1. That John won the marathon surprised us.
John’s winning the Marathon surprised us.
2. I have not decided whether I should vote for Clint.
I have not decided whether to vote for Clint.
1. The man (who is) standing at the gate is my English teacher.
2. The car (that was) repaired yesterday by him is my mother’s.
3. The next train that arrives is from New York.
1. After he had watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.
Having watered the garden, he began to mow the lawn.
2. When they are heated metals expand.
(When) Heated, metals expand.
3. Because I do not know what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.
Not knowing what to do next, I want to ask for your advice.
4. I spoke slowly and clearly in order that the audience could understand me.
…in order for the audience to understand me.
5. If we are united, we stand; if we are divided, we fail.
United, we stand; divided, we fail.
6. Though he has lived in Canada for tree years, he still cannot speak English well.
Having lived in Canada for three years, he still cannot speak English well.
1. Big and fat, Victor went to the Gym(健身馆) every Sunday morning.(原因)
2. Speechless, Henry nodded and sat on a folding seat.(伴随状语)
3. Anxious for a quick decision, the chairman called for a vote.(原因)
4. (Although)always helpful, he was not much liked by people.(让步)
5. It has little taste, unless hot.(条件)
6. A fellow Georgian(佐治亚人), Jordan was well-known as a friend of the President.(同位语)
7. Bank loan or no bank loan, we’ll buy the house.(让步)
8. Whatever the reason, his cordiality(诚恳)to her has won him a friend.(让步)
9. Because of his mistake several people died.(原因)
10. Without his sister’s money, Harry would never be a doctor.(条件)
1b. Because he was big and fat, Victor went to the Gym every Sunday morning.
2b. Henry nodded and sat on a folding seat, and kept speechless.