[00:06.50]In the last decades of the 13th century,
[00:09.41]the nations of Britain found their voices - loud, confident and defiant -
[00:15.37]and they were raised against England.
[00:19.05](WELSHMAN) The people of Snowdon assert
[00:21.69]that even if their prince should give overlordship of them to the English king,
[00:26.56]they would refuse to do homage to any foreigner
[00:29.92]of whose language, customs and law they were ignorant.
[00:34.84](IRISHMAN) On account of the perfidy of the English
[00:38.00]and to recover our native freedom,
[00:40.32]the Irish are compelled to enter a deadly war.
[00:45.43](SCOTSMAN) For as long as but a hundred of us remain alive,
[00:49.15]we will yield in no least way to English dominion.
[00:52.71]We fight not for glory, nor riches, nor honour, but for freedom.
[00:59.86]We know these voices. They've been with us a long time now.
[01:03.98]All the same, it's a shock to hear them this early,
[01:07.86]to discover the politics of birthplace
[01:10.50]uttered with such passion and such pain.
[01:14.01]Once said, they could not be unsaid.
[01:20.57]When the Welsh, the Scots and the Irish acted on their words,
[01:24.61]the bloody wars of the British nations became inevitable.
[01:28.45]And these would not just be battles about territories -
[01:32.04]they were battles for ideas,
[01:34.60]ideas about what a sovereign nation should be.
[01:37.48]An extension of the ruler's will or something wider -
[01:41.56]something involving the people as well as the prince,
[01:45.16]something called "the community of the realm".
[01:48.67]Those battles would be fought between the peoples of Britain.
[01:52.63]Welshmen would die in Scotland, Scotsmen would perish in Ireland,
[01:57.51]the English would kill and be killed everywhere.
[02:02.95]For the fight to the death between princes and principles,
[02:06.66]the battle for the making of a nation
[02:09.26]would begin in the very heart of England.
[02:58.51]One man was responsible for provoking the peoples of Britain
[03:02.75]into an awareness of their nationhood,
[03:05.51]and he was England's own home-grown Caesar - Edward I.
[03:12.70]In 1774, those made curious by his fearsome reputation opened his tomb.
[03:19.98]The man inside was as awesome as contemporaries had recorded,
[03:25.46]dressed in the purple robe of a Roman emperor,
[03:29.21]an impressive six foot two tall,
[03:32.45]fully justifying his nickname, Longshanks.
[03:36.73]Upon that stark marble tomb, the only ornamentation reads...
[03:43.08]"Edwardus Primus Scottorum malleus hic est."
[03:49.68]Hammer of the Scots.
[03:57.04]After a century of rule by kings who were essentially Frenchmen,
[04:01.59]Edward can be called the first truly English king -
[04:05.03]given an old Anglo-Saxon name and imbued with the frightening certainty
[04:10.15]that it was England's imperial mission
[04:12.71]to take its rule to the four corners of the British islands.
[04:16.78]His many enemies compared him to one of the big cat predators.
[04:22.06]Perhaps he will rightly be called a leopard, Leo -
[04:26.38]brave, proud and fierce, the powered,
[04:29.90]wily, devious and treacherous.
[04:36.13]The Leopard Prince was born to splendid, impossible expectations.
[04:41.49]His father, Henry III, had named his son for England's royal saint,
[04:46.29]Edward the Confessor - the paragon, it was thought, of kingly perfection.
[04:55.80]Though the Confessor had been dead for almost 200 years,
[04:59.20]Henry ate, drank and worshipped him,
[05:02.24]and finally created for the long-dead king
[05:05.07]a shrine of unparalleled magnificence.
[05:08.91]Of course, such a shrine would need a home that equalled its splendour -
[05:14.75]the new Westminster Abbey.
[05:23.98]Henry demolished the old basilica at Westminster
[05:27.30]and replaced it with an immense Gothic abbey,
[05:30.26]a building that now fitted his vision of an awe-inspiring English monarch.
[05:35.50]From now on, Westminster would be the symbolic heart of the kingdom,
[05:39.73]the place where all English monarchs would be crowned and buried.
[05:45.17]His father, King Henry III, reigned for 56 years.
[05:49.61]He's not remembered for any stirring achievement or blood-soaked conquest,
[05:54.17]but Henry's time on the throne was driven by a magnificent obsession -
[05:59.24]he wanted to turn the monarchy into England's dominant power.
[06:07.60]Henry's great gift to the nation was more than just a fine new church.
[06:13.55]Its secular counterpart was the great hall of the Palace of Westminster.
[06:20.39]The palace was both the seat of government and a residence for Henry
[06:24.59]who, unlike his Angevin ancestors, didn't much like being in the saddle.
[06:31.66]And the hall was a court in both the senses the word suggests -
[06:36.22]a place of judgement and a theatre of ceremony.
[06:41.22]At Westminster, the king had to be seen to be magnificent,
[06:47.41]but the king had also to be seen to be just.
[06:53.81]Westminster may have been the creation of the monarchy,
[06:57.29]but it also belonged to England - a nation of laws,
[07:01.24]the nation of Magna Carta.
[07:06.36]Henry had grown up with the charter,
[07:08.96]signed by his father King John in 1215,
[07:12.40]which put real limits on the power of the king.
[07:15.60]A bit of a blow for a king who wanted absolute authority.
[07:20.15]Kings could no longer ignore the complaints of their subjects.
[07:24.39]They could be forced to submit to a council of the barons.
[07:28.15]That council thought of itself as the voice of the community of the realm,
[07:32.79]and even now began to be called "parliament".
[07:35.86]Its role would be to hold the king to his contract.
[07:42.62]Since Henry had become king as a boy of nine,
[07:46.22]he'd had no choice but to swallow this bitter pill.
[07:49.93]However, as he grew older, Henry burned with frustration
[07:54.33]and became determined to get free of its shackles -
[07:57.53]to restore the unchallenged authority of the crown.
