,一道例证问事实,一道判断,尽量先根据其它题的解题过程和结果来解以节省时间。
由题干给定信息可知:文章讲到了二战后美国取得领先;1980s失去了这种地位;1990s经济又复苏了。

  解题第二步:读文章做选择

51.根据定位信息找到首段二句,但本句中没有原因(看整个句式:当A时,有B。其中B肯定不是原因,而是结果。)。接着向下,直到最后一句,才由定语从句交代原因(定语从句可以而且常常交代原因)。
选项分析
A.是非颠倒。他们为目标做了艰苦的努力。只有首段首句提到effortless success。
B.答非所问、偷换概念。原文也有市场,也是八倍以上。但一:不是所问事情的原因;二:原文是market比competitors大, 选项是domestic market比before大。
C.同义表达,正确。战争摧毁了其潜在竞争对手的经济。原文是欧洲人和亚洲人,也即美国人的潜在竞争对手。
D.偷换概念。劳动力无与伦比的规模给了其经济以推动力。引人注目的是原文也有unparalleled,但搭配是unparalleled economies of scale, 选项是unparalleled size of workforce。有此一点,就已死定。
52.根据定位线索1980s找到二段第三句:美国人发现自己XYZ。此处XYZ表达法比较麻烦,其实无关紧要。题目不是问美国人会失去优势表现为什么事实吗?那先不得说美国人失去了优势?后面才是事实。先出现了一句说Some huge American industries,与各选项均无关系;下一句讲TV,也不对;再下一句讲cars, 即选项A中的auto, 为正确选项。
选项分析:
A. 想当然:原文“只剩一家汽车制造商”不必然意味着选项中“退回国内市场”。
B. 无中生有:原文semiconductors讲的是将成为next casualty; 选项说“被外国公司兼并”。
C. 偷换概念:原文machine-tool industry是on the ropes, 字面义是“在绳子上”,显然是比喻义。本段讲各产业都是“不行了”,此处亦不例外,不会冒出选项中的“自杀行为”。
D. 同义表达:改变说话角度。原文“外国汽车进入国内市场”=选项“汽车业推动部分国内市场”。
53.留到最后来解。
54.根据定位信息1990s找到第四段第二句。美国人回头可看到五年增长(即题目中所述事实),后一句才交代原因。要读出言外之意:没几个美国人将此归为如此明显的原因如X和Y。意思是作者认为是这两个原因,而且很明显,但多数美国人却没有看到。A为正确选项。
选项分析:
A. 正确。
B. 貌合神离:引言中确有此说。但此引言是用来说明前文blind pride(盲目骄傲),是作者所批判的观点。请参照本段“段落解剖”。
C. 同B。
D. 无中生有:从未提及。
回头再做53.尽量利用已解题和已读信息解题。
A.画蛇添足:解第54题时第四段有blind pride与lack of confidence,但从未说human nature。
B.未读到相关信息,等待确认正误。
C.依54答案,可知international cooperation并非复苏原因。
D.暗渡陈仓:首段首句a history of long and effortless success,被偷换成a long history of success。Long修饰对象被偷换,已经死定。
故B为正确选项。

  题做完了,精读题目和文章,巩固词汇句法篇章。

  精读题干

51.The U.S. has attained and retained dominance(dominant position) over the globe; it still dominates the world today. 美国取得并且保持了在全球的支配地位,现在美国依然在世界上占主导。
Dominate, dominance, dominant分别为动词、名词、形容词形式。Predominance意思无根本变化,pre(=before)不过强调领先于人而已。
He has achieved his goal; he has had great achievements in economics.
他实现了自己的目标,在经济学上取得了巨大的成就。(achieve意思依搭配关系变化,名词为“成就”,即“取得的东西”)
52.例证题考察“先观点+再例证”这种基本的段落模式。此题是较少见的问法,是由观点问例证。多数题目是问例证说明何种观点。“说明”的表达方式多种多样,以下是常见问法:
X is mentioned to manifest/demonstrate/illustrate/show/indicate/suggest/imply/ exemplify ——.(提到某信息是为了说明什么)
53.To infer means to figure out; to figure out means to get the meaning hidden in the words.
infer跟figure out同义,都是“推断”,意思都是读懂话“里”的话。(这就是为什么infer以in为词头,figure后跟的是out)
54.the revival of the US economy=the recovery of the US economy。再看restore his position恢复他的地位, revenge our defeat为我们的失败复仇, reply to his request对他的要求进行回复, Renaissance文艺复兴。阿姨(re=back)之表“回/复/反”,不是虚言!

