[00:20.04]There are ghosts in this place.
[00:23.08]You don't notice them right away.
[00:25.72]At first glance, Binham Priory in Norfolk
[00:28.08]looks much like any other English country church -
[00:31.08]plain and simple, limestone, limewash. Nothing fancy, really.
[00:37.36]But then you look around and realise something else is going on here.
[00:42.48]That grandiose, timber-vaulted roof. Those multi-storey arcades.
[00:47.80]Aren't they all just a bit too big for a parish church?
[00:52.24]And then you start to fill in the gaps,
[00:54.40]and bit by bit a lost world remakes itself,
[00:59.64]a world of monks and masses, of colour and plainsong.
[01:04.16]A world of brilliant images.
[01:06.44]The world of Catholic England.
[01:12.96]For centuries, this didn't sound strained.
[01:16.12]Catholic England was just another way of saying Christian England, really.
[01:20.48]And then, in a generation,
[01:22.68]it stopped being a truism
[01:24.88]and started being treason.
[01:31.80]Images of the Virgin, the apostles and the saints
[01:35.16]once cherished and glorified, were now mocked and vandalised.
[01:42.96]Here at Binham, the saints on the rood screen were expunged,
[01:46.80]painted over with verses from an English Bible.
[01:57.64]Today, they're restored,
[01:59.88]but the world over which they once presided is dead and gone.
[02:08.28]We can't bring back the lost world of Binham's painted saints
[02:12.24]whole and alive again.
[02:14.60]But just because the death of that world was so shocking, so utterly improbable,
[02:20.68]and because the Reformation and the wars of religion it triggered
[02:24.44]cut so deep a mark on the body of our country,
[02:27.84]we need to try and reassemble the fragments of that world as best we can.
[02:33.80]Only then can we hope to answer one of the most poignant questions in our history:
[02:40.08]Whatever did happen to Catholic England?
[03:26.80]We all grew up, even a nice Jewish boy like me,
[03:30.52]with the idea that the English Reformation was a historic inevitability,
[03:35.20]the culling of an obsolete, unpopular, fundamentally un-English faith.
[03:40.92]But on the very eve of the Reformation,
[03:43.12]Catholicism in England was vibrant, popular and very much alive.
[03:55.80]This is Walsingham in Norfolk,
[03:58.16]once the home of the miracle working shrine
[04:01.12]of Our Lady of Walsingham.
[04:05.32]Along with the Becket shrine at Canterbury,
[04:07.92]Walsingham was the must-see place for all serious 16th-century pilgrims,
[04:13.36]a tradition revived this century by High Church Anglicans.
[04:25.48]Today, you get only the faintest echoes of what Walsingham once was,
[04:29.64]a gaudy, rowdy mix of hucksterism and holiness,
[04:33.56]piety and plaster saints;
[04:36.28]the kind of place you'd expect to find, say, in Naples or Seville,
[04:40.72]not in the depths of sober East Anglia.
[04:46.12]But even then, as today, not everybody approved.
[04:49.96]Erasmus, the Catholic scholar superstar of the age,
[04:53.48]came here on a mock pilgrimage
[04:55.64]and poured scorn on tales of sacred milk
[04:58.56]and chapels airmailed in from the Holy Land.
[05:01.96]But his was the minority intellectual view, safely expressed in Latin
[05:06.64]and tolerated, though not necessarily endorsed,
[05:09.68]by members of the ruling Tudor dynasty.
[05:20.20]The Tudors were regular and devout pilgrims.
[05:23.52]Henry VIII, early in his reign, walked barefoot to the shrine,
[05:27.04]offering a necklace of rubies and dedicating a giant candle
[05:31.44]in thanks for the birth of his son, Henry, in 1511.
[05:36.72]Prince Henry died within weeks,
[05:39.32]but the king's candle continued to burn at the shrine for many years to come.
[05:55.68]What a strange world this Catholic England was.
[05:59.00]The urge for renewal and reform
[06:01.20]side by side with the ancient, the hallowed and the occasionally fraudulent.
[06:05.60]But it seems that all apparent contradictions
[06:08.12]could be accommodated under the capacious skirts
[06:11.08]of the Catholic Mother Church.
