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考研英语应用文写作指导之应用文的写作方法

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  三、应用文的写作方法、特点

  硕士研究生入学英语考试中的应用文写作一般也遵循了三段式的写法:第一段表明作者写信的缘由;第二段详细介绍具体情况;第三段根据不同种类的信件运用不同的结尾客套语。和短文写作比较起来,它对于语法结构和词汇多样性的要求相对较低,因为应用文写作更注重信息点的覆盖和内容的组织、语言的准确性、格式和语域的恰当。简而言之,应用文最重要的是把“事情”说明白,而不是要把文章写得多么优美。新赠作文要求写100字左右应用性短文,应用性短文通常包括各种信函、简历、便条、备忘录等,笔者认为考生准备重点应在各种信函。信函主要有:求职信、投诉信、邀请信、订购信、询问信、感谢信、道歉信、推荐信等八种,而在这八种信函中前五种是重点的重点。 由于这是一篇小作文所以要求100字左右,难度相对于六级还低。考生只要熟悉一些常用'经典'句型,便可在短时间一挥而就。比如求职信开篇的一个'黄金'句型:I am responding to your advertisement in China Daily on January 10th, 2003, which invites applications for interpreters. Enclosed with this letter is my resume which details my background. 又如此类信件结束的一个'钻石'句型:I shall be much obliged if you will afford me an opportunity for an interview, and I appreciate a response from at your earliest convenience.考生再少加发挥,在二段设置几个'亮点',一篇高分文章就由此'诞生'了。虽然短信好写,还是建议考生参考一些写作书中关于应用文的介绍,了解模式,熟悉套话。毕竟也是书面语语体,要注意语言正式、词汇多变,如前面提到了reference books, 后面不妨修改成reference (reading) materials。还要保留一些客气礼貌的用语,如I do appreciate your kind consideration to my request或I am grateful to your kind assistance.另外,千万不要把前面的提示语(情景说明)照搬到自己的作文中用来凑字数,要利用同义词、同义表达加以改造,否则会有抄袭之嫌。下面归纳五大信函写作策略:

  1. 求职信

  开头段:表明信息来源,说明写作意图。

  主体段:介绍自己相关的工作经历、学习经历,以此证明你能胜任这个职位。

  2. 投诉信

  开头段: 说明与收信人的相关性,点明你写作的意图。

  主体段: 写明投诉的原因,要展开说明,或者讲具体理由,或者谈问题的具体体现方式。

  结束段:表达你希望上述问题得到尽快解决的强烈愿望,并对有关人员做出的努力表示感谢。

  3. 邀请信

  开头段:表明写作意图,向某人发出邀请。

  主体段:说明邀请的具体原因,邀请的内容。

  结束段:表明强烈的期盼,并希望尽快得到答复。

  4. 订购信

  开头段: 开篇点出写信的目的,定购你要的东西。

  主体段: 详细说明你订购货物的规格、大小、颜色、尺寸等。

  结束段:表示对方回函以便确认。

  5. 询问信

  开头段: 明确写信的目的,说明写这封信的目的是寻求某信息或帮助。

  主体段:询问具体问题,强调所需信息的重要性。

  结束段:表达获取信息的强烈愿望,提供联系方式以便收信人与你联系,并对有关人员表示感谢。

  总体来说新增小作文有规律可循,只要多加练习就能自如应付。

  (二)大纲样题详解

  Directions:

  You are preparing for an English test and are in need of some reference books. Write a letter to the sales department of a bookstore to ask for:

  1) detailed information about the books you want,

  2) methods of payment,

  3) time and way of delivery.

  You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "Li Ming" instead. You do not need to write the address.

  范文

  Dear Sir/Madam

  I am writing to express my interest in purchasing several titles from your bookstore. The books that I would like to buy are A Students' Guide to Correct English Usage by Edwin James, and A College Dictionary for Advanced English by John Black. Could you let me know how much these books will cost? Which methods of payment does your store accept? Can you deliver them by express mail? How long will it take the books to reach me? If possible, I would like to pay by check and have the books sent directly to my dorm. Many thanks for any assistance you are able to provide.

  Yours Sincerely,

  Li Ming

  (Word Count: 113 words)

  这篇文章共113个词,符合字数标准。下面依据评分标准的五个方面,分析得分的关键。

  ●是否包含所有内容要点?题目要求信中必须提到三点:1)要买的书的详细信息。信息包含两个方面:提供给书店的信息和从书店索取的信息。范文的第二句话列出了两本书的题目和作者,给书店提供了明确充分的信息。第三句话向书店询价,以便决定是否购买。这里,书名的写法也是考点之一。在印刷品中,书名用斜体,而在手写稿中,为了便于区分,书名用下划线突出。2)付款方式。范文第四句话分别询问书的价格和付款方式。methods of payment这几个词在题目中出现过,这样写是允许的,但不能使用提示语中出现过的词组或句子,否则会被扣分。3)配送所需时间和方式。这两点在范文的第五、六句话中都已提及。可见,范文包含了所有的内容要点。