  精读文章

  第一段

  段落解剖

首句:坐享其成的历史可能会是个dreadful handicap(不认识没关系,后面有but), 但如果处理得当,可能成为驱动力。因为but后才是核心,前面可以不理。此句明显是一个观点,意味着后文是对它的解释说明,与它一致。
二句:当二战后美国进入一个glowing时期,它有一个比对手大得多的市场,给了其各个产业以economies of scale. (根据历史知识,我们知道二战后美国进入繁荣时期成为世界霸主;市场最大,与给各产业以economies of scale两个部分是一致的。那么想:规模大有什么好处?有规模就会更有效更经济,也就是字面上的“规模的经济”)
三句:科学家和工人都最牛(足矣)。
四句:美国的繁荣起出欧洲和亚洲,(因为)后两者的经济已为战争所毁。
词汇选讲
Less:从数量到程度
The origin of “less” may have been lost.
Less这个词的来源可能已经迷失了。
little, less, least
不错,从源头上考察,less, least分别为little的比较级和最高级,分别为“较少的”“最少的”。
I have less money than he. 我比他有更少的钱(钱没他多)。
I have the least money among my colleagues.在同事中,我的钱最少。
要注意的是,词往往不会安分守己,喜欢引申变化。
I am less rich than he。
I am the least rich among my colleagues.
不能机械地说成“我比它更少的富裕”或“我在同事中最少富裕”。
东西,可以说多少;贫富,只能讲程度。
我不如他富有。
我是最不富裕的。
同理,多与更多最多,也会引申成程度,只是我们已经很熟悉。
I have as much money as he. 我跟他有同样多的钱。(说钱,指数量)
I am as much a rich man as he. 他跟他一样,也是个富人。(贫富程度相同,再不是多少,翻译时,化为一个“也”字)
I have more money than he. 我比他有更多的钱。(说钱,指数量)
I am more of a teacher than he. 我比它更像一个老师。(在称为老师这一点上,我更高一筹)
总结:数量多少,可引申成程度高低,汉语表达时要灵活。
再进一步,less还会干脆表示彻底的否定“没有/无/不”,但只限于做另一个词的跟屁虫(所谓后缀)。
Valueless, priceless 分别为没有价值的,无价的(没有价格可以衡量)
Countless, effortless 无数的,没有经过努力的(不劳而获坐享其成的)

a handicap是“一个障碍”,可望文生义。该词前面是hand, 后面是cap。手里拿着个帽子(with a cap in the hand),无论对于give sb a beat(揍人)还是给恋人一个拥抱(hug/embrace your lover),确实是个障碍(obstacle, sth in the way, disadvantage)。
而如果没有帽子或者其它东东(without the hat or other objects),手是极灵活有用的(very flexible)。或者更应该说(Or rather),hand代表着灵活,可表示各种动作。
若我的父亲积有a considerable amount of private property(相当一笔私有财产),他老人家一旦驾鹤西游(pass away/die),一般会hand it over to me(把它交给我),而我作为一个ordinary human being, 也会毫不客气地take it over(把它接受过来)。
如果说上面还可以的“移交”还跟手扯得上关系,下面基本上没手什么事了。
We are still subject to the traditions handed down from generation to generation.
我们依然受到一代一代传下来的传统的制约。
Handle也是这个道理——看清楚了里面有个hand吧?追根索源,本指“把手/柄”。
He took the handle of the tool by hand and handed it to me.
它用手抓住工具的把手,将它递给了我。(hand用法确实神奇吧!)
便因为含了hand, 当handle转为动词,就神通广大了。
Glass! Handle with care!
You can also handle a weapon/a car/a problem/some people/words.
可以根据搭配理解成:__武器__汽车__问题__人__语言__
这时候的理解只跟汉语有关:使用武器、开汽车、处理问题、管理人、运用语言。
Therefore(因此), it should be no wonder(不应奇怪), “handy”不是“手的”,而是“方便的/灵活的”。

跟凭借着“hand”大显神通的handle类似的,是来自于“deal”(交易)的短语deal with。
You can deal with a weapon/a car/a problem/some people/words.
意思几乎完全相同。
如此好词,写作里不用,岂不可惜?