[06:15.92]And what a mother she was!
[06:21.52]Come to Holy Trinity Church at Long Melford in Suffolk,
[06:25.64]and you'll see just what I mean.
[06:30.36]This magnificent building was paid for with Suffolk wool money.
[06:34.28]However, what you see today are just the bare bones of what it was supposed to be.
[06:42.92]But we know what Long Melford in its splendour was really like
[06:46.72]thanks to an account left by Roger Martyn, who'd been a churchwarden here
[06:50.92]in the reign of England's last Catholic ruler, Queen Mary.
[06:57.92]Writing in the very different times of Queen Elizabeth,
[07:01.52]Roger Martyn, with a mixture of pride and regret,
[07:05.36]set out to tell future generations exactly what they were missing.
[07:12.96]At the back of the high altar there was a goodly mount
[07:17.00]carved very artificially with the story of Christ's Passion,
[07:21.88]all being fair, gilt and lively and beautifully set forth.
[07:27.64]And at the north end of the same altar
[07:30.36]there was a goodly gilt tabernacle reaching up to the roof of the chancel,
[07:35.40]in which there was one fair, large, gilt image of the Holy Trinity,
[07:40.60]besides other fine images.
[08:13.76]But Martyn's church was more than just a building.
[08:17.08]He describes a living world of processions and festivals,
[08:20.96]ceremonies and rituals involving the whole community.
[08:35.88]Above all this presided the "management", without whom none of it made sense.
[08:41.20]The priests, guardians of the mystery,
[08:44.28]at the heart of traditional Christian belief.
[08:49.52]Every time the priest celebrated communion,
[08:52.68]Christ crucified would be there in flesh and blood.
[09:03.44]The priest was the indispensable man,
[09:06.56]and there was no getting to Heaven but through his hands.
[09:14.92]But elsewhere other hands were hard at work.
[09:18.28]The miracle-working priest was about to be challenged by the word of God itself,
[09:23.68]translated into English and printed in black and white.
[09:30.60]Hand-written English Bibles had been in circulation since the days of the Lollards,
[09:35.44]that Protestant heresy that flourished briefly in the early 1400s.
[09:40.52]But manuscripts represented hard labour and cost pounds to buy.
[09:46.36]A printed New Testament, on the other hand, could be mass-produced
[09:50.52]and sold for a tenth of the price.
[09:55.28]The idea of a Bible in English, cheap and freely available to anyone who could read,
[10:00.64]put the fear of God into the authorities.
[10:05.80]William Tyndale, an ordained priest,
[10:08.84]was the first to take on the dangerous task
[10:11.36]of translating, publishing and printing an English version of the New Testament.
[10:17.88]Tyndale is a recognisable historical type.
[10:21.52]Austere, steely, unswerving, even a little fanatical,
[10:26.36]and disarmingly clear in his own convictions.
[10:29.68]"It was not possible," he wrote, "to establish the laypeople in any truth
[10:34.80]"except the Scriptures were plainly laid before their eyes in their mother tongue."
[10:43.96]In 1524, Tyndale fled London for mainland Europe,
[10:48.20]ending up in Worms in Germany,
[10:50.56]a city which had recently been made safely Protestant
[10:54.08]by its allegiance to the new radical doctrines of Martin Luther.
[10:58.44]Tyndale's English New Testament was completed there by January 1526,
[11:03.84]and within weeks copies were on sale in London.
[11:13.96]What followed was an English version of the Inquisition.
[11:29.60]Denunciations, arrests, book burnings, show trials.
[11:36.24]Those who recanted were forced to carry before them faggots of wood,
[11:40.68]symbols of the bonfire that would consume them if they ever lapsed again.
[11:47.64]And in 1530 symbolism gave way to gruesome reality
[11:51.68]when a priest named Thomas Hitton
[11:53.84]confessed to smuggling in a New Testament.
[11:57.08]Condemned as a heretic, he was burned at Maidstone on the 23rd of February.
[12:02.32]The Reformation had claimed its first victim.
