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如何抓住英语四级阅读的主旨

所属教程:英语四级阅读

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2017年06月07日

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  一、抓主题思想。我们首先要学会识别文章中那些最根本、最具有概括力的信息。这种信息应能归纳和概括文中其它信息所具有的共性。

  例如:

  Directions: Choose the most general word.

  (A) chemist (B) physicist

  (C) scientist (D) biologist

  该问题要求找出最有概括性的词。(C) scientist 符合题意,因为它包含了chemist, physicist和biologist,而(A),(B)和(D)都指某一具体学科的科学家,不能概括其它的词。因此,scientist最有概括性。

  例二:

  Directions: Choose the most general sentence.

  (A) The hotel offers complimentary coffee from 7 to 10 a.m. daily.

  (B) There are many reasons why guests feel at home at the Glorictta Bay Inn.

  (C) The coin-operated laundry room has an ironing board.

  (D) There are a number of extra services at the Glorictta Bay Inn including babysitting.

  (A), (C),(D)都是从不同的侧面说明旅馆的服务情况,相互间并无联系。而(B)却概括了(A),(C)和(D)的共性的东西,即:为什么旅客住在这家旅馆 里有宾至如归的感觉。因此,(B)符合题意。倘若在一段文章中包含了以上(A),(B),(C),(D)几条信息,那末,(B)就是该段中心思想。由于同 样的道理,如果在一篇文章中,作者分段叙述几方面的内容,那末,这些段落所围绕和要说明的问题就是该文的中心思想。

  例三:

  Directions: Choose the main idea of an article. (Following are the topic sentences of an article.)

  1) A mounting body of evidence suggests that fighting violence with violence rarely deters a crime in progress and greatly increases the chances of changing a robbery into a violent attack on the victim.

  2) One report shows that at least 100 thousand handguns are stolen from private owners each year, the vast majority during burglaries...

  3) Moreover. a study of robberies in eight American cities states that in less than 4 percent of the crimes did the victim have the opportunity to use a weapon....

  Which of the following best reflects the main idea of the article?

  (A) What Happens to the Victim of Crime?

  (B) Is Your Family Safe?

  (C) Should You Arm Yourself Against Crime?

  第一段和第三段提到了victims(受害者),第二段中提到了入室行窃,但是这三段说明的共同问题是人们是否应拥有自己的武器来反对犯罪行为。因此只有选择(C)才能概括这三段所共同说明的问题,也就是此文的中心思想。

  二、主题思想应能恰如其分地概括文中所阐述的内容。面不能太窄,即:不足以概括全部内容;但是面也不能太宽,即:包含了文中没有阐述的内容。

  例四:

  Directions: Read the following passage and choose the best central thought

  Sugar history in the Hawaiian Islands is filled with pioneering. In sailing ship days, Hawaiian sugar growers were many months from sources of supplies and from markets. This isolation built up among the Hawaiian growers an enduring spirit of cooperation. Growers shared with one another improvements in production. Without government aid of any sort, they built great irrigation projects. Without government help, they set up their own research and experiment organization. Pioneering together over the years, they have provided Hawaii with its largest industry.

  (A) In sailing days, Hawaiian sugar growers were many months away from supplies and markets.

  (B) Hawaiian sugar growers built their great industry without government help.

  (C) Hawaiian sugar growers have set up their own research organization and have shared improvements.

  (D) By pioneering together, sugar growers have provided Hawaii with its largest industry.

  (A),(B)和(C)项只是文中提到的各项具体内容,作为主题思想面太窄了,只有(D)项才概括了全文要说明的问题,因此,(D)是该文的主题思想。

  要求抓主题思想的另一种形式是为短文选择合适的标题,因为短文的标题常常也体现它所围绕的主题或讨论的中心。因此,为短文选择标题实际上也反映了对主题思想的掌握。

  例五:

  Directions: Read the following and choose the title that best expresses the ideas of the passage.

  There is a simple economic principle used to determine prices. It is called the law of supply and demand. Supply means the amount of, or access to, certain goods. Demand represents the number of people who want those goods. If there are more goods than wanted, the price of them falls. On the other hand, if the demand for those goods is much greater than the supply, then the price rises. Of course, manufacturers prefer to sell more goods at increased prices.

