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European Union environmental officials have determined that two kinds of genetically modified corn could harm butterflies, affect food chains and disturb life in rivers and streams, and they have proposed a ban on the sale of the seeds, which are made by DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta. The preliminary decisions are circulating within the European Commission, which has the final say. Some officials there are skeptical of a ban that would upset the powerful biotechnology industry and could exacerbate tensions with important trading partners like the United States. The seeds are not available on the European market for cultivation.
In the decisions, the environment commissioner, Stavros Dimas, contends that the genetically modified corn, or maize could affect certain butterfly species, specifically the monarch, and other beneficial insects. For instance, research this year indicates that larvae of the monarch butterfly exposed to the genetically modified corn ''behave differently than other larvae.'' In the decision concerning the corn seeds produced by Dow and Pioneer, Mr. Dimas calls ''potential damage on the environment irreversible.'' In the decision on Syngenta's corn, he says that ''the level of risk generated by the cultivation of this product for the environment is unacceptable.''
A decision by the European Union to bar cultivation of the genetically modified crops would be the first of its kind in the trade bloc, and would intensify the continuing battle over genetically modified corn. Banning the applications for corn crops also would mark a bold new step for European environmental authorities, who are already aggressively pursuing regulations on emissions from cars and aircraft, setting it at odds with the United States and angering industries.
''These products have been grown in the U.S. and other countries for years,'' said Stephen Norton, a spokesman for the United States trade representative. ''We are not aware of any other case when a product has been rejected after having been reviewed and determined safe'' by European food safety authorities, he said.
Barbara Helfferich, a spokeswoman for Mr. Dimas, declined to comment on the specifics of the procedure because commissioners had not yet made a final decision. But she said that the European Union was within its rights to make decisions based on the ''precautionary principle'' even when scientists had found no definitive evidence proving products can cause harm. She said that the decisions by Mr. Dimas could go before the commission within a few weeks, but she said that no date had been set. In the decisions, Mr. Dimas cited recent research showing that consumption of genetically modified ''corn byproducts reduced growth and increased mortality of nontarget stream insects'' and that these insects ''are important prey for aquatic and riparian predators'' and that this could have ''unexpected ecosystem-scale consequences.''
 
Although still preliminary, his decisions could drastically tilt the policy against future approvals of genetically modified crops, said Nathalie Moll, a spokeswoman for Europabio, an industry group with 80 members including Syngenta, Pioneer and Dow. Europabio says that the crops grown using the genetically modified corn are already imported into several European countries, including France and Germany, where they are used to feed animals like cows and chickens.
Rob Gianfranceschi, spokesman at the United States mission to the European Union in Brussels, said it was too early to comment on a decision that had not yet been formalized. But he made clear that the United States remained frustrated with European policies on genetically modified crops.


1. The preliminary decisions are made by_____.
[A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta
[B] European Union environmental officials
[C] European Commision
[D] Starvros Dimas
2. To the decisions, the European Commission officials’ attitudes are _____.
[A] skeptical
[B] controversial
[C] contradictory
[D] divergent
3. About the decisions, which one of the following statements is TRUE?
[A] The decisions aims to put a ban the sale of the seeds of genetically modified corn due to political and biological concerns.
[B] The decisions are warmly embraced by all EU members but bitterly rejected by their trade partners.
[C] The decisions could probably be made even if no definitive evidence proving the products harmful is found.
[D] there is high possibility that the decisions would be approved by the European Commission.
4. Mr. Dimas cited many researches on the genetically modified corn in his decision in order to_____.
[A] dispel some officials’ doubt on his decisions
[B] enhance the strength of his decision-making
[C] demonstrate the latest achievement of his decision
[D] assure that they can be presented before the commission with solid evidence
5. The word “tilt” (Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means_____.
[A] incline
[B] affect
[C] induce
[D] evoke


文章剖析:
这篇文章介绍了联合国环境官员就转基因食品提出的决议的一些情况。第一段介绍该决议目前在欧洲委员会中流传;第二段是环境专员具体在其决议中的观点;第三段讲述如果该决议落实将会是首例;第四段是美国贸易代表发言人的观点;第五段讲述Dimas先生决议的一些情况;第六段、第七段是其他人和机构的一些观点。
 
词汇注释:
genetically adv. 基因地                                           exacerbate v. 恶化,使加剧
monarch n. 黑脉金斑蝶                                   larvae n. 幼虫
aquatic adj. 水生的                                                  riparian adj. 河边的,水滨的
predator n. 掠夺者,捕食其他动物的的动物


