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名师指导:2010年考研英语一必背十大作文范文

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一、写作A节:预测:60%考摘要,40%考书信、备忘录、报告

  (一)摘要:最新大纲样题:经济类

  Directions: Read the following Chinese text and write an abstract of it in 80-100 English words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  经济全球化的主要原因

  20世纪50年代初以来,经济全球化获得迅猛发展。简单归纳,其原因主要包括以下几个方面:

  全球化的技术基础。科技进步为全球化快速发展提供了物质基础和技术手段。科技革命是经济全球化发展的最根本的物质基础和动力,历史上历次科技革命都促进了社会生产力的飞跃发展,同时也促进了整个世界的融合。20世纪50年代以电子技术和信息技术等为主要标志的新的科技革命的兴起,使科技日益成为社会生产力发展的先导,成为影响生产力发展的至关重要的因素。科技知识在社会生产的各个领域中得到广泛传播和运用,劳动者的智能和技能得到进一步的开发,创造出越来越多的物质和精神财富,极大地促进了世界生产力的发展,生产社会化程度日益提高,国际分工日益深化,各国经济以此为基础紧密相联,世界经济进入一个全新的繁荣时期。同时,新科技革命使得科技成果积累的速度大大加快,新材料、新产品不断涌现,大量高技术产业不断产生,在世界范围内促进了产业结构的调整和转移,新的产业布局开始形成,以信息技术和产业为主导,以高新技术为基础的新兴产业部门也蓬勃兴起并迅速发展,快速取代了传统产业而逐渐成为经济的主导部门推进的重要动力源。

  全球化的经济基础。市场经济体制的强势地位不断增强,跨国公司的突飞发展,国际经济组织的不断完善为经济全球化奠定了坚实的经济基础。

  首先,市场经济体制成为世界各国发展经济的首选。20世纪80年代末至90年代初,世界形势发生了重大变化,东欧剧变,苏联解体, 40多年的冷战格局最终结束。冷战结束后,国际形势总体上走向缓和。各国纷纷把发展经济列为首要目标,普遍扩大了对外开放,和平与发展成为当今时代的两大主题。前苏联和东欧国家先后走上了向市场经济过渡的轨道,改行自由市场经济,并积极致力于融入西方经济体系。中国在长期的实践中,也逐渐认识到计划经济的不足和弊端,自1978年起开始实行以市场为导向的、全面的经济改革,大力推行对外开放,努力实现同世界经济的接轨,目前已成为世界经济的重要组成部分。这一切都说明,市场经济体制已成为不同制度、不同发展层次国家的共同选择,市场经济已基本实现了全球化,经济全球化是以市场为基础的,没有市场经济就没有生产要素在国际间的自由流动,就谈不上经济全球化。

  其次,力量不断壮大的跨国公司成为经济全球化的中坚力量。跨国公司是以本国作为基地,通过对外直接投资,在世界各地设立分支机构和子公司,从事国际化生产和经营的企业。跨国公司凭借其雄厚的经济实力和灵活的经营战略,以全球为工厂,以它所在的各个国家为车间,在全球范围内充分利用各地的优势组织生产和流通,通过自己广泛的经营活动,实现了商品和资本等生产要素在全球范围内的整合,促进了生产在国家间的水平分工和垂直分工,使之密切联系在一起,从而为经济全球化的发展打下了坚实的微观基础,并成为经济全球化的主要推动力量和主要载体。

  最后,国际经济组织是经济全球化发展的组织保障。二战结束以后,生产力的不断提高,生产力的国际化使得越来越多的商品、资本、劳动进入国际交流。各国的国际分工和相互依赖性不断增强。这种日益增强的经济联系要求突破原有的国家间的障碍,实现全球范围内的更高层次的经济合作,这就要求有超脱于国家之外的国际经济组织发挥重要作用。战后,国际经济日益明显,国际经济协作不断加强。在当今国际经济关系中,世行、世贸组织、国际货币基金组织等世界性经济组织的调节作用越来越大,而且还出现出进一步增强的趋势。世贸组织(WTO)所制定的关于贸易、投资等方面的制度和规则,成为规范全球经济运行,创造自由、公平竞争环境的统一制度和规则,作为世界金融领域的重要国际组织,即国际货币基金组织(IMF)和世界银行(WB)也在国际金融全球化进程中扮演了重要的角色。这些国际经济组织的成立使得国际贸易和国际金融运行有了统一的规则,对成员国的经贸活动和经济行为起着协调和规范作用。这些都为经济全球化的发展起着制度保障作用。(1590字)

