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托福写作:冠词怎么用?

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Lisa

2016年04月27日

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  一 基本规律 (Basic rules)

  1. Indefinite article (不定冠词)

  我们用 "a , an "当我们不知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

  * is one of many. ( 是许多个中的一个)

  He is an artist.(=there are many artists)

  * is not unique. (不是唯一的)

  I have just bought a book

  * has not been mentioned before. (之前没有提到过)

  There was a new student in class today.

  2. Definite article (定冠词)

  我们用 "the "当我们知道他是诸多人或事中的哪一个:

  * is unique (or unique in that context) (是唯一的)

  The Australian Prime Minister. (=there is only one)

  I looked inside, the engine was in a terrible state. (=there is only one engine, in this case)

  * has been mentioned before. (之前提到过)

  The man gave me a ticket. I looked at it, and saw that the ticket was a single.

  * is defined by the phrase which follows it. (要被接下来的短语详细说明)

  What is the new student's name?

  3. No articles (无冠词)

  我们不用冠词当我们普遍地提及事物的时候:

  * using plural or uncountable nouns (在使用复数或不可数名词时)

  Do you like sport?

  * with the names of people or places, but there are many exceptions (人名和地名的时候不用冠

  词,但是地名有许多例外,下文一一介绍)

  He is Professor Jones

  4. Fixed phrases ( 固定短语)

  有许多固定搭配需要用或者不用冠词,我们应该来单独学习,他们包括:

  a few at home at work at the beginning atthe end go to bed

  go to the cinemas, shops, station in the world once a week

  sixty kilometres an hour the next the other the other day

  the same

  二 经常发生问题的区域 (Areas that often cause problems)

  1. Jobs (工作)

  如果有许多人做这个工作我们用 a 或 an.:

  My husband is an architect. (=there are many architects)

  但是如果一个工作特别对应一个人,我们就要用“the”了:

  He is having talks with the French foreign minister(外交部长). (=there is only one)

  2. Superlative (最高级)

  我们使用“the”在形容词最高级前面:

  She is the best person for the job.

  3. Last and next

  有一些形容词如 “last” 和 “next ”同时可以用也可以不用定冠词“the”但是句意会发生变化

  I saw James last night. (=the one before this one)

  It is the last night of our holiday. (=the fanal one)

  I will see you next week.(=the one after this one)

  4. Institutions: school, prison, university, church, home, hospital

  和以上机构连用时我们不用定冠词“the”

  My sister had to stay in hospital overnight.

  然而,如果我们指的是这个建筑,我们就要用“the”

  Our flat is opposite the hospital.

  三 在表示时间和地点的短语中用或不用定冠词 (phrases of time and place)

  1. Phrases of time

  有些时间短语必须用“the”

  Dates: the 25th of December / December the 25th

  Parts of the day: in the afternoon, in the evening, in the morning ( but at night, at lunchtime)

  Decades or Centuries: the 1980s, the 21st century

  另外一些时间短语不用“the”

  Years or Seasons: in 2002, in summer

  Months or Days: in August, on Friday, see you tomorrow

  2 Place names

  国家,大洲,岛屿,洲,省,城市前不加

  “the”(countries, continents, islands, states, provinces, town, cities)

  in Asia, to Sydney from Texas in Turkey in Britain in America

  例外情况

  the Netherlands, the UK, the USA, the Arab World (可以发现国家名作为缩写的话要加“the”)

  如果我们指的是一个地区(region)那么我们不需要用“the”

  North-west Inida, Northern Europe

  但是如果我们指的是对于一个地区的方位或方向就要加上“the”

  in the east of the country, in the south of Italy, on the coast

  大多数路,街,公园,桥梁,商店,酒店不用加

  “the”(raods, streets, parks, bridges, shops, restaurants)

  Central Park, Oxford Street, Tower Bridge

  但是有命名的剧院,电影院,旅馆,画廊,博物馆加

  “the”(names of theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries, museums)

  the Hermitage, the National Theatre, the Odeon, the Ritz

  特别的山和湖不加“the”

  Lake Victoria, Mount Everest

  山脉,河流,海洋,运河要加“the”

  the Atlantic, the Yangtze River, the Himalayas, the Panama Canal

  以上就是冠词"the"在托福写作中的用法,大家可以在托福作文中多运用一些不同形式的句型,增加托福写作的层次感和新鲜感。


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