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如何构建托福写作的骨架?

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Lisa

2016年05月11日

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如何构建托福写作的骨架?
  I 准确的句子表达

  1. 句型分析

  英语的句型包括以下几种,简单句、复合句、并列句、并列复合句等。在新托福写作中,一般使用复合句,辅以并列句和并列复合句,当然肯定要有简单句,做到长短句相结合。下面摘抄几个句子给大家认识并分析一下复合句和并列复合句。

  a. Even though I usually know what I have to say, I cannot always express myself correctly in English.

  这句话是一个复合句,由even though引导的让步状语从句。

  b. This challenges me to practice my spoken English, with the result that I can complete the speaking tasks more fluently and quickly.

  这句话中是一个复合句。with介词结构中,有一个that引导的同位语从句对result进行解释说明。

  c. I think this is less than ideal because any differences in opinion become personal conflicts, and therefore that might jeopardize the employee’s job.

  托福写作辅导指出上句话是一个并列复杂句。and 连接了两个句子,是一个并列句;because引导的原因状语从句。

  d. Shallow writing is indicative of weak critical-thinking skills, and such writing, which is often described as “sophomoric”, receives low mark.

  这句话同样是并列复杂句。由and连接两个句子,成为并列句,再一个which引导的定语从句。

  2. 有问题的托福写作句子的列举

  托福写作中的句子容易出现三个问题:一是使用破碎句,二是使用接连句,三是句子连接不正确。

  1). 破碎句

  所谓破碎句,就是句子不完整,通常是没有谓语(或者说谓语是动词的非谓语形式,如分词),或者是从句单独成句。

  破碎句:She singing alone. (无谓语,singing是现在分词)

  正确句:She is singing alone.

  破碎句:He did not come. Because he was sick. (从句单独成句)

  正确句:He did not come because he was sick.

  2).接连句

  所谓接连据,就是两个句子直接连在一起,既未使用连词,也未使用正确的标点符号。

  接连句: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  正确句一: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers. However, they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  正确句二: Professionals such as lawyers or accountants usually work longer hours than factory workers; however, they have greater freedom in planning their time.

  3).句子连接不正确

  所谓托福 写作句子连接不正确,就是两个独立的句子之间以逗号连接,这是不合英语语法的。正确的做法是以连词、分号、冒号、句号等连接两个句子。

  不正确句: Breaking chalk into two pieces is a physical change, there is no change in the composition of the chalk.

  正确句: Breaking chalk into two pieces is a physical change, so there is no change in the composition of the chalk.

  II 高分表达

  除了在句式上长短句相结合准确表达外,小马过河建议新托福考生要使用一些特殊的句式,以使句型多样化。句型多样化也是作文得到高分的条件之一。除了我们之前经常提到的高分句式,如倒装句、强调句、状语前置、插入语等,笔者还提出另外一个句式的多样变化,即主语多样化。下面笔者将列举几个句子概括介绍前面四种句型,而重点分析主语多样化。

  正常句: Luck only works in extreme cases.

  倒装句: Only in extreme cases does luck work.(否定词位于句首的倒装。)

  正常句: The internet provides people access to the latest information.

  强调句: It is the internet that provides people access to the latest information. (强调the internet)

  正常句: The environment has been deteriorating severely along with the development of industry.

  状语前置句: Along with the accelerating development of industry, the environment has been deteriorating severely.

  正常句: However, new zoos try to duplicate animals’ natural habitats as much as possible and give animals a comfortable amount of space.

  插入语: New zoos, however, try to duplicate animals’ natural habitats as much as possible and give animals a comfortable amount of space. (连词however做插入语)

  主语多样

  1. 她突然想到了一个主意。

  She suddenly had an idea.

  通常情况下,考生会马上对这句话进行翻译,基本不会动句子结构。但是以人作为主语的英语句子总是不能够很吸引人,所以这个句子如果稍微做下修改,以后面的宾语“主意”做主语,这个句子会发生一些变化。

  2. 他开车心不在焉,几乎闯祸。

  He was absent-minded when driving, and almost caused an accident.

  这句话依然是拿人做主语,稍微改一下,把心不在焉这个形容词的名词形式做主语,会大不相同。

  His absence of mind during driving nearly caused an accident.

  3. 美利坚合众国创立于1789年。

  The United States of America was founded in 1789.

  这句话没有任何错误,但是不够多样,可以用时间作主语。

  The year 1789 witnessed the founding of the United States of America.

  III 实用句型

  在托福 写作文章的最后,为大家列举几个新托福考试中可以使用的套用句型,为一些写句子摸不着头绪的考生提供帮助。

  1. It pays to make great efforts to prepare for TOEFL-ibt.

  努力准备新托福考试是值得的。

  2. Nothing is more important than to receive education.

  没有比接受教育更重要的了。

  3. The reason why the white-collars suffer increasing work-related stress is that they pursue work achievement in career.

  白领压力日益增加的原因是他们在事业上有所追求。

  4. It is time the related department took proper measures.

  (虚拟句式)相关部门早该采取适当的措施了)


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