  参考范文:

  Fundamental Causes of Economic Globalization

  Economic globalization has been progressing rapidly since the beginning of the 1950s. Several factors have contributed to such development. Firstly, advancements in science and technology have offered a technical foundation by providing the material basis and the technical means. Meanwhile, a solid economic foundation for such a globalization has been laid by the market economy which is prevailing over the world. Others factors include the pillaring and propelling role of multinationals in micro-economic operations, the ever growing coordinating and controlling power and function exercised by such international economic organizations as WTO, IMF and WB in the international trade and finance。(100 words)

  2.金融类

  Directions: Read the following Chinese text and write an abstract of it in 80-100 English words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  金融危机

  金融危机又称金融风暴,是指一个国家或几个国家与地区的全部或大部分金融指标(如:短期利率、货币资产、证券、房地产、土地(价格)、商业破产数和金融机构倒闭数)的急剧、短暂和超周期的恶化。

  金融危机可以分为货币危机、债务危机、银行危机等类型。近年来的金融危机越来越呈现出某种混合形式的特征。

  金融危机的特征是人们基于经济未来将更加悲观的预期,整个区域内货币币值出现幅度较大的贬值,经济总量与经济规模出现较大的损失,经济增长受到打击。往往伴随着企业大量倒闭,失业率提高,社会普遍的经济萧条,甚至有些时候伴随着社会动荡或国家政治层面的动荡。

  本篇新闻热门关键词:标志 首选 备忘录 财富 基金

  金融危机的产生大多数情况是由经济泡沫引起的,而产生危机的背景非常复杂,有多方面的因素。以21世纪最大的美国金融危机为例,追根溯源,主要有以下几方面促因。 (1)美国的消费习惯。借钱(贷款)消费是普遍的生活方式。年轻人收入少,但消费多;老年人退休后享受优越的退休金,但消费相对少。所以,年轻人多借钱消费(包括向父母借钱,这与中国不同)。而且,美国发达、完善的信用体制使几乎所有人的消费靠借钱来完成。而从储蓄模式来看,美国人的储蓄率历来很低,近年来,一直在零储蓄率上徘徊。要消费,只能靠借钱。经济增长模式。美国的经济增长主要依靠消费驱动。其消费率长期为70%左右,投资率为15%左右,国际贸易方面严重入超。 (2)经济管理思想。自上世纪70年代发生经济“滞涨”以后,凯恩斯主义的“国家干预”政策遭到新古典自由主义的强烈批评,此后,新自由主义思潮受到追捧。80年代的“华盛顿共识”所倡导的“经济自由、私有化、减少管制”成为指导西方国家经济走向的主要道具。 (3)经济环境与具体政策工具。美国2000年后陷入高科技泡沫破裂后的短暂衰退之中,在美联储前主席格林斯潘的主持下,连续13次大幅度消减联邦基准利率,从最高6.5%下降到1%,强行向市场注入流动性资金,扼住了经济下滑,也拉动了美国房地产连续多年繁荣。这正是这次次贷危机乃至金融危机爆发的直接导火线。在21世纪的最初几年里,同样的低利率政策,为什么美国偏偏房地产行业得以相对发展,而不是其他行业呢?原因是:网络等高科技产业高速发展导致的泡沫破灭后,进入一个成长停滞期,抑制了大量资金对该行业的投入;20世纪六、七十年代,随着劳动力成本的不断提升,美国制造业,尤其是劳动密集型产业大量外移,形成国内产业空心化,加之服务业在繁荣之后的替代更新需要一定的时滞期,所以,这些行业投资机会较少。而且,从90年代开始,美国的房产一直处于稳定的状态。在这种情况下,流动性资金开始注入该行业。(1034字) 参考范文

  Financial Crisis

  Financial crisis, also known as financial tsunami, refers to the dramatic deterioration of the financial indicators of a certain country or several countries and regions in the world. It can be classified as currency crisis, debt crisis, banking crisis, sub-loan crisis, etc. The feature of the crisis is that people are pessimistic about the economic future because of monetary depreciation occurring throughout the region. The causes for the crisis are complicated with multiple reasons, mainly from three aspects, i.e., the U.S. consumption habits of borrowing, the idea of free economic management, and the economic environment and specific policy instruments. (99 words)

  3.管理类

  Directions: Read the following Chinese text and write an abstract of it in 80-100 English words on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  改变市场还是适应市场