[08:02.21]Knowing that this couldn't happen without a fight,
[08:05.53]Henry accepted a compromise position for many years,
[08:08.84]that the king was not free to govern through pure royal will.
[08:14.80]But Henry III was also a Plantagenet,
[08:18.04]and Plantagenets dreamed dangerous dreams -
[08:21.68]expensive dreams of campaigns far abroad
[08:25.39]which no one in York or Canterbury could quite see the point of.
[08:29.51]When Plantagenets thought they might get unwelcome advice,
[08:33.23]they stopped listening - until, that is, they were made to.
[08:40.18]In 1258, in the very hall that defined his majesty, Westminster,
[08:45.54]seven of the most powerful barons confronted the king.
[08:49.06]Fully armed, they paused only to leave their swords outside.
[08:53.82]They demanded that Henry meet them at a parliament in Oxford
[08:58.17]and stop trying to turn his European dreams into reality.
[09:04.77]The barons were led, in all but name, by the most improbable revolutionary
[09:10.01]in all of British history - Simon de Montfort.
[09:13.68]Here at Kenilworth, he presided over a little empire of culture.
[09:21.20]A French aristocrat who inherited the earldom of Leicester,
[09:25.24]Simon became convinced that he was more English than the English.
[09:29.67]What was good for de Montfort was good for the nation.
[09:33.03]Love him or hate him,
[09:34.87]everyone knew that Simon de Montfort was a man with a mission.
[09:41.27]That mission, embarked on with his fellow barons,
[09:44.83]was to bring the wayward, self-glorifying monarchy to book,
[09:48.82]to make it the servant, not the master of the realm.
[09:53.74]At Oxford, amidst wildfire rumours, a camp of soldiers,
[09:58.78]and the growling hunger of a famine,
[10:01.69]Henry III was treated to the emasculation of his sovereignty.
[10:06.57]A document was drawn up for the king to sign -
[10:10.01]not discuss, just to accept.
[10:12.81]What it said was so startling, so genuinely revolutionary,
[10:17.05]that 1258 ought to be one of those dates engraved on the national memory.
[10:23.36]The Provisions of Oxford were at least as important as Magna Carta.
[10:30.76]In effect, the crown had been replaced by a new council of nobles and clergy.
[10:38.15]That council now virtually ruled England.
[10:41.87]Foreign courtiers were made to disappear.
[10:46.91]It has been ordained that there are to be three parliaments a year
[10:51.14]to view the state of the kingdom.
[10:53.58]It is provided that from each county there are chosen four worthy knights
[10:58.70]to hear all complaints for the common benefit of the whole kingdom.
[11:04.62]When the assembled community of the realm,
[11:07.37]including the king and Prince Edward,
[11:09.69]swore an oath to uphold the provisions,
[11:12.53]they could have been in no doubt about its significance
[11:15.89]for the fate of the nation.
[11:19.81]And so Henry III's facade of omnipotent rule
[11:23.25]had come crashing down around his ears.
[11:26.16]But he was not the only royal with a stake in events.
[11:31.56]How did the 19-year-old Edward feel
[11:34.56]about the drastic shrinkage in the power of the crown - his crown?
[11:39.04]Well, for some time, even the prince was dazzled
[11:43.31]by the intense magnetism of Simon de Montfort's personality,
[11:47.95]and, for a while, Edward went along with it.
[11:57.30]But, inevitably, divisions opened up between the reformers.
[12:03.90]It was all very well to make the king answerable to the barons,
[12:08.94]but ought the barons be answerable to their inferiors?
[12:13.53]De Montfort thought yes. The earls thought no.
[12:18.69]And as those divisions opened wider,
[12:21.69]the Leopard Prince began to change his spots and sharpen his claws.
[12:28.33]It became increasingly clear that the struggle over who was to rule England
[12:33.48]and how they were going to do it centred on two men - Simon and Edward.
[12:38.72]Neither could prevail without the other's total defeat.
[12:44.24]Over five years,
[12:46.12]Henry and Edward manoeuvred against de Montfort for power
[12:49.79]until, finally, words ran out.
[12:52.91]For this was no three-month paper revolution,
[12:55.79]like the original signing of the Magna Carta.
[13:01.95]The issue could now only be settled on the field of battle.
[13:05.58]For the first time since the Norman Conquest,
[13:08.34]the political fate of England was completely fluid,
[13:11.58]its eventual outcome uncertain.
[13:14.06]In 1264, de Montfort won the first round
[13:17.86]at the Battle of Lewes on the Sussex Downs.
[13:21.01]King Henry and Edward were both taken prisoner.
[13:27.77]The year which followed, with de Montfort in charge,
[13:31.09]was the closest England came to a republic
[13:33.89]until the days of Oliver Cromwell.
[13:36.76]And in Parliament, not just aristocrats and bishops,
[13:40.48]but ordinary knights of the shire and even burgesses from the towns
[13:44.80]presumed to discuss the fate of their superiors - a prince and a king.
[13:49.84]But like the later republic,
[13:52.27]this one quickly gained the attributes of a dictatorship.
[13:56.27]With power going to his head,
[13:58.59]Simon seemed more the vainglorious adventurer than a messianic reformer.
[14:03.59]In the end, he simply repelled more people than he attracted.
[14:07.87]With the impotent Henry III firmly under lock and key,
[14:11.42]the crown's future lay with Edward, who outwitted his captors
[14:15.90]and made a dashing horseback getaway.
[14:24.83]Even at this stage, there was something extraordinary about Edward.
[14:29.46]He radiated the kind of charisma
[14:32.10]that drew confused responses of both fear and adoration.
[14:37.10]He purposely kept his signals mixed -
[14:40.54]the better to convert them into loyalty.
[14:45.49]Edward led his following to Evesham in Worcestershire,
[14:48.93]where de Montfort's now outnumbered army camped near the abbey.