难句突破:
(1)   European Union environmental officials have determined that two kinds of genetically modified corn could harm butterflies, affect food chains and disturb life in rivers and streams, and they have proposed a ban on the sale of the seeds, which are made by DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta.
[主体句式] EU environmental officials have determined that…and they have proposed…
[结构分析] 该句是一个并列结构的复杂句。前一个分句带有宾语从句,宾语从句的谓语是三个并列结构的动词;后一个分句中,which 引导的非限定性定语从句是用来修饰the seeds的。
(2) In the decisions, Mr. Dimas cited recent research showing that consumption of genetically modified ''corn byproducts reduced growth and increased mortality of nontarget stream insects'' and that these insects ''are important prey for aquatic and riparian predators'' and that this could have ''unexpected ecosystem-scale consequences.''
[主体句式] Mr. Dimas cited recent research…
[句子结构] 该句是一个简单句,宾语research后面的现代分词是它的定语,该现代分词结构看似复杂,其实是三个并列的that 引导的从句构成的。
[句子译文] 在这些决定中,Dimas引用了最近的一些研究,这些研究表明转基因“谷物副产品”消费“抑制生长,增加nontarget昆虫死亡率”,而且这些昆虫“是水生动物重要的食物”,因此这可能有“未预料到的生态系统规模的后果”。


题目分析:
1. The preliminary decisions are made by_____. 1. 这些决议是由_____拟定的。
[A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta [A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta
[B] European Union environmental officials [B] 欧盟环境官员
[C] European Commision [C] 欧洲委员会
[D] Starvros Dimas [D] Starvros Dimas
[答案]D
[难度系数] ☆☆☆☆
[分析] 细节题。本题具有一定的难度,文章一开头就提到欧盟环境官员确定了一些事实,并且建议要禁止销售转基因作物的种子。然后就提到决议在欧盟委员会中间流传。这样感觉仿佛是这些官员拟定的决议,但从文章下面的论述多次提到Dimas先生在决议中的观点,第六段也提到他的决议虽然是初步的但可能有很大影响。由此看来,该决议是Dimas先生提出的可能性大,答案为D。
2. To the decisions, the European Commission officials’ attitudes are  _____. 2.欧洲委员会官员对于这些决议的态度为_____。
[A] skeptical [A] 怀疑的
[B] controversial [B] 有争议的
[C] contradictory [C] 矛盾的
[D] divergent [D] 有分歧的
[答案]D
[难度系数] ☆☆☆
[分析] 推理题。文章第一段提到这些决议目前在欧洲委员会中间流传,一些官员对禁令表示怀疑,主要害怕禁令会影响外交关系。而从文章下面的部分可以看出,这些决议仿佛在欧洲委员会中间得到一些支持,那么可以这些官员所持的态度是有分歧的。选项D最为符合题意。B选项有一定的合理性和迷惑性,但是相比D选项显得不够准确。
3. About the decisions, which one of the following statements is TRUE? 3. 关于这些决定,以下陈述中哪一个是正确的?
[A] The decisions aim to put a ban the sale of the seeds of genetically modified corn due to political and biological concerns. [A]这些决定禁止出售转基因谷物的种子主要是出于政治和生物上的原因。
[B] The decisions are warmly embraced by all EU members but bitterly rejected by their trade partners. [B] 这些决议受到欧盟成员国的热情欢迎,但是却遭到了贸易国的反感和拒绝。
[C] The decisions could probably be made even if no definitive evidence proving the products harmful is found. [C] 即使找不到可以证明这些产品有害的确凿证据,这些决议也可以通过。
[D] there is high possibility that the decisions would be approved by the European Commission. [D] 这些决议由欧洲委员会批准的可能性非常大。
[答案]C
[难度系数] ☆☆☆☆
[分析] 细节题。选项A,从全文可以看出,这些决议只是初步拟定的,还没有最后确定,而且文章也没有明确说明是否同时处于政治和生物上的考虑。因此该选项不正确。选项B,文章并没有提到是否欧盟所有成员国都对该项决议表示热情欢迎;选项C,文章第五段Dimas先生的发言人谈到了这一点,说即使没有确凿证据,欧洲委员会可以基于“预防原则”做出决定,这个选项是正确的;D,目前该决议还未有明确说法,该选项错误。因此,答案为C。
4. Mr. Dimas cited many researches on the genetically modified corn in his decisions in order to_____. 4. Dimas先生在其决议中引用了许多关于转基因谷物的研究,他这样做是为了___。
[A] dispel some officials’ doubt on his decisions [A] 打消一些官员对她决议的疑虑。
[B] enhance the strength of his decision-making [B] 使自己的决议更有说服力。
[C] show the latest achievements on the research [C] 展示这方面研究最新的成果。
[D] demonstrate the latest achievement of his decision [D] 表明他的最新决议进展。
[答案]B
[难度系数] ☆☆☆
[分析] 推理题。Dimas先生在其拟定的决议中多次引用了关于转基因产品的研究,其目的是证实自己的决议是有根据的,这样就更有说服力。选项A,他自己拟定决议在先,这些官员怀疑在后,拟订时不一定存在这种想法;D,这不是其主要的目的。因此,A最为恰当。
5. The word “tilt” (Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means_____. 5. “tilt”一词(第六段第一行)最有可能的意思是_____。
[A] incline [A] 使倾向于
[B] affect [B] 影响
[C] induce [C] 导致,引起
[D] evoke [D] 引起,博得
[答案]A
[难度系数] ☆☆
[分析] 猜词题。根据上下文意思“Although still preliminary, his decisions could drastically tilt the policy against future approvals of genetically modified crops, said Nathalie Moll, a spokeswoman for Europabio, an industry group with 80 members including Syngenta, Pioneer and Dow”,尽管他的决议还是初步的,但是却能够让政策倾向于反对未来批准转基因食品。答案中A最为符合。