  身处一个充满着不确定性因素的市场环境,企业是去改变它,还是去适应它?长期以来,这一直是企业管理者所面临的最为关键的企业发展策略选择之一。在某种程度上,这种选择就像一场赌博。这种选择不仅严酷,而且无法回避,要么去改变市场,要么去适应市场,对大多数企业而言,这两种策略选择都是排他的。如果你想静待不确定性消失而后动,则可能会白白丧失一个获得先发优势的良机。

  改变市场和适应市场这两种策略在实践中表现为不同的形式。一般来讲,市场的改变者往往会通过促使整个行业的行为方式发生变化而控制不确定性。为了做到这一点,有的企业会设法使自己的技术或业务流程成为新的行业标准;另外一些企业会致力于引进创新的产品、服务以及业务系统来重新定义行业竞争的基础,在这一方面,美国西南航空公司采取低价和点到点空运模式,戴尔公司率先实施直销策略等,都是很好的例子;还有一些市场改变者通过大胆的兼并或收购来重组不稳定的行业环境,这方面的例子也不少见。

  与市场改变者不同的是,市场适应者总是把现在和未来的行业市场结构和竞争行为当做是已有的外部环境。当市场稳定时,市场适应者试图在现存的行业市场结构之内谋求一个有利的位置。而当不确定性增加时,他们会根据市场的变化借助速度和灵活性来获得机会。一些市场适应者可能会通过及时地紧跟一个潜在的市场领导者的引导来获得市场先机;还有一些市场适应者会通过在产品、服务和业务系统方面进行不断的试验来逐步确定自己的策略。市场适应者采取的另一种办法是,建立一个高度灵活的组织来应对市场的变化,他们不断地招聘和培养成熟的具有管理技能的员工——不管市场如何变化,这样的员工对客户来讲都是有价值的。

  企业应该采取改变市场的策略还是适应市场的策略,在很大程度上取决于环境不确定性的程度和性质。简单地讲,当不确定性较高,而企业能对其中的变数施加影响时,改变市场的策略往往奏效;当创造价值的主要因素相对稳定,而相关变数不能为企业所控制时,适应的策略才是应该优先考虑的。

  这其中的道理是显而易见的。在一个高度不确定的市场,技术标准正在变化,竞争者出入不定,而消费者也还没有锁定自己喜爱的品牌。这样的市场环境为改变策略的实施提供了很大的空间,一次大型的兼并,一项果断的技术投资,一个强有力的产品捆绑策略,都很有可能会使混乱的市场格局变得井然有序,而新的市场格局对实施改变策略的企业当然是极为有利的。然而,在实践中,当面临着高度不确定性的环境时,企业的决策者总是偏向于采取适应的市场策略。之所以如此,部分原因在于决策者们习惯于依靠像波特的五种竞争力框架之类的理论工具来指导决策。对于相对稳定的市场,运用这类理论工具能够对未来的市场产生深刻的洞察力,然而,对于复杂多变的市场,这类工具却很少能为决策者准确判断未来的市场提供有力的支持。而要想成为一个成功的市场改变者,对未来有一个准确的预见是至关重要的。

  应该指出的是,即使是最优秀的企业也不可能在任何情况下都采取改变市场的策略并且获得成功。一个成功的市场改变者必须具备很多品质,如;对未来发展的洞见、良好的声誉、特定领域的领导地位、一流的技术或创新的能力,以及操作上的娴熟等。并非所有的企业都具备这些品质。

  企业决策者往往以为,适应市场的策略是一个容易实施的选择。这种想法是错误的。首先,这种想法使得经理人员以为,适应市场的策略并不像改变市场的策略那样需要较强的财务和心理承受力。其实并非如此。对于一个市场的适应者而言,要不断地进行产品服务等方面的试验,还要建立一个灵活的组织,这些都需要极大的财务上和心理上的承受能力;其次,这种想法会使经理人员以为,实施适应市场的策略只需消极而不是积极的管理就能成功。其实,一个市场的适应者也必须在捕捉机会、规避风险和业务调整等方面有相当的技巧,而这远远不是消极的管理所能做到的。(1561字)

  参考范文

  Changing the Market or Adapting to It

  In face of a market environment full of uncertain factors, should an enterprise change it, or to adapt to it? This is a question which has confronted business managers in making their development strategies for long. Actually, these two strategies represent different forms in practice. Unlike those who try to change the market, adaptors always regard the market structure and competitive behavior as a given external environment. Whether an enterprise should take the strategy of changing the market environment or adapting to it depends largely on the environmental uncertainty and its nature. It is wrong to believe that the adaptive strategy is an easy job. (106 words)