[14:59.01]Under stormy skies, the battle was a slaughter.
[15:06.44]Told that his son had been killed,
[15:08.60]Simon replied, "Then it is time to die."
[15:12.04]He charged into the fray and was slain on foot,
[15:15.36]his devoted knights falling with him.
[15:23.31]Edward ignored the rules of war.
[15:28.79]The wounded were stabbed where they lay.
[15:32.91]Simon's head, hands, feet and testicles were cut off...
[15:40.02]...the genitals hung around his nose.
[15:49.70]The crown had won,
[15:52.37]but only after overcoming Kenilworth's mighty defences
[15:56.33]in a siege that lasted nine months.
[15:59.77]But Edward had been given a serious early lesson
[16:02.89]in the political realities of England.
[16:05.57]He wouldn't cringe before the barons,
[16:07.96]but he would have to make them his allies.
[16:10.60]As partners, they would go on to create an English empire of their own,
[16:15.28]the reincarnation of Roman Britannia.
[16:22.64]In 1274, Edward I's coronation finally took place
[16:27.39]in a magnificent sanctuary created by his father.
[16:31.19]The Westminster in which he was crowned would,
[16:35.19]if Edward had anything to do with it,
[16:37.35]be the capital not just of England, but of Britain.
[16:42.58]It was in Wales that Edward first made the seriousness of his ambitions clear.
[16:50.42]Here, the dominant prince was Llewellyn ap Gruffydd,
[16:54.02]ruler of the mountainous kingdom of Gwynedd, Greater Snowdonia.
[16:59.49]Knowing that the difficult, not to say impossible terrain of his country
[17:04.01]had been the graveyard of English armies,
[17:06.57]Llewellyn was determined to resist attempts to subdue central Wales.
[17:12.73]Here, the native Welsh clung on to their language, customs and laws,
[17:17.24]lords in their own lands, but still subjects of the English king.
[17:22.44]By the 13th century, Wales had become divided
[17:25.60]into the Principality of Gwynedd, the disputed centre,
[17:29.32]and the encroaching English baronial and crown lands.
[17:32.55]Encroaching, that is, until 1258, when Llewellyn was strong enough
[17:37.59]to have himself declared "princeps Wallie" - Prince of Wales.
[17:43.75]Exploiting the civil war in England and allying with de Montfort,
[17:47.86]Llewellyn's armies overran the now undefended centre.
[17:52.10]But he then overreached himself, marrying de Montfort's daughter,
[17:57.30]an offence Edward was unlikely to forgive or to forget.
[18:03.13]Years later, Llewellyn handed Edward the perfect pretext for retribution.
[18:08.13]He failed to show up at Edward's coronation
[18:11.37]and ignored a total of five summonses to pay homage to his new king.
[18:17.73]Edward, who needed no tutorials on the connection between ceremonies and power,
[18:23.04]immediately took this as a slap in the face,
[18:26.20]an act of virtual rebellion.
[18:28.44]In 1276, a huge army, the biggest seen in Britain since the Norman Conquest,
[18:34.24]invaded Gwynedd, penetrating right to its furthest corners,
[18:38.63]to Snowdonia and to Anglesey.
[18:41.27]Faced with this invasion, Llewellyn was forced to surrender.
[18:49.11]But, as so often in these years, humiliation bred defiance.
[18:54.54]In 1282, the Welsh launched a surprise attack on an English garrison.
[18:59.70]Edward now bore down again with an even bigger army,
[19:03.62]but this campaign was far from being a walkover.
[19:14.77]Realising this, the Archbishop of Canterbury attempted to conciliate
[19:19.33]between the warring factions,
[19:21.57]offering Llewellyn land and title in England
[19:24.85]if he would renounce his rights in Wales.
[19:28.24]And the answer to this offer was blunt.
[19:32.48]That they must stand by their laws and rights in defence of all Wales.
[19:37.08]The people preferred to die rather than to live under English rule.
[19:41.76]They would not do homage to any stranger
[19:44.79]of whose language, manners and laws they were ignorant.
[19:48.55]They would fight in defence of "nostra natsu" -
[19:51.43]our nation against the English.
[19:56.83]When the war was renewed, it was with fresh and unsparing savagery.
[20:03.70]No quarter was given by either side.
[20:06.62]The Welsh exploited the land, ambushed slow-moving companies of knights,
[20:12.14]and then disappeared off again into the hills and forests.
[20:25.65]Then, in a minor skirmish in central Wales,
[20:28.73]Llewellyn was killed by an anonymous English spearman.
[20:34.88]The final annihilation of resistance took another six months
[20:39.36]before the king could claim Wales to be pacified.
[20:46.48]However, the subjugation of Wales was far more subtle
[20:50.51]than the surgical application of brute force.
[20:53.99]Edward had the chilling, uncannily-modern knowledge
[20:57.67]that to break your enemy you must strip him of his cultural identity.
[21:03.47]Before this place became called Conway by the English, it was Aberconwy.
[21:08.70]It was a monastery that housed the tomb of the most powerful Welsh prince
[21:13.62]and was home to a sacred relic
[21:16.22]that the Welsh believed to be a piece of the true Cross.
[21:21.85]Naturally, the monastery became a fortress
[21:25.41]and the Cross was taken to London along with Llewellyn's crown.
[21:34.53]The lords call themselves Princes of Wales. Fine.
[21:39.08]From 1301, they will be the most English of the English,
[21:43.64]the first son of the king, the heir to the throne, the emperor in waiting.
[21:51.64]The most titanic of all the signs of the English empire were its castles,
[21:56.87]a granite ring of fortresses stretching from Builth to Hope,
[22:01.43]most of them supplied from the sea,
[22:03.79]depriving the Welsh of any hope of liberation.
[22:10.94]For the Welsh of Snowdonia, the great stone fortresses in their midst
[22:14.86]were what one of them called "the magnificent badges of our subjection."