  (A) Economic Principles

  (B) Law of Supply and Demand

  (C) More Goods, Lower Prices

  (D) Fewer Goods, Higher Prices

  该问题中,(A)泛指经济规律,面过宽;(C)和(D)只是供需规则的二个单独的方面不能包含全部,面太窄。正确的答案是(B),因为这正是该短文自始至终谈论的主题。

  例六:

  Directions: Read the following passage and select the most appropriate title:

  According to legend, the gods of the ancient Greeks lived in the clouds on the top of Mount Olympus. Zeus, the father of the gods, carried a bolt of lightning in his hand and ruled like an earthly king. Apollo was the sun god and his beams were golden arrows; he shielded the flocks of sheep and the fields of grain. Athena was the warrior goddess, standing in shining armor ready to protect the Greek cities. There were other gods as well, all with familiar human characteristics, but these were the leading gods.

  (A) The Gods of the Ancient Greeks

  (B) The Legend of the Sky God Zeus

  (C) Beliefs of the Ancient Greeks

  (D) Religions of the Past

  该问题中,(B)项只是文中提到的一项具体内容,作为主题思想面太窄了。(C)和(D)项泛指,面太宽。只有(A)项才概括了全文要说明的问题,是全文的主题。

  三、一段文章的中心思想常常由主题句(Topic Sentence)表达。主题句常常位于段首或段尾处,间或出现在段落中间。同样,一篇文章的中心思想也常常在开始段或结尾段点出。因此在阅读中,我们要特别注意文章的开头或结尾。

  例七:

  English is clearly an international language. It is spoken by pilots and airport control operators on all the airways of the world. Over 70 percent of the world's radio programs are in English

  本段主题句为首句,其后的内容均说明首句。

  例八:

  Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time

  本段中心思想在结尾句得到体现,它是此段内容的结论。

  例九:

  For adults a cold is not that serious. However, this is not the case for children. Cold symptoms in children may be signs of more serious diseases and should be given prompt medical attention.

  本段主题句为第二句,因为在however后面才是作者真正的看法,并在本文中进一步作了说明。

  然而,我们也常常发现,有的主题思想并非直接由一、二个句子表述,而是在文中间接暗示着。这就需要读者根据文中细节进行概括与归纳,找出主题思想。

  例十:

  It's no wonder that we have so many rejections for physical reasons in our Selective Service. Since October of 1948, some six million young men have been examined for military duty. Of these, more than a million were rejected as physically unfit for military service. To get two men today, the United States Army must call seven men. Of the five rejected three are turned down for physical reasons and two for mental problems. To get the 196 thousand additional men we needed for Berlin, the government had to call up 750 thousand men. And the rejection rate is increasing each year. The reason for this problem is that we are under exercised as a nation. We look, instead of play. We ride, instead of walk. The way we live prevents us from being healthy.

  本段中找不到某一句作为主 题。根据文中的内容进行归纳,可找出主题思想,即:“The military's rejection rate for physical reason is increasing because this nation's lack of exercise is leading to poor health.”

  在确定一篇文章的中心思想时,我们通常用快读的方法,从头至尾将全文浏览一遍,注意不要被个别词、句难住而停下来。要从上下文的连贯意思上来理解进行阐述的、有关这个主题我们了解了什么。这样,就可以比较有把握地概括出中心思想了。

  在阅读理解测试中,常常用于检查对主题思想的掌握的问题有:

  1. The main (central, principal) idea of this passage is __________________ .

  2. The main idea of this selection may be best expressed as __________________.

  3. The main theme (topic) of the passage is __________________ .

  4. The passage is mainly about __________________ .

  5. This passage deals mainly (primarily) with __________________ .

  6. The author's purpose in writing this passage is __________________ .

  7. The main purpose of the passage is __________________ .

  8. The best (most appropriate) title of (for) this passage is __________________ .

  9. What would be the most appropriate title for this passage?

  10. What is the subject of this passage?

  11. Which of the following best summarizes the passage?

  12. Which of the following best sums up the main idea of the whole passage?

  建议大家在平时的阅读练习中进行全文快速浏览,尝试自己提炼和总结文章主旨。经过一段时间的练习,考试中必然能快速了解整篇文章大意,方便选出正确答案。


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