(二)书信、备忘录、报告:

  1.投诉信:

  Directions:

  You live in a room in college which you share with another student. You find it very difficult to work there because your roommate always has friends visiting and has parties in the room。

  Write a letter to the Accommodation Officer at the college and ask for a new room next term. You would prefer a single room. Explain your reasons。

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I am writing to express/air dissatisfaction/disappointment/concern regarding accommodation. I would prefer to move into a single room next semester, as I find the present sharing arrangement inconvenient。

  I must explain that the reason for my dissatisfaction is my roommate’s inconsiderate behavior. For one thing, his friends are constantly visiting him; for another, he regularly holds noisy parties。

  To solve this problem/surmount this difficulty/improve this situation/crack this hard nut, I hope to draw the attention of the authorities concerned. I am sure you will agree that the only solution for me is to move into a room of my own. Therefore, I would be grateful if you could find a single room for me, preferably not in the same building but as near to the college campus as possible。

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  2.推荐信/求职信/求学信:

  Directions:

  One of your friends wants to apply for a job working with foreign teenagers. Write a letter to recommend him/her, describe his/her past experience, and explain the reasons。

  Dear Sir or Madam,

  I am writing to recommend one of my best friends, Zhou Botong, for this post. With his outstanding leadership and cheerful personality, he was elected chairperson of the Student Union of Tsinghua University several times。

  Busy as he was, he completed his major, teenage psychology, with an outstanding school record. Upon graduation he was assigned to be a teacher in Tsinghua Middle School. What is more, he loves his job and enjoys working with children. This won him great popularity among his students。

  Therefore, I do not hesitate to recommend him as an ideal candidate for the post you advertised. I am sure you will make a wise decision in hiring him。

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  3.备忘录/报告:

  Directions:

  You are the president of a company. Write a memo to Percy Shelley, the vice-president on the employee’s training on computer, telling him the need to train the employees, detailed information, and ask him to write a plan。

  Date:January 9, 2010

  To:Percy Shelley, Vice President

  From:Li Ming, President

  Subject:Computer Training of the Staff

  As we discussed earlier this week, I agree with you that our firm is faced up with problem of the high rate of computer illiteracy of the staff. We need to make up a plan for training our employees in the new field。

  I would like you to design our own in-house computer-training program. We had better classify the employees and put them through the program in turn。

  Write up a brief proposal, describing what you think the program should cover. Assume the class runs four hours a week for ten weeks. Also, assume people have no prior computer knowledge or any formal course work in computer science.

二、写作B节:预测:70%考图画作文,30%考图表作文、情景作文或提纲作文

  (一)图画作文:

  1、最新大纲样题:合作

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and then

  3) give your comments。

  You should write neatly on Answer Sheet 2.

  (图略)

  As is subtly portrayed in the drawing, two handicapped young men are heading towards their destination with vigorous strides, leaving all their crutches behind. The hardship of disability being no longer an obstacle on their journey, they support each other with firm hands and proceed steadily. The caption indicates that they can travel north and south extensively with combined legs。

  It is apparent that the cartoonist aims at reminding us of the importance of cooperation in our daily life. Hardly can anyone achieve success in his career without the assistance of his colleagues and partners. As competition in all lines of work grows increasingly fierce, we must defeat our rivals through powerful teamwork. Take basketball hero Yao Ming for an example, he can slam the dunk smartly because all his teammates contribute more or less to his outstanding performance. Likewise, the successful launching of Chang’e No.1 lunar probe should be attributed to the Chinese scientists’ joint efforts instead of individual accomplishment. If we work separately, we will be confined to frail minds and limited resources。

  On the basis of the analysis above, we may draw a conclusion that cooperation and teamwork really count in this competitive society. Hence, we should associate ourselves harmoniously with our companions in every attempt towards our goals. In addition, it is indispensable to train our kids frequently to interact smoothly with others in a team. As the proverb goes, unity is strength。

  2.环境问题:

  Directions:

  A. Study the following two pictures carefully and write an essay in at least 150words。

  B. Your essay must be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET2.

  C. Your essay should meet the requirements below:

  1. Describe the pictures。

  2. Deduce the purpose of the painter of the pictures。

  3. Suggest counter measures。

  (图略)

  As is symbolically portrayed in the pictures, with the speedy social and economic development, the number of fishes has sharply decreased. In one picture, there were various kinds of fish and only one fishing-boat in 1900. On the contrary, in 1995 there was only one fish, but many fishing-boats。