[12:10.60]And cheering all this on from the sidelines
[12:13.00]was the king, Henry VIII, dutiful son of the Church,
[12:17.40]whose candle at Walsingham had been burning brightly for nearly 20 years.
[12:26.08]In the winter of 1530, as the fire was lit under the unfortunate Hitton,
[12:31.16]there was no reason to think that anything would ever change.
[12:35.92]To understand why it did, you have to understand something about Henry,
[12:39.92]the man who without ever really meaning to
[12:42.84]turned Catholic England into a Protestant nation.
[13:10.76]Well, for a start, he was never supposed to be king.
[13:14.44]But when his older brother Arthur died,
[13:16.80]Henry, aged 11, became heir apparent.
[13:20.64]He also acquired his brother's wife, the Spanish Catherine of Aragon.
[13:25.80]The marriage alliance between Spain and England
[13:28.12]was just too important to be allowed to lapse.
[13:32.44]In 1509, King Henry VII died,
[13:36.32]and his 17-year-old son came into his own.
[13:43.28]The young king was a spectacular sight.
[13:46.00]You could practically smell the testosterone.
[13:49.04]Any way and anywhere he could flash that burly energy, he did,
[13:53.52]in the saddle, on the dance floor or here on the tennis court,
[13:56.92]where a besotted courtier wrote of the king's skin,
[14:00.60]"glowing through the fabric of his finely woven shirt".
[14:06.48]Then there was the famous breezy charm, dispensed like the English weather -
[14:10.56]in sunny periods, alternating with cloudy spells and sudden bursts of heavy thunder.
[14:16.28]The charm was of the rib-poking, back-slapping,
[14:19.32]punch-in-the-belly- arm-around-the-shoulders kind,
[14:21.72]which, depending on the mood of the month,
[14:23.88]could betoken either sudden promotion or imminent arrest.
[14:28.84]Henry wallowed in the praise droolingly lavished on him
[14:32.96]by courtiers and ambassadors.
[14:35.16]Henry the gallant, Henry the handsome, Henry the clever, Henry the superstar.
[14:39.84]The only king to have his own personal band hired to go touring with him
[14:44.32]and featuring young Henry himself as lead singer/songwriter.
[14:54.64]Egged on by the Pope, who dangled before him the title of Defender of the Faith,
[14:59.92]Henry was determined to make a splashy debut on the European scene.
[15:04.60]He tried to get his Spanish father-in-law, King Ferdinand,
[15:07.64]to come in on joint ventures against their mutual enemy, King Louis of France.
[15:12.60]But when it came to snake-pit politics, Ferdinand was a real pro,
[15:17.32]shamelessly exploiting Henry's lust for glory,
[15:20.44]but failing to deliver on the promised armies.
[15:25.24]Henry pushed on without him
[15:27.40]and, in the summer of 1513, talked up a skirmish with French knights
[15:31.64]into a major victory called the Battle of the Spurs.
[15:38.84]Meanwhile, back home, Queen Catherine and her councillors
[15:42.48]managed a military victory of major importance at Flodden Field,
[15:47.00]which left the king of the Scots, James IV, and a dozen Scottish earls
[15:51.60]dead on the battlefield.
[15:55.80]But behind all this activity at home and abroad,
[15:58.96]keeping the army supplied, negotiating the treaties, channelling the king's energies
[16:04.36]was one of the greatest organisational brains of the age -
[16:08.16]Archbishop of York, soon to be Chancellor of England, Thomas Wolsey.
[16:14.76]Let's face it, if we could find one, we could all use a Wolsey,
[16:19.00]a Jeeves with an attitude, someone who comes to work every day and says,
[16:23.24]"And what would be your pleasure, Majesty?" and then goes off and does it.
[16:27.20]Oh, the occasional document will come sliding across the desk for signature,
[16:31.36]but nothing, really, to interrupt a hard day's hunt.
[16:35.00]Wolsey was a consummate manager,
[16:37.96]attentive to detail in both matters and men,
[16:41.24]someone who could stroke Parliament when that was necessary
[16:44.48]and who could bang heads together, even very aristocratic heads,
[16:48.28]when that was called for.
