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新东方名师指导:5句话hold住托福独立写作“开头段”

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Healing

2015年04月29日

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“开头段”、“论证段”和“结尾段”是托福独立写作的“三部曲”,彼此各司其职,进而构成一个Unity(整体)。其中,“开头段”最主要的功能有两个:一是引出话题;二是表达观点。然而,在表达观点的时候,大家倾向于有以下两种选择:一是开门见山(在“开头段”直接给出个人观点:要么agree或者disagree;要么prefer A或者prefer B);二是娓娓道来(即在“论证段”或“结尾段”进行观点的阐述或总结)。本文将从这2种方式出发,教你如何用5句话hold住托福独立写作“开头段”。

第一种:开门见山式 【概括背景 + 引出话题 + 一类人观点 + 另一类人观点对比 + 个人观点】

1、概括背景:以概括题目的方式给出文章的写作背景

2、引出话题:以承上启下的方式引出题目关键词

3、一类人观点:针对题目的两个面(比如说:立场A和立场B),先给出一类人的观点(比如说:立场A)

4、另一类人观点对比:站在一类人的对立面给出相对立的观点(立场B)

5、个人观点:在相对立的两个立场中选择一个作为自己的观点(立场A / 立场B)

以下是从独立写作真题出发,向大家展示如打造开门见山式“开头段”:

① (A/D) The main role of the university professor is to educate students rather than to do research.

(概括背景)A defining character of people is the degree to which they believe that higher education plays a crucial role in a country’s development. (引出话题)One indisputable fact is that university education is closely associated with professors. (一类人观点)Some people, especially parents, believe that professors should focus on educating students. (另一类人观点对比)However, others, professors themselves in particular, argue that they ought to pay more attention to their researches. (个人观点)From my perspective, the major obligation of university professors is to teach.

② (A/D) The advice from grandparents has no use for their grandchildren because the world changed a lot during the past 50 years.

(概括背景)A defining character of people is the degree to which they are always willing to refer to others’ advice and fit in. (引出话题)One indisputable fact is that valuable advice is closely associated with experienced people like parents and grandparents. (一类人观点)Some people, especially the old, believe that it’s beneficial to turn to grandparents.(另一类人观点对比)However, others, the young in particular, argue that due to the great development of the world, their grandparents’ suggestions are not useful any more. (个人观点)From my perspective, asking for help from one’s grandparents can be a really wise choice.

此处总结为开门见山式“开头段”模板:

A defining character of people is the degree to which + 概括题目. One indisputable fact is that + 题目概括词 + is closely associated with 题目关键词. Some people, especially 具体的人, believe that + 一类人观点. However, others, 具体的人 in particular, argue that + 另一方观点. From my perspective, + 个人观点.

(NOTE:“the degree to which”在此处的功能相当于“that”,且其后所接句子的主语必须和前面的“people”一致)

第二种:娓娓道来式 【概括背景 + 引出话题 + 一类人观点 + 另一类人观点对比 + 争议句】

1、概括背景:以概括题目的方式提出文章的写作背景

2、引出话题:以承上启下的方式引出题目关键词

3、一类人观点:针对题目的两个面(比如说:立场A和立场B),先给出一类人的观点(比如说:立场A)

4、另一类人观点对比:站在一类人的对立面给出相对立的观点(立场B)

5、争议句:给出一个争议的句子,不直接表明个人观点,将之留在“论证段”或“结尾段”进行阐述或总结

以下同样从独立写作真题出发,打造娓娓道来式“开头段”:

① (A/D) Movies and televisions have more negative effects than positive effects on young people’s behaviors.

(概括背景)A defining character of people is the degree to which they are always willing to pursue happiness. (引出话题)One indisputable fact is that one’s happiness is closely associated with daily entertainment, which can be easily offered by some technological products like movies and televisions.(一类人观点)Some people, especially the young, believe that movies and TV play a crucial role in helping them release stress.(另一类人观点对比)However, others, the parents in particular, argue that some films and TV programs have caused great negative effects on their children. (争议句)Therefore, when it comes to whether movies and televisions bring more positive or negative effects, people’s notions vary from one to another.

② (A/D) The main purpose for people who have jobs is for money rather than social status.

(概括背景)A defining character of people is the degree to which they are always willing to pursue a better life.(引出话题)One indisputable fact is that a quality live is closely associated with having a job.(一类人观点)Some people, especially the young, believe that their intention of working is to make enough money.(另一类人观点对比)However, others, old people in particular, argue that they work mainly for a high social position.(争议句)Therefore, when it comes to whether the major aim of working is for money or social position, people’s notions vary from one to another.

此处总结为娓娓道来式“开头段”模板:

A defining character of people is the degree to which + 概括题目. One indisputable fact is that + 题目概括词 + is closely associated with 题目关键词. Some people, especially 具体的人, believe that + 一类人观点. However, others, 具体的人 in particular, argue that + 另一方观点. Therefore, when it comes to whether 转述题目, people’s notions vary from one to another.

(NOTE:“the degree to which”在此处的功能相当于“that”,且其后所接句子的主语必须和前面的“people”一致)


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