[22:22.94]The symbol not of imperial grandeur, but of crushing national annihilation;
[22:28.97]a permanent, daily, wounding reminder of conquest and humiliation.
[22:36.85]The most colossal exercise, in fact, in colonial domination
[22:41.29]anywhere in medieval Europe.
[22:43.88]Beneath the lion standard of Edward Plantagenet,
[22:48.12]the Welsh inhabitants had now become second-class citizens
[22:52.24]in their own country.
[22:56.56]Well, those natives were treated for the most part like naughty children,
[23:01.07]not allowed to bear arms, of course, but even forced to ask permission
[23:05.31]if they wanted strangers to stay at their house overnight.
[23:09.23]Worst of all, I think, the Welsh were doomed by English superiority
[23:14.23]to become objects of terminal quaintness.
[23:17.30]The quaint language, the quaint songs,
[23:20.14]those amusing choirs and chants.
[23:25.54]It could have been worse, and for the Jews of England, it was.
[23:31.82]The Welsh wars cost ten times the king's annual revenue,
[23:36.13]and the price of victory and castle building
[23:38.93]had so exhaustively bled the Jews -
[23:41.45]the usual source of loans and taxation -
[23:44.57]that they had nothing left to yield,
[23:46.89]and so could be dispensed with altogether.
[23:52.00]Early in his reign, Edward, perhaps acting from religious conviction,
[23:56.76]outlawed money lending, putting most of England's Jews out of business.
[24:04.16]He then forced them to wear yellow felt badges of identification
[24:09.51]and so be recognised as the sub-species of humanity
[24:13.31]he undoubtedly believed they were.
[24:18.07]A year after his first Welsh invasion,
[24:20.91]Edward arrested all the heads of the Jewish households
[24:24.66]and hanged nearly 300 in the Tower.
[24:31.90]Not satisfied with this,
[24:34.10]he expelled the entire community, perhaps 3,000 people, in 1290,
[24:39.81]an act so overwhelmingly popular, especially with the Church,
[24:44.65]that it awarded him a huge tax grant.
[24:51.33]So it's Edward's England which became the first country
[24:54.85]to perform a little act of ethnic cleansing on its Jews,
[24:59.24]the violent uprooting of communities in York, Lincoln and London.
[25:10.44]It was not plain sailing for the Jews on one deportation boat in the Thames.
[25:15.79]At Queenborough, the captain encouraged his Jewish passengers
[25:20.07]to stretch their legs as the ship beached on the receding tide.
[25:24.55]As it returned, he barred them from getting back aboard,
[25:28.62]challenging them to call on their god to part the waves
[25:32.14]as he had with the Red Sea.
[25:34.62]But there was no miracle this time. They all drowned.
[25:50.13]In Lincoln Cathedral lie the entrails of Eleanor of Castile,
[25:54.85]Queen to Edward I.
[25:57.01]She died within months of the expulsions,
[25:59.97]leaving her husband, normally so thick-skinned and emotionally coarse,
[26:04.52]distraught, plunged into grief.
[26:08.64]Edward's devotion is reflected in a monument unique in medieval kingship -
[26:14.24]twelve crosses he built to mark the points where Eleanor's body lay
[26:19.03]en route to Westminster Abbey...
[26:22.91]the most famous being Charing Cross in London.
[26:33.47]Eleanor's death seemed to transfer Edward's reserve of passion
[26:38.34]to what now became the real love of his life,
[26:41.46]the single-minded pursuit of imperial power.
[26:47.38]It was Scotland that was destined to be on the receiving end
[26:51.17]of Edward's deadly power games,
[26:53.65]which began, as always, by converting accidents into opportunities.
[27:00.57]The accident was the death in 1290
[27:03.97]of the last surviving direct heir to Alexander III,
[27:07.80]King of Scotland.
[27:10.08]With her gone, the Scottish nobles were lining up for the throne.
[27:14.08]Someone was needed to judge the contestants.
[27:17.68]Well, guess who?
[27:21.84]The strongest claimants led the two most powerful factions in Scotland -
[27:27.47]the Bruces and the Comyn-Balliol alliance.
[27:30.51]They hated each other.
[27:35.43]Both were determined to have their man made king,
[27:38.79]and if they pushed their rival claims fully,
[27:41.62]their conflict would cause civil war across all of Scotland.
[27:47.38]Edward came north to decide which of the two rivals would be king.
[27:52.26]The competitors met him on either side of the River Tweed,
[27:56.30]near a place called Norham.
[28:01.41]Of course, Edward being Edward, he had a price on his mind
[28:05.01]in return for being adjudicator-godfather to the Scots.
[28:09.13]And that price, needless to say, was homage -
[28:12.49]the bent knee, the kiss on the ring, the devoted sword,
[28:16.76]the acceptance by whoever got the job
[28:19.44]that henceforth he would be Edward's man,
[28:22.64]deeply in his debt, his soldiers at the king's command.
[28:26.92]To prove his point, he gathered an army at Norham,
[28:31.31]an army of monks, scholars and antiquarians.
[28:34.59]Their heavy artillery were ancient charters and chronicles.
[28:38.75]Their job, to find the historical proof of English overlordship.
[28:43.87]But they failed, so the king threw the problem right back to the Scots.
[28:50.74]Edward asked the guardians of the realm to find documentary evidence
[28:55.06]as to why he was not, in fact, their feudal overlord,
[28:58.70]to which he got a wonderfully canny contradiction,
[29:02.22]not at all what he wanted to hear.
[29:04.49]Sire, they said, the "bona gentes", the responsible men who have sent us,
[29:09.49]know full well you couldn't possibly make so great a claim
[29:13.73]unless you actually believed you had a right to it.
[29:16.97]But of this right, we know nothing.
