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argue[5B:^ju:] vi.1.(就某事)争辩,争论:They argued the matter for hours. 他们就这件事争论了数小时。2.(与人)争吵:He argued with Mary about the best place for a holiday. 他和玛丽争论度假的最好地方。◆argue out 彻底辩论,把…争论出个结果 / argue the toss 争论已有定论的事

 

argument[5B:^jJmEnt] n.1. [C,U]争论,辩论,争吵:He accepted the decision without argument. 他没有争辩就接受了决定。2. [C]理由;论据:He made a very persuasive argument. 他提出了一个很有说服力的论点。◆for the sake of argument 为便于研究问题,作为讨论的基础

 

arise[E5raIz] vi. (arose, arisen) 1.起来;站起;升起:Smoke arose from the chimney. 烟从烟筒冒出来。2.产生;出现:If any problems arise, let me know. 如果出现问题,请告诉我。

 

arithmetic[E5rIWmEtIk] n. [U]算术

 

 

arm[B:m] n. 1.[C]上肢;手臂:She held the baby in her arms. 她抱着那个婴儿。2.[C]臂状物;扶手:the arms of a chair 椅子的扶手3. [C]衣袖:He had a hole in the arm of his sweater. 他的毛衣袖子穿了个洞。4.(常用复数) (美)武器,武力:fire arms 火器,枪炮 / The soldiers presented arms.士兵们举枪敬礼。v.以…装备,武装起来:The country armed itself in preparation for war. 这个国家已武装起来准备打仗。◆a babe in arms 需要抱的婴儿,不谙世事者 / arm in arm 臂挽着臂 / at arm’s length 一臂之遥, 若即若离 / be armed to the teeth 武装到牙齿的 / into sb’s arms 投入某人怀抱,进入某人控制,受某人影响 / the armed forces, the armed services 武装力量 / take up arms 拿起武器 / with open arms 张开双臂(表示欢迎、准备拥抱)

 

armchair[B:m5tFeE(r)] n. [C]扶手椅

 

army[5B:mI] n. [C]陆军;军队:an army officer 军官 / He joined the army a the age of eighteen. 他十八岁参军。

 

around[E5raJnd] adv.在周围;在附近:to take a look around 在附近看看 / The bookstore is just around the corner. 书店就在那边转弯的地方。prep.在…周围;大约:I saw himaround the place this morning. 今天早晨我看见他就在那儿附近。/ I’ll see you around seven. 我们 7 点左右见。◆all around 四处,到处 / have been around 到处旅行;见过世面

 

arrange[E5reIndV] v.1. 排列;整理:I arranged books on the shelves. 我把书架上的书整理好。2. 安排;准备:The meeting has been arranged for Tuesday evening. 会议安排在星期二晚上举行。

 

arrangement[E5reIndVmEnt] n.1. [C](常用复数)安排,筹备:arrangements of a time and place for the meeting 会议时间和地点的安排 / We’re just making the final arrangements for the concert. 我们正为音乐会进行最后阶段的筹备工作。2. [C,U]约定;协议:make arrangement with sb与某人商定或约好 / We can come to some arrangement over the price. 价钱方面,我们可以商议解决。


arrival[E5raIvl] n.1. [U]抵达,到达:We waited for his arrival. 我们等候他的到来。2. [C]到达的人或物:Late arrivals must wait in the hall. 来晚的人要在大厅等候。◆on arrival 一到就


arrive[E5raIv] vi.1.到达;抵达:We arrived home at about midnight. 我们大约午夜到家。2.发生;来临;出生:Good weather has arrived at last. 好天气终于来到了。/ The baby arrived yesterday morning. 孩子是昨天上午出生的。


【辨析】arrive, get 与 reach:均可表示“到达”,其区别如下:1. arrive 和 get 都是不及物动词,前者较正式,后者则较口语化。两者之后均不可接宾语,但可接 here, there, home 之类的表地点的副词作状语:What time does the train arrive? 火车什么时候到? 要表示“到达某地”,均需借助适当介词:arrive 之后通常接介词 at(一般用于较小的地方)或 in(一般用于较大的地方,如国家、大都市等。get 之后通常接介词 to。2. reach 通常是及物动词(较 get 更正式),其后可直接跟地点名词作宾语(不能用介词):She reached Shanghai yesterday. 她昨天到达上海。