  ●是否使用丰富的语法结构和词汇?即考查句型和词汇的灵活使用,强调变化,切忌单调、重复。先看句型,粗粗一看,没有简单重复。虽然连续提出的四个问题中,第一和第三个语法结构差不多,分别是Could you...,Can you...,但用了不同的词,避免单调。这封信里出现次数最多的词是book,作者很用心,在第一句中就用了大多数同学不会想到的一个词:title,它除了“题目,标题”的常用意思之外,还可以表示“(书刊等的)一种,一本”。第一句话的用词就与众不同,会给考官一个很好的第一印象。另一个使用频率高的词是buy,文章同样采用了先声夺人的做法,第一句用了purchase这个稍有难度的词。在提到配送方式时,用了deliver和send两个词,避免重复。在语法结构和词汇的丰富性方面,文章做得也不错。

  ●语言是否自然流畅,是否有语法错误?总体而言,范文读起来很流畅,几乎没有语法错误,唯一的错误就是在称呼后面缺少逗号。

  ●是否采用了多种衔接手法,文字是否连贯,层次是否清晰?由于内容的关系,这封信没有使用诸如and,but,however之类的连接词,但读起来仍然很连贯,因为用了另一种衔接手法,用“书”串起全文。第一句:purchasing several titles,第二句:the books that I would like to buy,第三句:these books第一次提过之后,就用不同的定冠词来特指这些书。层次也很清晰,首先说明写信的意图,然后按照提示语的顺序层层展开。

  ●格式和语域是否恰当贴切?应用文的格式是考查的一个重点。书信的格式包括以下几个要素:1)称呼。因为这封信是给书店销售部的,并不知道收信人是男士还是女士,所以写Dear Sir/Madam,后面应该有“,”。2)正文。写作有两种基本格式:缩进式和齐头式。缩进式每段开头空四个字母,段与段之间不空行;齐头式每段开头顶格,段与段之间空一行。在考试中,建议考生使用齐头式,目前多数商务书信或正式的书信都采用这种格式。这封信就是用齐头式。3)落款。Yours sincerely是最常用的落款,适用各种关系的人之间。语域是指在书面和口语表达中根据不同的交际对象所采用的话语方式,即正式、一般及非正式体。对于书信而言,要根据收信人身份判断所采用的话语方式。如果是寒暑假时同学间的书信,就要用非正式体。这封信应该用正式体,范文中的称呼和落款都体现了这一点。另外,范文所用的一些句型也采用了正式体,例如:I am writing to express my interest in ...,Many thanks for any assistance you are able to provide. 需要提醒考生注意的是落款的姓名应与称呼相对应,写给一个机构的信,落款应当是全名,如果是写给关系密切的人,只写名字就可以,但一般会在前面加上祝福语,常用的有:Best regards,Best wishes,或With lots of love,写给机构和关系不密切的人不必用祝福语。

  (三)2005-2006年考研英语写作PART A真题及范文

  2006年全真试题

  Directions:

  You want to contribute to Project Hope by offering financial aid to a child in a remote area. Write a letter to the department concerned, asking them to help find a candidate. You should specify what kind of child you want to help and how you will carry out your plan.

  Write your letter in no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.

  Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead.

  Do not write the address.

  【参考范文】

  To Whom It May Concern,

  I would like to make a financial contribution to Project Hope, and help those who are eager to receive formal education. And would you please help me to find a candidate who has recently withdrawn from school due to poverty and is in great need of aid? It will be better if the child is a girl at the age between 10 and 12 living in a remote area. I’d like to donate some money and try my best to see her through her studies.

  First, I would like to donate 600Yuan which will cover the tuition fee. Second, during summer vacation each year, I will invite her to Beijing, so that she couldl broaden her horizon

  I really appreciate your help, and look forward to your reply as soon as possible.

  Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming

  2005年全真试题

  51. Directions:

  Two months ago you got a job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions. But now you find that the work is not what you expected. You decide to quit. Write a letter to your boss, Mr. Wang, telling him your decision, stating your reason(s), and making an apology.

  Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter; use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

  【参考范文】

  A Letter to Quit

  [JY,5]Jun 22, 2005

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  First of all, please allow me to express my deep sorry to you for my resignation. I do know that this will bring about much trouble to you so that I write to you for my explanation.

  I decided to quit for some reasons as follows. To begin with, the job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions is not suitable to me. What’s more, I am preparing for another degree and I prefer to further my study. Again, I apologize for my resignation to you!

  I am looking forward to your early reply.

  Sincerely yours,

  Li Ming

  【范文译文】

  尊敬的王先生:

  首先,请允许我对我的辞职向您表示深深的歉意。我确实知道这会给您带来许多麻烦,因此我将在此作出解释。

  我决定辞职的原因如下:首先,作为《设计与时尚》杂志的编辑这份工作不适合我。其次,我想要继续我的学业并正在为下一个学位做准备。最后,我再次对我的辞职向您表示歉意。

  等待您的尽早答复。

  你诚挚的

  李明

  【范文2】

  Dear Mr. Wang,

  I am writing to inform you about my decision to resign from my current position. There are a few factors involved.

  First of all, the salary has proved to be much lower than you originally promised. It’s very difficult for me to support a large family. In addition, the office is located in the downtown area, yet I live in the suburbs, so it is exhausting for me to spend over three hours commuting every day. Most importantly, I feel rather disappointed and left out on the job itself as in the past two months. I was never given any really important responsibility.

  Please consider of my resignation. I am sorry for any inconvenience caused to you.

  faithfully Yours sincerely,

  Li Ming


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