[29:19.92]Which is as much to say, look, you can't be completely off your head
[29:24.56]to come up with this sovereignty stuff, but it's all news to us, chum,
[29:29.48]since the Scottish realm on this side of the river
[29:32.52]is held tribute to no one but God.
[29:36.15]We don't have to prove a thing.
[29:39.11]It's for you to come up with a supermonk with the perfect charter.
[29:43.07]Why don't you let us know when you have it?
[29:48.27]In the end, all those who thought they had a chance at the Scots throne
[29:52.94]did pay homage to Edward.
[29:55.74]But the rest of the Scots community of the realm held their noses and stood aloof.
[30:02.06]Was this, as some Scottish historians have insisted, an Edwardian trap?
[30:07.74]Was he already thinking of turning Scotland into Wales North,
[30:12.05]the next territory to be gobbled up by his imperial appetite?
[30:16.81]Well, I think the appetite grew with the eating.
[30:20.05]A year later, when the final verdict came through,
[30:24.01]Balliol did prove to have the better claim
[30:26.72]and was the clear choice of Scotland.
[30:29.28]Edward did not force him on anybody.
[30:35.20]Once Balliol had acknowledged Edward's overlordship,
[30:38.92]the English king agreed to keep
[30:41.23]the separate identity of Scottish institutions.
[30:44.71]Only if their interest crossed would there be trouble.
[30:48.91]Alas, they did, and trouble there certainly was.
[30:56.03]Edward wasted no time in humiliating Balliol
[30:59.70]on every occasion over the next five years,
[31:02.78]driving the Scots community of the realm -
[31:05.34]the nobles, clergy, gentry and burgesses -
[31:08.82]to stand against their own king.
[31:11.62]When war with France coincided with another Welsh rebellion,
[31:16.17]Edward exercised his overlordship of Scotland
[31:19.53]and summoned their nobility to fight for him.
[31:22.93]They refused and then went one stage further.
[31:27.57]They signed a formal treaty with France against England.
[31:32.84]To Edward, it was self-evidently a declaration of war.
[31:37.04]The army he raised in 1296 put even the Welsh campaign in the shade.
[31:46.08]First to fall was Scotland's wealthiest port, Berwick Upon Tweed.
[31:51.27]The siege lasted only hours...
[31:55.83]the massacre that followed, days.
[32:02.35](SCOTSMAN) The king of England spared no one...
[32:06.42]whatever their age or sex.
[32:10.38]And for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain...
[32:17.70]so that mills could be turned round by its flow.
[32:25.89]At Dunbar, the Scots Royal Army was swept aside.
[32:30.25]Now Edward turned imperial conqueror in deadly earnest.
[32:34.61]King John Balliol's arms were torn from his coat
[32:38.28]like a court-martialled subaltern,
[32:40.52]and English officials took over Scottish government.
[32:44.04]Just as he had ripped the heart out of Welsh independence
[32:47.76]by carrying off their sacred relics,
[32:50.60]Edward now took the Stone of Scone,
[32:53.43]symbol of the independent Scottish crown, to Westminster,
[32:57.35]where a magnificent coronation chair was custom-designed to hold it.
[33:03.31]And when Edward was given the broken Scottish royal seal,
[33:07.59]he set it aside, commenting...
[33:10.74]The man does good business when he rids himself of a turd.
[33:16.30]A host of Scots came to do homage to Edward, including the Bruces,
[33:22.34]but there was one who did not - Malcolm Wallace.
[33:26.89]And this Malcolm had a brother.
[33:35.29]Here he is, the standard-issue freedom fighter of the imagination -
[33:40.21]the "give 'em hell" whiskers, the "save me, Jesus" eyes,
[33:44.68]the hamstrings from hell.
[33:48.00]We've not a clue, of course, whether William Wallace looked remotely like this
[33:52.64]any more than we know whether he could have stood in for Mel Gibson,
[33:57.20]who immortalised him in "Braveheart".
[34:00.11]But Wallace is one of those larger-than-life figures
[34:03.67]whose epic romance refuses to go away.
[34:07.51]It just grows, to match this extraordinary monument to him
[34:11.87]dominating the Stirling skyline.
[34:16.58]There's no doubt, of course, that Wallace did count,
[34:20.10]that his brief but incredibly dramatic intervention
[34:23.66]in the English-Scottish wars did change the course of British history,
[34:28.66]if only to show that the armies of Edward I
[34:31.82]were not invincible at all times and in all places.
[34:37.37]Beyond that, Wallace was one of the few Scots
[34:40.77]who never at any stage paid homage to Edward,
[34:44.41]remaining loyal to King John Balliol.
[34:47.57]More gentleman turned outlaw than peasant man of the glens,
[34:51.88]Wallace wasn't a one-man war either.
[34:55.64]My mid-1297, all Scotland was on the boil.
[34:59.88]North of the Forth, Andrew Murray matched or even surpassed him
[35:03.88]by leading a wild and brilliant guerrilla war.
[35:08.59]It was when Murray marched south and Wallace moved north to meet here,
[35:13.31]on the Forth at Stirling - the key to Scotland -
[35:16.63]that a chaotic wildfire uprising turned into a major military campaign.
[35:25.30]On the eve of the Battle of Stirling Bridge, Wallace told the English,
[35:29.86]"We are not here to make peace,
[35:32.30]"but to do battle and to liberate our kingdom."
[35:39.33]The Scots gathered on the Abbey Craig Bridge.
[35:42.49]Below, a narrow wooden bridge led to the castle and to the English.
[35:49.73]Wallace allowed about half of them to cross the fragile structure,
[35:53.89]enough for his forces to deal with.
[36:02.36]And so they did, rushing down from their perch, through the woods,
[36:06.56]and into the English ranks.
[36:14.71]Wallace, on foot, with a great sharp sword,
[36:18.71]goes amongst the very thickest of his foes.
[36:24.51]The Scots vanquished the savage English,
[36:27.46]whom they put into mourning for death.