arrow[5ArEJ] n.1. [C]箭:Time flies like an arrow. 光阴似箭。2. [C]箭头:direction arrows 方向箭头


art[B:t] n. 1. [U]美术;艺术;艺术品:an art class 美术班 / choose art as a career 选择艺术为职业 / The museum has a fine collection of modern art. 这个博物馆藏有一批优秀的现代艺术品。2. [C,U]技巧;技术:He knows the art of making money. 他懂得生财之道。 


article[5B:tIkl] n. 1. [C]文章:a leading article社论 / There’s an article about cycling holidays in today’s paper. 今天的报纸上有一篇关于骑自行车度假的文章。2. [C]东西,物品:articles of daily use日用品3.(语法)冠词


artist[5B:tIst] n. [C]艺术家;画家:I like that picture; who is the artist? 我喜欢那幅画,是谁画的?


as[Ez, Az] adv.像…,如同:The child sang as sweetly as a nightingale. 这孩子歌唱得同夜莺般婉转。conj.1.像…一样;如同:They fulfilled their work ahead of time as we did ours. 同我们一样,他们也提前完成了任务。2. 因为:As you weren’t there I left a message. 因为你不在那里,我留了个信。3. 当…时候:The phone rang just as I was leaving the house. 我刚要出门,电话就响起来了。prep.作为,当作:work as an editor 作为一名编辑 / Treat me as a friend. 把我当作朋友。◆as…as… 像…一样… / as…as possible [as…as one can] 尽可能地… / as far as 远至…,就…的限度 / as far 至于…,就…而言 / as if [as though] 似乎,好像 / as it is 事实上,实际上 / as long as 达…之久,只要 / as many [much] as 与…一样多,多达 / as soon as 一…就… / as to 关于 / as well 又,另外也 / as well as 与…一样好;又,而且


【辨析】1.as well, also, either 与 too:参见 also。2.as, because, for 与 since:都可用来表示原因,但有区别:(1) because 语气最强,表示直接原因,可用于回答 why 提出的问题、引导表语从句、用于强调句等,而其余三者均不行:It is because he is honest that she likes him. 是因为他诚实她才喜欢他。(2) since 与 as 两者所表示的原因都是人们已知的,即对已知事实提供理由,而不是表示直接原因。但 since 比 as 语气稍强,且比 as 略为正式,它们引导的从句通常放在主句之前,有时也放在主句之后:As you weren’t there, I left a message. 由于你不在那儿,我留了个口信。/ Since you’re not interested, I won't tell you about it. 既然你不感兴趣,那我就不告诉你了。另外,since 可用于省略句,而其他三者不行:Since so, I have nothing to say. 既然如此,我无话可说。(3) for 是并列连词(其余三者为从属连词),它可表示因果关系(通常要放在主句之后,且可与 because 换用):The ground is wet,for (=because) it rained last night. 地面是湿的,因为昨晚下过雨。


ash[AF] n. [U]灰;灰末:cigarette ash 香烟灰


ashamed[E5FeImd] adj.惭愧;害臊:Are you ashamed for having lied? 你为撒了谎感到害臊吗?


【辨析】ashamed 与 shameful:ashamed 意为“感到羞耻的”,shameful 意为“可耻的”、“丢脸的”:You should be ashamed of doing that. 你应该为自己做那样的事感到羞耻。It was shameful of them to surrender. 他们的投降是可耻的。


Asia[5eIFE] n.亚洲:Southeast Asia 东南亚


Asian[5eIFEn] adj.亚洲(人)的:Asian countries 亚洲国家n. [C]亚洲人


aside[E5saId] adv.在旁边;向旁边:Stand aside and let these people pass. 靠边站,让这些人过去。n. [C](戏剧中的)旁白;独白◆aside from 暂且不谈,除…之外


ask[B:sk] v.1.问,询问:ask a question 问问题 / asked directions问方向 /  She asked whether I wanted tea or coffee. 她问我要茶还是咖啡。2.请求,要求:asking me for money向我要钱 / She asked (me) if I would drive her home. 她请求我开车送她回家。3. 邀请:He’s asked her to come to the party. 他邀请她来参加聚会。◆ask after 问候某人健康,问候,问安 / ask for 请求,恳求,要求 / ask for it [ask for trouble] 自找麻烦,自讨苦吃 / asking price 要价,开价,叫价


asleep[E5sli:p] adj.1.睡着的,熟睡:The baby fell asleep. 那孩子睡着了。 2.(手臂或腿)麻木的:Both of my feet are asleep. 我的两条腿都发麻。