[16:50.40]He was a master manipulator
[16:52.56]of patronage, of honours, of bribes and of threats.
[16:56.40]In other words, he was a psychologist in a cardinal's hat.
[17:04.04]Wolsey also understood the relationship between display and power.
[17:11.72]He used it for his own ends here at Hampton Court,
[17:15.20]but he also used it for the king,
[17:17.60]acting as impresario for one of the greater shows in his career,
[17:21.52]the Field of the Cloth of Gold.
[17:28.68]The meeting in 1520 between Henry and the young French king, Francis I,
[17:34.16]was supposed to be a demonstration of heartfelt amity
[17:37.96]and a pointed message to the recently elected Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V,
[17:43.36]that old enemies could, if needs be, become friends.
[17:47.72]But it came to war anyway, not with weapons,
[17:50.88]but something much more deadly - style.
[17:58.88]In the greatest transportation exercise seen since the campaigns of Edward III,
[18:03.68]Wolsey shipped over the entire ruling class of England.
[18:07.60]Earls, bishops, knights of the shire - 5,000 men,
[18:11.64]including, in a display of unconvincing humility,
[18:14.84]the Cardinal himself on muleback dressed in crimson velvet.
[18:21.28]Music played, wine ran red and white from fountains,
[18:25.68]a great deal of heron got eaten.
[18:28.16]The two kings spent hours trying on glamorous outfits
[18:31.44]that could be worn only once.
[18:34.12]They wrestled, not only with knotty problems of state, but with each other,
[18:38.68]the nimbler Francis at one point throwing Henry on his back.
[18:42.56]No doubt he laughed, no doubt he hated it.
[18:48.60]Somewhere in the middle of all this overdressed melee
[18:51.48]was a young English woman,
[18:53.52]a lady-in-waiting to Claude, the wife of the French king.
[18:57.60]This was the woman who would bring Wolsey's immense house of power
[19:01.52]crashing down in ruins
[19:03.68]and with it, inconceivably, the power of the Roman Church in England.
[19:09.44]Her name was Anne Boleyn.
[19:19.04]So much saccharine drivel has been written on the subject of Anne Boleyn,
[19:23.52]so many Hollywood movies made,
[19:25.68]so many bodice-buster romances produced
[19:29.12]that us serious historians are supposed to avert our gaze
[19:32.88]from the tragic soap opera of her life
[19:35.80]and concentrate on meaty stuff,
[19:38.04]like the social and political origins of the Reformation
[19:42.08]or the Tudor revolution in government.
[19:44.88]But try as we might, we keep coming back time and again to the subject of Anne,
[19:49.88]because on close inspection it turns out that she was, after all,
[19:54.52]historical prime cause number one.
[20:00.04]At the time of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, Anne would have been a teenager.
[20:04.80]She'd been away from England off and on since the age of 12,
[20:08.16]when her well-connected diplomat father, Thomas,
[20:11.28]arranged for her to become maid of honour to Margaret of Austria
[20:14.96]at one of her many courts,
[20:17.56]this one here at Mechelen in Flanders.
[20:24.76]Margaret was recognised as the world authority on courtly love,
[20:29.00]that theatrical form of aristocratic flirtation
[20:32.08]around which a whole culture had grown up.
[20:35.88]Desire endlessly deferred, sexual passion transfigured into pure selfless love,
[20:41.88]troubadours, masks, silk handkerchiefs, a lot of sighing.
[20:46.88]That was the theory anyway.
[20:49.04]While underneath the stage-managed surface,
[20:51.36]the old basic instincts seethed away.
[20:58.32]Anne returned to England in 1522,
[21:01.36]a sophisticated, accomplished, ambitious young woman with a mind of her own.
[21:12.80]Anne Boleyn entered the glittering, dangerous world
[21:16.44]of the Tudor court in her 20s.
[21:19.00]Physically she was no raving beauty, despite the long black hair and dark eyes,
[21:25.28]but she knew how to exploit her natural vivaciousness
[21:29.56]to play the game of courtly love for all it was worth.
[21:36.16]One of the first to fall was a man every bit as sophisticated as she was,
[21:41.76]Thomas Wyatt, the epitome of the Renaissance courtier.