[36:31.14]Some had their throats cut, others were taken prisoners, others drowned.
[36:39.50]One, the hated English taxman Cressingham, was skinned,
[36:44.05]his fat body made into a belt for Wallace's victorious sword.
[36:52.01]And yet, as so often in Scottish history,
[36:55.13]defeat quickly followed victory down the Forth at Falkirk.
[37:02.28]Wallace's warriors died by the thousands.
[37:08.44]They fell like blossoms in an orchard when the fruit has ripened.
[37:13.08]Bodies covered the ground as thickly as snow in winter.
[37:20.27]Wallace himself managed to escape the slaughter,
[37:24.27]only to be captured years later,
[37:27.51]betrayed by a Scotsman, possibly even the Bruce himself.
[37:35.46]After a mock trial, Wallace endured the most appalling death
[37:39.78]that the king's rage could devise - a live disembowelment.
[37:48.38]In the intervening six years,
[37:50.57]Scotland suffered almost as badly by Edward's hand,
[37:54.49]as the Scots drew inspiration from Wallace and fought on.
[37:59.97]Edward came back from 1297 to 1304.
[38:06.72]The war became a murderous academy of siege warfare.
[38:12.48]Edward came from the south west to Caerlaverock Castle,
[38:16.96]took it, and left with its defenders hanged from the walls.
[38:21.68]North to Bothwell, where a huge siege tower overcame its mighty battlements,
[38:27.43]and on and on.
[38:30.31]Not even Scotland's Westminster was saved from his fury.
[38:36.71]Dunfermline Abbey is one of those places
[38:39.86]where you can almost smell tragedy in the stonework.
[38:43.54]Pretty much everything you see here was built, or rather rebuilt,
[38:50.54]It was in that year that Edward I,
[38:53.54]in one of his murderously vindictive tantrums,
[38:56.93]torched the place, burnt it to the ground.
[39:00.29]He was, as usual, making a point.
[39:04.17]To smash up a royal mausoleum
[39:06.89]was to strike directly at Scotland's sense of independent history.
[39:13.28]The greatest symbol of that independence, as always, was Stirling.
[39:19.12]Its surrender took the fight out of the Scots.
[39:25.64]In 1304, they submitted to Edward.
[39:29.79]Well, he must have thought, that was that.
[39:33.15]Done with. Peace.
[39:38.15]For what Edward couldn't possibly have predicted
[39:41.35]was the emergence of a Scottish lion
[39:44.19]even more ruthless than the Leopard himself.
[39:47.42]And he was, of course, the Bruce.
[39:52.02]The strange thing, though, is that the formidable strengths of Robert the Bruce -
[39:57.30]his political cunning, his military ingenuity,
[40:00.94]his steely resolution, even his intermittent fits of rage -
[40:04.93]are rather like the attributes of a man whose work he'd sworn to undo.
[40:12.17]If he'd read the book of Edward's life,
[40:15.13]he would have known that lesson number one was not beat the foreigner,
[40:19.72]it was first win your battles at home.
[40:26.48]And so, in 1306, Bruce,
[40:29.92]the most politically intelligent and militarily successful figure
[40:34.08]in medieval Scottish history, did just that.
[40:38.67]He met with John Comyn, his main rival, and ended up stabbing him
[40:43.51]before the altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries.
[40:53.98]The murder is neither explained nor justified
[40:57.58]by it being the case of a patriot knocking off a quisling -
[41:01.38]Comyn had been more consistent in his opposition to the English than Bruce.
[41:06.58]He remained loyal to King Balliol, who still lived,
[41:10.21]and so had to be removed.
[41:13.49]Barely six weeks after he had murdered Comyn,
[41:16.93]Bruce had himself inaugurated king at Scone.
[41:23.49]Instead of unifying the Scots behind a single leader,
[41:26.84]Bruce's actions only intensified what was already a Scottish civil war,
[41:32.16]one that he initially lost.
[41:39.44]He fled Scotland and so created a vacuum of knowledge,
[41:44.03]filled by heroic mythology -
[41:46.43]the fable of the cave and the spider,
[41:49.51]whose patience gave Robert the resolution to persevere.
[41:55.19]There was no cave, no spider,
[41:57.70]but there was something more extraordinary -
[42:00.38]the polished noble turning himself into a guerrilla captain.
[42:04.94]It was Robert the Bruce, not William Wallace,
[42:07.78]who wrote the book on partisan warfare.
[42:12.06]On his return, four months later,
[42:14.69]adversity now made him a great general,
[42:18.45]attacking his Scots and English foes alike.
[42:23.29]In the end, Robert the Bruce simply outlived the old king,
[42:28.01]who breathed his last fearing the worst
[42:31.32]should ever his son, Edward of Caernarfon,
[42:34.00]have to meet Robert the Bruce on the field of battle.
[42:39.92]Eventually, Edward died,
[42:42.04]here near Carlisle in 1307,
[42:45.84]en route to deal with Bruce himself.
[42:49.27]Ironically, at the end of his life, Edward turned thoughtful,
[42:53.87]even writing that he wanted to promote
[42:56.67]"pleasantness, ease and quiet for our subjects."
[43:01.07]If he really believed this, he must have died a truly disappointed man.
[43:06.78]One story says the king left orders
[43:09.10]for his bones to be boiled away from his flesh
[43:12.26]and carried before his son's army,
[43:14.82]believing that as long as his bones marched north,
[43:18.50]the Scots would never be victorious.
[43:23.41]But Edward Junior was going to need more than his father's shinbone
[43:28.21]if he was to have any chance of success.
[43:32.89]He was certainly not the incarnation of the community of the realm.
[43:37.48]Neither was he the true heir of the Caesar of Britain,
[43:41.44]the monarch of all he surveyed.
[43:43.60]He was just a loser.
[43:47.68]Bruce, on the other hand, was still a winner.