  The purpose of the pictures is to show us that due attention has to be paid to the decline of ocean resources. Owing to over-fishing, the number of fishes has obviously shrunk. If we let this situation go as it is, we do not know where fish will be in the forthcoming future. By that time, our environment will suffer a great destruction。

  Hence, it is imperative for us to take drastic measures. For one thing, we should appeal to our authorities to make strict laws and regulations to control commercial fishing. For another, we should enhance the awareness of people that the ocean resources are vital to us. Only in this way can we protect our ocean resources. Also I reckon that we humans can overcome this difficulty, and we will have a brighter future。

3.坚持/成功/奋斗/拼搏/创新:

  Directions: Study the following drawing carefully and write an essay in which you should

  1) describe the set of drawing,

  2) interpret its meaning, and

  3) support your view with examples。

  (图略)

  It is vividly depicted in the cartoon that a boy is running along the racetrack with painstaking efforts, sweat pouring down his face. After a long journey, he is making the final spurt toward the finishing line, with strong determination to become a champion. It seems that he could rest for a while to enjoy the ecstasy of victory. However, straight ahead lies a sign which indicates a new “starting point” and urges him to continue rushing to the next destination。

  Undoubtedly, the cartoon conveys the meaning that life is like the process of running in which one should make constant efforts and never stop making progress. Owing to the quickening pace of life, competition goes increasing fierce in all walks of life, stimulating everyone to pursue one goal after another. Once a person stops making progress, he can hardly maintain his past glory and survive in this competitive world. As Deng Xiaoping, the great Chinese leader said, “Development is inarguable truth。” No matter how powerful a specific institution is, it will definitely seek new development in high speed. Generally speaking, neither a country nor a person can remain stagnant。

  A case in point is the successful launching of “Shenzhou Ⅶ Spacecraft” which sets China in a high position of aviation and space flight. Although it means a great achievement for us Chinese, we are facing new challenges in the forthcoming future and need to do further research in space technology. Another illustration is closely related to us, the examinees. If we pass this test and are confronted with the challenge of conquering the difficult graduate courses. We still have to strive for success in our future academic study, employment and career. On the whole, these examples effectively clarify the saying that “destination is another starting point。” (296 words)

  4.信心/金融危机/甲流/就业难:

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawing briefly,

  2) explain its intended meaning, and then

  3) support your view with an example/examples。

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)

  (图略)

  As we can see from the picture, a football match is going on. On guarding the goal, the man on the left seems to be keeping a “huge goal” that is easy and inevitable for a goal, while the person on the right hesitates to kick the ball with an illusion about the “huge keeper”. It is obvious that both of them exaggerate the difficulties in front of them。

  This picture does reflect a thought-provoking social phenomenon which is not uncommon in China now. The young always give up because the problem is beyond their ability to cope with. Superficially, it seems to be somewhat reasonable, but when weighing in the mind, we find there is an apparent tendency underlying this phenomenon: the lack of confidence. Firstly, it is well-known that we exist in a dynamic world with various difficulties. We can do nothing but face them. Secondly, attitude is the key point to take the first step. Assuming bravery and confidence to solve the problem, you will find the question is not as “huge” as you imagine. Take us for example, the entrance exam for graduate students even seems to be a horrible monster before us. Some people give up, some persist. So, with confidence and the right assessment of the difficulties, try and exert your strength, and then we will overcome all problems。

  On the whole, I believe we young people should face the difficulties in right manner. And nothing is impossible, just do it。

  5.交通问题:

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawings. In your essay, you should

  1) describe the drawings briefly,

  2) explain their intended meaning, and then

  3) give your comments.

  (图略)

  The pictures vividly reveal that heavy traffic is becoming increasingly serious all over the world. In the first photo, there is traffic congestion on the road with numerous cars, trucks and buses. In the second picture, hundreds of people are waiting for a train。

  We can deduce from the pictures that the photographer is trying to attract our attention to the issue of heavy traffic. First of all, every year men and women crowd into cities in search of employment, a decent living, and the excitement and stimulation of urban life. As people in mounting numbers flood into cities, city services and facilities have been strained to a breaking point. In addition, since in a city with booming industry, land is precious and cannot be extravagantly used by traffic, traffic flows constantly rise to fill whatever scale of roads and highways are provided for them。

  It is imperative for us to improve this situation. For one thing, the number of private cars should be limited while more bus routes should be opened up because buses can accommodate more passengers. For another, more streets and roads should be constructed. Since neither of the suggestions can effectively solve the problem, there is an increased awareness that the two solutions may be combined with other possible solutions to produce the best effect。


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