  第二段

  段落解剖

首句:优势收窄(this primacy have narrowed)不可避免。
二句:由just as inevitably(同样不可避免)可看出,此句与首句并列,这一优势收窄的过程(the retreat from predominance=this primacy have narrowed)是痛苦的。
其余句:由by the mid-1980s可知要讲具体的事情(时间像地点人物环境等一样,是叙述事件的要素),当然是要支撑前两句的观点,也就是要具体说明如何失去优势,如何痛苦法。
后文既然要与前文一致,下面可以施展凌波微步功夫,读作:
三句:By the mid-1980s(到此时),美国人发现自己——失去优势了(句子后面的at a loss over their fading industrial competitiveness就不用纠缠词语了)。
四句:美国一些大的产业——失去优势了(谁要你认识had shrunk or vanished in the face of foreign competition!)。
五句:到1987年,美国只剩一家电视机厂(优势全无)。
六句:一度似乎,semiconductors(谁问你这是什么东西了?)的生产,将是下一个要失去优势的(看到一个next就够了,casualties等等,无关紧要)。
词汇选讲
Inevitable: 不可……的
如inevitable这样的词,即使未曾谋面,萍水相逢,也该心中有谱:前面in(不),后面able(可),中间再根据情况填空就是了。
Water is incompatible with fire.
水与火不可___。
Incompatible虽然很酷很有层次,但要得出“水火不融”的意思,应该不难。如果还能看看中间的com(一起),“不能在一起”,更是清清楚楚明明白白。
The international community wants DPRK to cancel its nuclear program irreversibly.
国际社会想要朝鲜以不可……的方式取消其核计划。
若能看看re=back, 也不难得出“不可逆转”。
简单的如incredible, unbelievable(不可相信,难以置信)更不在话下。

the retreat from predominance
在构词法足矣。
从pre(前面/领先)re(=back, 返回/后退),结合文章谈论的美国经济,即是从领头羊的位置跌下来,不再领先了的这一过程。

Prove一族: 两面派
Prove的困难,在于它如同男人一样,不止一面,而你不知道它何时是哪一面,于是就晕了。
We tend to prove that we are right.
我们总倾向于去证明自己是对的。
He proved clever/a bright student.
*他证明聪明/他证明一个聪明的学生。
他是聪明的/他是一个聪明的学生。
总结:
“证明”后面要名词宾语,“证明啥”说得通就是证明,说不通就相当于BE。
跟prove一家的,首先有一个turn out。
Turn out products/books/a foreigner
生产出产品、出版书籍、赶出一个外国人(表示一个动作,共同的是方向为out, 具体意思根据动宾搭配关系)
He turned out very clever.
He turned out a clever student.
动宾关系说不通,也就相当于BE。
他很聪明。
他是一个聪明的学生。
普通动词兼职做系动词的这种两面派,常用的还有几个。
I have kept the book. I have kept silent.
我一直保存着这本书(保存书)。我一直沉默(我沉默)。
I have got the result. It’s getting cold.
我已经获得了结果(获得结果)。天气正变得冷起来(天气冷)。