[43:51.72]Over seven years, he regained his kingdom.
[43:54.83]So, by 1314, the English only controlled Bothwell, Berwick,
[44:00.23]Jedborough and the key, Stirling Castle -
[44:03.71]now besieged by the Scots.
[44:07.23]Faced with complete humiliation in Scotland,
[44:10.06]Edward II finally acted and marched north.
[44:14.78]He met his nemesis in a muddy field along the banks of the Bannock burn.
[44:21.90]It was not to be the usual story of charge, arrows away, slash, victory,
[44:27.57]but a relentless two-day affair.
[44:30.93]Outnumbered three to one, Bruce did get to choose the battlefield,
[44:35.45]knowing that even Plantagenet war machines
[44:38.37]don't work well on wet ground.
[44:45.96]However, it was almost all over before it had begun.
[44:49.52]The young Henry de Bohun, English knight,
[44:52.40]caught Bruce unawares and unarmoured on his little mount
[44:56.20]some way off from his soldiers.
[44:59.35]So Henry missed the noble king, and he standing in his stirrups
[45:04.87]with an axe that was both hard and good
[45:07.55]struck him a blow with such great force
[45:10.27]that it cleaved the head to his brains.
[45:13.59]The shaft of the axe left broken in Robert's fist.
[45:20.38]Skirmishing followed as the short June night fell,
[45:23.90]Bruce reminding the Scots...
[45:26.34]The English are bent on obliterating my kingdom.
[45:30.14]Nay, our whole nation.
[45:33.97]The English knights charge.
[45:37.81]The sodden ground and "schiltron" -
[45:40.81]hedgehogs of 1,500 men, each holding a twelve-foot spear - defeat them.
[46:04.95]Ranks of infantry meet head on.
[46:09.55]Such a smashing of spears that men could hear it far away.
[46:15.51]English archers are now swept away by Scots cavalry
[46:19.35]or blocked by the four schiltrons, which unite and push forward.
[46:25.78]And many a splendid mighty blow dealt there on both sides
[46:30.90]until blood burst through the mail coats
[46:34.54]and went streaming down to the earth.
[46:41.13]Edward II fled the field with 500 knights.
[46:47.65]The English force broke behind him and was slaughtered.
[46:52.33]The burn becomes so choked...
[46:54.92]Men could pass dry foot over it on drowned horses and men.
[47:02.92]Edward II left his shield, his seal, his honour
[47:08.00]and perhaps 4,000 English and Welsh dead.
[47:20.59]Having won a victory on the battlefield if not the war itself,
[47:24.47]the Scots now sought international recognition
[47:27.86]of their newly-won liberty.
[47:33.18]The occasion was a letter sent to the Pope,
[47:36.42]setting out the reasons why Scotland's independence
[47:39.70]ought to be recognised by the Church as itself sacred.
[47:45.61]The letter was written here in Arbroath Abbey,
[47:48.89]and more than anything ever produced south of the border
[47:52.53]represented a perfect fusion
[47:54.97]between the two ideas of sovereignty we've seen in action -
[47:59.05]the nation and the prince.
[48:04.72]At the heart of what we call the Declaration of Arbroath
[48:08.36]is something much more powerful, much more deeply moving.
[48:12.60]It is the insistence that the nation lived on, beyond,
[48:16.39]and outside the person of the prince,
[48:18.71]who for a time happened to claim its government.
[48:22.23]We've heard something like this before
[48:24.63]at the very beginning of our story in Oxford in 1258.
[48:28.79]But here in Scotland, it's much more eloquent,
[48:32.78]the image of the free patriot drawn not as a desperado like Wallace
[48:37.26]or a mighty prince like Bruce,
[48:39.70]but as one of a band of brother survivors.
[48:43.34]For as long as but a hundred of us remain alive,
[48:47.34]we will yield in no least way to English dominion.
[48:50.65]We fight not for glory, nor riches, nor honour, but for freedom,
[48:55.89]which no good man gives up except with his life.
[49:02.85]The real lesson of the Battle of Bannockburn
[49:05.68]was that the Scottish king commanded loyalty
[49:08.80]in ways that just never occurred to Edward II.
[49:14.48]Robert the Bruce knew that he could only be successful
[49:18.68]if he could be the personification of Scotland,
[49:21.60]the incarnation of the community of the realm.
[49:24.83]And that's why he was not Scotland's Edward I,
[49:28.47]he was Scotland's Simon de Montfort.
[49:35.99]Like de Montfort, Bruce had pinned his personal cause
[49:39.74]to the flag and to the passions of his country.
[49:48.34]Unlike Edward I, Robert was not just a warlord
[49:52.30]who hammered the country to his will.
[49:54.74]He had managed to forge a true alliance with the people,
[49:58.77]a community of the realm that, when united and led by Robert I,
[50:03.41]could win its freedom.
[50:12.56]And so the emboldened Scots take the war to the English.
[50:20.96]For 22 years,
[50:22.60]the Scots raided and terrorised huge areas of northern England,
[50:27.12]reaching as far south as Yorkshire.
[50:31.31]Abbeys and castles fell,
[50:33.47]cities paid the Scots off to avoid destruction.
[50:39.67]Villages were trashed.
[50:44.34]The border raids on a weakened enemy were what you'd expect.
[50:54.74]In May 1315, Robert Bruce's brother Edward
[50:59.26]landed here in north-east Ireland near Carrickfergus Castle
[51:03.45]with a formidable Scots army of many thousands of men.
[51:07.73]What the Bruces were doing, in effect,
[51:10.21]was opening a second front against the English Empire.
[51:15.85]Robert had written a remarkable letter.
[51:18.76]The Scots would come, he said,
[51:21.04]not as an invader but as liberators, for...
[51:25.04]Our people and your people, free in times past,
[51:30.64]share the same national ancestry and common custom.
