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2011年新托福真题解析汇总

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分词是TOEEL必考内容,在历届试题中均占相当大的比例。分词的命题形式非常广泛。平均分布在written Expressions 和structure两部分。有时,即使分词不是题目焦点,但对分词的正确分析则可以帮助考生选择正确的答案。分词的命题要点集中在(1)分词的形容词特性、(2)分词短语作后置定语、(3) 现在分词和过去分词的主动与被动含义。   

 

分词常考题型及解题要点:   

1. 分词具有形容词特征,可单独作定语或表语。   

全真例题分析   

(1) The highly respect zoologist Ernest Just Joined the ruling board of the Marine Biological Laboratory in the 1930*s (93.1)   

[答案] B 动词respect用来修饰后面的名词zoologist,故应改用分词respected形式,其作用相当于形容词作定语。   

(2) A patent gives inventors exclusive rights to their inventions for a fix period of time. (90.1)   

[答] C 修饰保词period应用动词的分词形式,即fixed。   

(3) Characteristics of Op Art are the carefully arrange hues and geometric patterns that create optical illusions. (88.5)   

[答案] A 修饰名词hues,应用分词形式arranged。   

(4) The question of the origin of the Moon is interest not only in itself but also as a part of the larger genesis of the earth and the solar system . (88.5)   

[答案] B interest应用其分词interesting形式作表语,作用相当于一个形空词。   

 

2. 分词短语作定语,放置于中心名词后面   

解题要点 分词短语作后置定语在TOEEL考题中出现频率非常高。因而,考生务必熟记这一结构和用法。实际上,分词短语作后置定语。皆是定语从句的省略形式。   

全真例题分析   

(1) The leaves and stems of the aifaifa plant are the only parts of the plant -------   

(A) the uses for livestock feed   

(B) for using livestock feed   

(C) used for livestock feed   

(D) they are used for livestock feed (93.1)   

[答案] C过去分词used + 介语短语组成的分词短语修饰前面的名词成分the only parts of the plant,作后置定语。此结构亦扩展为定语从句(that are ) used for livestock feed   

 

(2) The slide rule used sliding scales with marks ------- numbers and their logarithms.   

(A) representing   

(B) represented   

(C) are represented   

(D) they are representing (92.10)   

[答案] A 分词短语作名词marks的后置定语,作用相当于一个定语从句:which represent numbers and their logarithms。   

 

(3) Earlg philosophers believe that the mind was divided into three faculties ------- s feeling ,intellect and will   

(A) to know   (B) known   (C) knowing   (D) knew them (94.1)   

[答案] B分词短语known as…说明前面的名词three faculties。此结构可改写成定语从句。Which are known as…   (

 

4) The bison know for the hump over its shoulders is usually called a buffalo in North America. (91.1)   

[答案] A 此句主语是The bison ,谓语是系词is ,划线A部分应当为分词短语,修饰名词The bison .A应改为known for。   

 

(5) Louisa May Alcott is chiefly remembered for Little Women. One of the most popular girls books ever wrote (88.5)   

[答案] D 修饰名词books应用分词生语ever written。   

 

3. 分词短语作状语   

解题要点 在句了意义非常清楚明确时,状语从句通常可以简略为分词短语,但有一个先决条件。此分词短语的逻辑主语应与句子的主语为同一人或物,此类分词短语通常置于句首。   

全真例题分析   

(1) ------- as“the census taker of the sky”Annie Jump Cannon contributed considerably to the field of astronomy.   

(A) Known   (B) Knowing   (C) To known   (D) Knowledge (92.5)   

[答案] A 分词短语置于句首作表示身份的状语。它的逻辑主语即是句子的主语Annie Jump Cannon.   

 

(2) ------- in 1635, the Boston Latin School is the oldest public school in the United States .   

(A) Founded   (B) Founding   (C) To found   (D) Having founded (92.1)   

[答案] A 分词短语表示时间,其逻辑主语即是句子主语The Boston Latin School.   

(3) ------- the constitution of the Cherokee Nation provided for a chief executive, a senate, and a house of representatives.   

(A) In 1827 they drafted   (B) The draft in 1827   (C) In 1872 was drafted   (D) Drafted in 1827 (90.5)   

[答案] D分词短语作状语,表示时间。此结构可扩展为一状语从句;where the constitution of the Cherokee Nation was drafted in 1827 it provided for a chief executive a senate, and a house of representatives.   

 

4. 现在分词表达主动的概念;过去分词表达被动的概念   

全真例题分析   

(1) Tudging to be the best boxer of his time, sugar Ray Robinson lost only 3 out of 137 fights (94.1)   

[答案] A 此分词短语与其逻辑上的主语sugar Ray Robinson 是被动的关系(Sugar was judged to be…) 故应用过去词Tudped to be.   

(2) During the Colonial days, the Iroquois had an agricultural economy basing mainly on corn with supplementary crops of pumpkins ,beans, and tobacco. (92.1)   

[答案] B通常我们说to be based on ,这个短语表示被动概念(基于,以…为基础),所以应改用过去分词based。   

(3) Per capita income is a nation*s entire income dividing by the number of people in the nation. (90.10)   

[答案] B根据句意及分词dividing后面的介词by,可以推断这个分词短语表达的是被动的概念,因此,应用过去分词divided by。   

(4) Clementine Hunter*s primitive paintings have been exhibited at various galleries. Included one at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. D.C. (93.1)   

[答案] D 分词in cluded与其逻辑的主语paintings并无被动的关系,不应用过去分词,应改为惯用现在分词短语in cluding + 名词宾语的结构。

 

 

 


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