[21:45.96]A soldier, a diplomat and, above all, a poet.
[21:50.32]His poems are heavy with the conventional lover's sighs,
[21:54.60]but in those apparently inspired by Anne the sighs come from the heart.
[22:00.28]Wyatt, unhappily married, realised he stood no chance with her,
[22:05.16]and in one of his famous poems compares himself
[22:08.76]to a hunter, vainly chasing a deer.
[22:15.60]Unable to divorce his wife,
[22:18.44]all that Wyatt could offer Anne was that she should become his mistress,
[22:22.88]not good enough for an ambitious girl on the make.
[22:26.48]And beside, there was another reason why Wyatt would never catch his hind,
[22:31.00]as his poem goes on to explain.
[22:34.12]"And graven with diamonds in letters plain
[22:37.08]"There is written her fair neck roundabout, 'nole me tangere'
[22:41.80]"For Caesar's I am and wild for to hold though I seem tame."
[22:48.36]"Nole me tangere" -do not touch,
[22:51.56]for Caesar, otherwise known as Henry VIII,
[22:55.00]had already committed himself to the chase,
[22:57.92]and the king, as we know, was an inexhaustible hunter.
[23:03.92]Henry really had to work hard to get Anne, harder than at any time in his life.
[23:09.88]The man who, as Wolsey could testify, hated writing letters
[23:13.52]wrote umpteen in his attempts to woo her.
[23:17.56]She represented everything Catherine of Aragon was not.
[23:21.00]Ten years younger, merry rather than pious,
[23:24.32]spirited rather than gravely deferential,
[23:27.44]Anne opened the way to sexual bliss, domestic happiness
[23:31.24]and, perhaps more important than any of these, the possibility of a son and heir.
[23:39.72]The estrangement between Catherine and Henry went back as far as 1511
[23:44.64]and the death of their son Henry,
[23:46.80]who despite the offerings made at Walsingham lived only a few weeks.
[23:51.64]Catherine had gone on to produce a daughter, Mary, born in 1516.
[23:56.92]But Henry began to recoil from his queen.
[24:00.20]After more than 20 years,
[24:02.36]Henry had no legitimate male heir and no prospect of one.
[24:07.76]By the time that Anne came on the scene,
[24:10.08]Henry was convinced that his marriage to Catherine had been divinely cursed.
[24:15.48]The king was an assiduous reader of Scripture,
[24:18.44]and there must have been a sharp intake of breath
[24:20.84]every time he read Leviticus chapter 20, verse 21,
[24:24.52]in which God himself tells Moses,
[24:26.96]"If a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing...
[24:31.24]"...they shall be childless."
[24:36.48]Driven by his fear of dynastic extinction and his passion for Anne,
[24:40.60]who, as usual, refused to become his mistress,
[24:43.52]Henry seized on divorce as the answer to all of his problems.
[24:49.76]Henry wanted a papal annulment of the marriage on grounds of incest.
[24:54.36]But the Pope couldn't oblige,
[24:56.52]for in May 1527 the armies of the Emperor Charles V sacked Rome,
[25:01.60]and made Pope Clement a virtual prisoner.
[25:04.56]And Charles, who was Queen Catherine's nephew,
[25:07.52]wouldn't allow an annulment while he was in control.
[25:11.92]Wolsey was the first to be dragged under by this crisis.
[25:15.76]Henry had no use for a Mr Fixit who couldn't fix it,
[25:19.20]and Wolsey was quickly got rid of, ostensibly for fraud and corruption.
[25:24.08]Within a year, he was dead, charges of high treason still hanging over his head.
[25:31.72]It was Anne herself who, at some point in 1530,
[25:35.44]steered the whole problem in a radically new direction.
[25:38.56]She put literally into Henry's hands
[25:41.12]a little book that to her seemed not only fundamentally true,
[25:44.52]but also, given present circumstances, extremely useful.
[25:49.56]It was by that arch-propagandist William Tyndale, and it was called
[25:53.76]"The obedience of a Christian man and how Christian rulers ought to govern".