【用法】asleep 没有比较级,通常只能用作表语;表示“睡得很熟”不可用very 来修饰 asleep,而要用 fast 或 sound 来修饰。


【辨析】asleep 与 sleepy:1. asleep 通常只能用作表语,意为“睡着,熟睡”;be asleep 表状态,指“睡着”,fall asleep 侧重表动作,指“入睡”:The baby fell asleep soon. 那个婴儿很快睡着了。2.sleepy 可作表语和定语:The child is too sleepy to go watching TV. 这孩子困得无法继续看电视了。


assistant[E5sIst(E)nt] n.1.[C]助手,助理:Peter is confident of winning the post as the assistant to the managing director. 彼得确信他能获得总经理助理的职位。 2.[C]店员:a shop assistant 售货员


astonish[E5stRnIF] vt.使惊讶:The news astonished everybody. 这消息使人人感到惊讶。


astronaut[5AstrEnC:t] n. [C]航天员,宇航员:a rocket manned by trained astronauts 载有受过训练的宇航员的火箭


astronomy[E5strRnEmI] n. [U]天文学:I’m very interested in astronomy. 我对天文学很感兴趣。


at[At] prep.1. (表示地点、位置)在:at night 在晚上 / at seven o’clock 在7 点钟 / Are the children at school? 孩子们都在学校吗? 2.(表示动作的目标、方向)向,对准:knock at a door 敲门 / aim the ball at the basket 将球对准那个篮3.在…方面:be good at French 擅长法语4.(表示速度、程度、价格等)以,按:House prices are rising at a higher rate than inflation. 房价比通货膨胀上涨的比率高。◆at hand 在附近,在手头 / at once 立刻,马上


athlete[5AWli:t] n. [C]运动员:If you work hard, you will make a good athlete.
如果你肯努力, 你将成为一个好运动员。


Atlantic[Et5lAntIk] adj.大西洋的:Atlantic islands 大西洋上诸岛屿


the Atlantic Ocean n.大西洋


atmosphere[5AtmEsfIE(r)] n.1. [C]大气;空气:atmosphere pressure大气压力 2.[C](用单数)气氛:The atmosphere changed as soon as she walked in. 她一进来,气氛就变了。


atom[5AtEm] n. [C]原子,微粒


attack[E5tAk] v.攻击,侵袭:attack the enemy 攻打敌人 / The disease had already attacked the central nervous system. 疾病已侵犯了中枢神经系统。


attempt[E5tempt] vt.试图,尝试:She will attempt to beat the world record. 她决心要打破世界纪录。


attend[E5tend] v.1.出席;到场:attend school上学 / attend a lecture听讲课
2. 照看;照料:Which doctor is attending you? 哪一个医生为你看病? 3. 注意听,留意:Attend to what your teacher is saying. 注意听你老师所说的话。


【辨析】join, attend 与 take part in:参见 join。


attention[E5tenFEn] n.1. [U]注意力,留神:Give your whole attention to what you are doing. 把全部注意力用于你所做的事。2. [U]关注;照料:He gives all his attention to his car. 他十分关心他的汽车。3. [U]立正:Attention! (口令)立正!◆Attention, please! 请各位注意!/ give [pay] attention to 对…注意,对…留意;当心


attentively[E5tentivli] adv.注意地:Please listen attentively to the teacher in class. 上课请专心听讲。


attitude[5AtItju:d] n.[C]态度:What is your attitude towards this question? 你对这个问题的态度如何? ◆strike an attitude 装模作样,矫揉造作


attract[E5trAkt] vt.1.吸引,引起:Moths are attracted to light. 亮光吸引飞蛾。2.招引,引诱:Flowers attract bees. 花招引蜜蜂。


attractive[E5trAktIv] adj.迷人的,有吸引力的:Your proposal sounds very attractive. 你的建议很动听。


audience[5C:dIEns] n. [C]观众,听众:There was a large audience in the theatre.剧院中观众甚多。


【用法】audience 作整体考虑时看作单数,谓语动词用单数形式;而考虑个人时,则看作复数,谓语动词用复数形式:The audience is / are always very excited by a wonderful goal. 一个精采的进球总会使观众们非常激动。