参考译文:
欧盟环境官员已经确定有两种转基因作物会伤害蝴蝶、影响食物链、妨害水游生物。他们还建议禁止出售该类种子,这些种子由DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences 和Syngenta研制的。初步决议在欧盟委员会中通报,由该委员会做出最后决定。该禁令对蓬勃发展的生物技术业是一个打击,也可能会恶化与重要贸易伙伴(如美国)的紧张关系,因此一些官员持怀疑态度。目前在欧洲培育市场还没有销售这些种子。
在决议中,环境专员Stavros Dimas称转基因谷物或玉米可能对一些蝴蝶品种有害,尤其是黑脉金斑蝶,对于其他一些益虫也有害。比如,今年的一项研究表明在转基因谷类中的黑脉金斑蝶的幼虫“和其他幼虫表现不一样。”在关于Dow 和 Pioneer公司生产的种子的决议中,Dimas先生认为“对环境潜在的危害是不可逆转的。”而就Syngenta生产的谷物,他说“培育这种产品带来的风险级别对环境来说是不能接受的。”
欧盟决定禁止转基因作物的种植,这是在贸易集团中的首例,也将激化就转基因作物一直进行的斗争。禁止将该技术用于谷物作物也标志着欧洲环境机构大胆迈出新的一步,该环境机构一直在大胆地就汽车和飞机排放制定规则,这次将自己和美国以及充满怒气的工厂置于纷争。
“这些产品已经在美国和其他国家生长数年了,”美国贸易代表发言人斯蒂芬•诺顿这样说,“我们还不知道有这样的先例,那就是一种产品已经为欧洲卫生安全机构审查并经过安全确定,现在却又被否定。”
Dimas 先生的女发言人Barbara Helfferich不愿意就程序的细节作评论,因为委员们还未做出最后决定。但是她说欧盟有权利基于“预防原则”做出决定,即使是科学家并未发现确定证据可以证明该产品有害。她说Dimas先生的决定在未来几周内就可在委员会前出台,但是具体日期还未确定。在这些决定中,Dimas引用了最近的一些研究,这些研究表明转基因“谷物副产品”消费“抑制生长,增加nontarget昆虫死亡率”,而且这些昆虫“是水生动物重要的食物”,因此这可能有“未预料到的生态系统规模的后果”。
尽管他的决定还是初步的,但是却会极大倾斜针对同意未来转基因谷物的政策,这是Europabio女发言人Nathalie Moll的观点,Europabio是拥有80名成员的一个工业组织,Syngenta, Pioneer and Dow都是其成员。Europabio称运用转基因谷物生长的作物已经进口到几个欧洲国家,包括法国和德国,用于饲养牛、鸡这样的喂养动物。
赴欧盟的美国发言人Rob Gianfranceschi称目前就还未正式成立的决定作评论还为时尚早,但是他明确表示美国对于欧洲对转基因谷物的政策表示失望。


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