  第三段

  段落解剖

首句:这些导致了信心危机。
二句:美国人不再将繁荣当成是当然的。联系首句一看,不就是解释信心危机吗——咱美国人也不一定就那么繁荣!
三句:他们开始相信做生意的方式不行了,收入也会下降。
四句:句型比较诡异,更要联系前文。看几个关键词:inquiry(探寻/询问)、美国工业衰退的原因。看看第二句:不再当成当然了(即终于明白好坏都有原因);再看这句:探求不行的原因。不是一回事吗?不再那么自信自负了,踏踏实实找原因。
五句:看几个简单词findings, warnings, competition from overseas,结合本段主题“信心危机”自然就是:上句说到的探寻原因,最终发现是醒到来自海外的竞争。
词汇解析
crisis: Don’t cry over crisis!
2008年第一场雪到来之有,先来了一场financial crisis(金融危机)。
The Americans had somewhat gone to extremes in taking advantages of financial tools, finally having to pay the price for the power abuse and take effective measures. After all, it’s no use crying over spilt milk.
美国人在利用金融工具的时候多少走了些极端,最终不得不为此权力滥用付出代价并且采取有效措施。毕竟,倒掉的牛奶光是哭没有用。
就拿cry再记crisis吧:有crisis, 只有cry, 但光cry对于crisis也没用。
词汇选讲
Take… for granted
不妨从grant下手。它是“给予”四人帮之一。
Give them some warnings 给他们一些警告(普通的“给”)
Award them a prize 授予他们一个奖(给奖励)
Offer them some help  为他们提供一些帮助((给好的东西)
Grant them some money for academic research发给他们一笔钱搞学术研究(为某种目的白给钱)
再看take:
Take away what’s valueless. 带走那些没有价值的东西。
It takes time and efforts. 这事得花时间、也要努力。
Take it easy; don’t take it so seriously.
放松一些(轻松对待),别这么认真(对待这事)。
既然take可以表示“对待”,grant又是白给,take…for granted, 字面义就是把……看成白给的,即“想当然”。
Don’t take success for granted; effortless success rarely takes place.
别把成功当成当然的;不劳而获的成功很少出现。

  第四段

  段落解剖

首句:局势的变化多么快啊!为承前启后之句。前面应该有某种局势,回顾一下,就是“信心危机”。既然说变化很快,后面应该说的是有信心了。
二句:1995年美国看过去五年,是好的,而日本,是坏的。(知道是给人“信心”的“好”景象就是,管它什么solid growth)
三句:没有几个美国人将它归于明显的原因如dued dollar或the turning of the business cycle(这些是什么无关紧要)。要读出的是言外之意,这也必须得联系前文所说的“自信”。美国人不将此归因于A或者B这些因素,潜台词是:自信是自己把经济给弄好的。
四句:自我怀疑已让位于盲目骄傲。读到此处才明白上一句的真正用意:作者认为美国人是盲目骄傲,觉得是自己想办法把事情弄好的。潜台词是:其实不然。
五句:哈佛一牛人说,美国经济如何了,如何了,又学会怎样了。(具体做的事情根本不重要,而是作者引用这一牛人所说的话,是来支持自己,还是作为批判的靶子?看第四句才知:牛人的话是盲目骄傲。
六句:另一个牛人说他感到骄傲。什么骄傲?盲目骄傲。
七句:再来一个哈佛牛人说那是美国经济管理的黄金时代。作者的潜台词:别美了,根本不是你管出来的!

  词汇选讲

attribute sth to sth
We can attribute the phenomenon to several factors.
我们可以将这种现象归于几个因素。(写作文时很好用吧)
ascribe sth to sth
He ascribed his success to a combination of talent and fortune.
他将成功归于天才与好运的结合。
devote sth to sth
We are expected to devote all our energy and youth to globalization.
我们应该将我们所有的精力与青春投入到全球化当中去。
accustom sth to sth
It takes quite a while to accustom ourselves to the special climate there.
要使我们自己适应那里的特殊氛围,颇需要一些时间。
adapt sth to sth
They found it urgent to adapt themselves to the environment.
他们发现使自己适应环境这件事情非常紧迫。
relate sth to sth
People tend to relate one’s performance to his education background.
人们总是将一个人的表现与其教育背景联系起来。
link sth to sth
The process of thought always involves linking concepts to realities.
思维过程总是涉及到将概念与现实联系起来。
apply sth to sth
Theory is one thing; applying theory to practice is another thing.
理论是一回事,将理论应用于实践是另一回事。
小结:以上动词用法均为“动+宾+介”,往往理解成“将/把/使……”。
 


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