August[5C:^Est] n. [C,U]八月:We often go camping in August. 我们常在 8 月去野营。


aunt[B:nt] n. [C]伯母;舅母;婶;姑;姨:My aunt lives quite near. 我姑姑住得相当近。 / Aunt Mary goes to church every Sunday. 玛丽阿姨每星期天都要去做礼拜。


Australia[R5streIljE] n.澳洲;澳大利亚


Australian[R5streIlIEn] adj.澳洲的,澳大利亚人的n. [C]澳大利亚人


author[5C:WE] n. [C]作者,作家:Like author, like book. (谚)文如其人。


autumn[5C:tEm] n. [C,U]秋天,秋季:In autumn the leaves on the trees begin to fall. 秋天,树叶纷纷落下。


avenue[5AvEnju:] n.1. [C](城市的)林阴路,大街:an avenue of poplars 白杨树的林阴大道2.[C]方法;途径:Several avenues are open to us. 我们面前有几条可行之路。


average[5AvErIdV] adj.平均的;普通的:What’s the average age of your classmates? 你的同学的平均年龄是多少? n.1.[C]平均数:What’s the average of 14, 3 and 1? 14、3 和 1 的平均数是多少?2. [C,U]平均水平;标准:Tom’s work at school is above the average. 汤姆在校的功课在平均水平以上。v.达到平均水平;把…平均分配;求…平均数:The rainfall averages 36 inches a year. 年降雨量平均为 36 英寸。◆above (blow) (the) average 在平均水平以上(以下)的 / on (the / an) average 平均 / up to (the) average 达到平均的(地)


avoid[E5vCId] v.1.避免,躲开:I think he is avoiding me. 我觉得他在躲着我。2.防止(发生某事),避免(做某事):Nuclear war is to be avoided at all costs. 要不惜任何代价防止核战争。


【提醒】avoid 后接动词作宾语时,要用动名词,不用不定式:He crossed the street to avoid meeting her. 他横穿马路以便避开她


awake[E5weIk] v. (awoke, awoken; awaked, awaked) 唤醒:She was awoken by the noise. 她被响声弄醒了。adj.醒着的:The children are still wide awake. 孩子们还完全没有睡意呢。


【用法】1.用作动词,过去式和过去分词有规则变化(awaked, awaked)和不规则变化(awoke, awoken)两种,但在现代英语中通常只用其不规则变化形式;可及物,但不及物较多见:I awoke to find that it was already 10 o’clock. 等我醒来,已经 10 点。/ A sudden loud noise awoke us all. 一声巨响把我们全都吵醒了。2.用作形容词时,一般只作表语,不作定语,表示“完全醒着”,要用 wide, fully 修饰,不用 very:I was wide awake all night. 我整夜醒着。

【辨析】awake, wake, awaken 与 waken:1.作动词时都可表示“醒来,醒着;唤醒,叫醒”,且都可用作及物或不及物动词;但实际使用时,wake 和 awake 多用作不及物动词,而 waken,awaken 多用作及物动词。2. wake 通常可与 up 连用,waken 也可以与 up 连用,而 awake 和 awaken 则一般不与 up 连用。3. awake 除用作动词外,还可用作形容词,而其余三个词通常用作动词,不能用作形容词。4.四个词中,wake (up) 是最普通也是最不正式的一个词。如果只考虑其正确性而不考虑其普通性,有时一个意思可能有多种表达:He was woken [wakend] by the telephone. / The telephone woke [wakend] him up. / The telephone awoke [awakened] him. 电话铃把他吵醒了。


award[E5wC:d] n. [C]奖品,奖励:The award for this year’s best actress went to Mary. 本年度最佳女演员奖的得奖者是玛丽。vt.给予,授予:The prize was awarded to me for excellence in math. 我因数学成绩优异而获奖。


away[E5weI] adv.1.离开:The Smiths are away. 史密斯夫妇不在家。2.离…有多远:The city is miles away. 这个城市在几英里以外。 / The exams are still six weeks away. 距离考试还有 6 周。3.消失;用完:The sound of their footsteps died away. 他们的脚步声逐渐消失了。4.一直,继续:to work away 一直在工作◆Away with… 把…驱赶,把…除掉 / right away 立刻,马上


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