[51:41.15]The rhetoric was stirring and it found resonance with the native Irish.
[51:45.95]For nearly a century and a half,
[51:48.39]there had been an entrenched English colony
[51:51.26]in north and eastern Ireland,
[51:53.38]often safe only in castles like Carrickfergus,
[51:56.78]which Edward Bruce now besieged for a year.
[52:00.86]But the timing was unfortunate,
[52:03.82]for 1315 also saw the worst famine in living memory.
[52:09.29]Very soon, Edward Bruce's army became indistinguishable
[52:14.05]from any other disorderly gang of knights
[52:16.93]using force to extract the provisions they desperately needed for their men
[52:22.33]and not choosing to distinguish with any care
[52:25.44]between Gaelic friends and English foes.
[52:28.68]Famished and desperate,
[52:30.84]the Scots took what they needed from the Irish villagers
[52:34.64]and finally resorted, so it was said, to digging up fresh graves
[52:39.48]and eating the decayed bodies.
[52:43.67]Month by month, the Bruce's war of liberation
[52:47.19]turned into something remarkably like an occupation.
[52:53.15]Ambitious Edward Bruce also wanted to be a king - a king in Dublin -
[52:58.34]and he didn't much care what taking the throne would cost the Irish.
[53:03.34]It was the usual story.
[53:05.50]A victory over the Ulster English, then a march south towards Dublin.
[53:10.14]There, many of the population tore down their own houses
[53:14.05]to use as walls against the Scots, rather than surrender the city.
[53:19.25]Not all the Irish nobility and kings opened their arms
[53:22.77]to embrace their Scots "liberators".
[53:25.41]A bitter civil war broke out between native Irish supporters of both sides.
[53:30.52]A climactic battle in the west took, according to contemporaries,
[53:34.96]no fewer than ten thousands lives.
[53:40.36]In 1318, Edward Bruce was himself killed.
[53:44.56]Before the end of the year, the Scots had left.
[53:47.95]Perhaps the experiment of Scots-Irish collaboration deserved to fail
[53:53.55]because, from the beginning, Robert the Bruce had his own
[53:57.23]rather than his Irish brothers' interests at heart,
[54:00.35]needing a second front to divert critical English military resources
[54:05.14]from Scotland to Ireland.
[54:10.14]Not for the last time, the Irish were being used in someone else's quarrel.
[54:18.38]As grim as the story of the Scots in Ireland was,
[54:21.77]they did leave behind something other than widows and tragic ballads.
[54:26.65]The Anglo-Norman colony stopped expanding
[54:29.65]from its base in Ulster and Leinster.
[54:32.57]And the idea of the unstoppable English empire of the Plantagenets
[54:37.12]had the shine knocked right off its myth of invincibility.
[54:46.28]And the Bruces had given Irish leaders their voice of resistance
[54:52.31]...an expression of national identity.
[54:56.39](IRISHMAN) To recover our native freedom, the Irish...
[54:59.75](SCOTSMAN) For as long as but a hundred of us remain alive,
[55:03.23]we will yield in no least way to English dominion.
[55:06.51](WELSHMAN) The people preferred to die
[55:08.90]rather than to live under English rule.
[55:11.66]All these startlingly-modern sounding declarations of national community
[55:17.18]come together as the epitaph
[55:19.98]of the idea of the Plantagenet empire of Britain.
[55:24.77]You hear this language -
[55:26.81]eloquent, fierce, righteously belligerent -
[55:30.57]and you hear a voice which, for better or worse,
[55:33.49]would shout, roar and lament down through the ages.
[55:38.61]Robert the Bruce outlived both Edwards,
[55:41.60]and while war would continue with England for generations,
[55:45.24]the Scots had won English recognition of their truly independent kingdom.
[55:53.12]This is certainly not what Longshanks had imagined
[55:56.80]when he had been crowned before his namesake the Confessor's tomb,
[56:00.95]or when he had seated himself upon the Stone of Scone.
[56:08.15]For Edward's attempt to pound the nations of Britain
[56:11.31]into a united super-state
[56:13.47]ended up just reinforcing their acute sense of difference.
[56:19.14]The hammer that Edward had taken to the Scots
[56:22.54]had rebounded fatally against his dream of a reborn Britannia.
[56:29.42]For the cost of all those endless marches
[56:33.01]and mile upon mile of castle walls
[56:35.97]was political as well as financial.
[56:38.81]It meant parliament was more, not less, necessary to England's government.
[56:43.85]It was parliament which had to agree on how to foot the bills
[56:48.36]and how big those bills ought to be.
[56:52.92]Edward II failed to bring any attention to this new reality.
[57:00.08]Falling back on rule by favourites,
[57:02.72]Edward made himself an alien in his own land.
[57:06.51]The nobility failed to remove him, but his wife succeeded.
[57:11.15]Legend has it that he was killed in Berkeley Castle
[57:15.15]from a hot iron thrust up his rectum.
[57:22.70]Edward's murder was proof that the king could be removed,
[57:26.70]even physically disposed of, if he betrayed the community.
[57:32.06]But England would get a new king -
[57:35.06]more the heir to Edward the First than the Second.
[57:40.21]Edward III knew he couldn't achieve anything
[57:43.57]simply by acts of brutal, imperial will.
[57:47.69]He'd learned something from the long wars of Plantagenet Britain,
[57:52.57]and what he'd learned was that his power depended not just on force,
[57:56.84]but on consent -
[57:58.72]on the consent of his barons and his churchmen,
[58:02.04]on the consent of parliament,
[58:04.08]on the consent of the English community of the realm.
[58:08.36]Not for the first and not for the last time,
[58:11.55]it would take the rest of Britain to teach England just how to be a nation.
4 Nations（1216 ——1348）
威尔士, 苏格兰 和爱尔兰在放弃取走他们的民族统一身份之后，统一了他们的思想，宣言要从Edward I残暴统治下独立。
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