[26:00.32]Like all Tyndale's work it was a pungent read.
[26:03.76]"One king, one law, is God's ordnance in every realm," he wrote.
[26:09.36]In other words, the writ of the Bishop of Rome did not run in England.
[26:17.04]But Anne wasn't finished yet.
[26:19.20]With a typical mixture of conviction and self-interest,
[26:21.84]she got a think tank of theologians, including Thomas Cranmer,
[26:25.68]to come up with documents from the history of the early Church
[26:29.24]proving royal supremacy.
[26:33.48]The more he learnt about his supreme power, the better Henry liked it.
[26:38.72]It may have begun as a tactic in political intimidation,
[26:42.28]but now the royal supremacy seemed, on its own merits, a self-evident truth.
[26:48.08]You can almost hear him clapping his hand to his head and exclaiming,
[26:51.68]"How could I have been so dull as to have missed this?"
[26:59.76]Not surprisingly, then, around the summer of 1530,
[27:03.52]the telling word "imperial" begins to show up regularly in Henry's own remarks.
[27:09.80]Emperors, of course, acknowledge no superior on earth.
[27:14.72]Henry's ego, never exactly a modest part of his personality,
[27:18.96]now began to bloom to imperial proportions.
[27:22.48]And he got the palaces to house it, too, 50 of them before his reign was done.
[27:28.12]Some of the greatest and grandest had been Wolsey's,
[27:31.20]most notably Hampton Court,
[27:33.40]which now became the stage for the swaggering theatre of court life.
[27:42.84]Nothing measures the imperial scale of Henry's court better
[27:47.84]than the size of the space needed to feed its gut.
[27:51.40]Here at the kitchens at Hampton Court, 230 people were employed,
[27:56.12]servicing another 1,000 who every day were entitled to eat at the king's expense.
[28:03.36]Three vast larders for the meat alone.
[28:06.20]A specially designed wet larder for holding fish,
[28:09.76]supplied by water drawn from the fountains outside.
[28:13.00]Spiceries, fruiteries, six immense fireplaces.
[28:17.40]Three gargantuan cellars capable of holding the 300 casks of wine
[28:22.56]and the 600,000 gallons of ale downed each year by this court.
[28:28.12]And at the centre of it all,
[28:30.32]though carefully protected in the privy chamber from undue exhibition,
[28:33.80]was England's new Caesar -
[28:36.04]the king, at 40, colossal, autocratic,
[28:40.36]bestriding the realm with all the god-like power and authority
[28:44.60]of the Roman Caesars.
[28:49.68]And now inevitably, the Church, with its allegiance to Rome,
[28:53.72]found itself on the wrong side of a nasty argument.
[28:58.28]How they must have shivered at the Archbishop of Canterbury's palace in Lambeth
[29:02.48]when they heard Henry say of his bishops,
[29:05.04]"They be but half our subjects, yea, and scarce our subjects."
[29:14.52]The threat was clear and the capitulation inevitable.
[29:18.28]It came in the spring of 1532 with the so-called Submission of the Clergy,
[29:23.92]which conceded all of Henry's demands.
[29:27.00]From now on, the laws of the Church would be governed by the will of the king,
[29:31.80]and the king's will was clear:
[29:34.32]Divorce from Catherine, marriage to Anne, Princess Mary to be declared a bastard,
[29:39.88]recognition for the unborn child that by the spring of 1533
[29:44.64]was already swelling Anne's belly.
[29:48.88]Anne was duly crowned at Westminster Abbey in May
[29:52.44]by a new Archbishop of Canterbury,
[29:54.96]the obliging Thomas Cranmer.
[30:05.20]So, a reformation of sorts, but not yet a Protestant reformation.
[30:10.60]The English Church may have broken from Rome,
[30:13.00]but no core doctrines had been touched.
[30:15.76]The real presence of Christ in the mass was preserved.
[30:18.88]Priests were still expected to be celibate.
[30:21.12]Prayers in the Bible were still in Latin.
[30:24.12]The beautiful stained glass at Fairford Church in Gloucester
[30:27.80]offended no official doctrines.
[30:31.84]And so things might have remained, but they didn't.
[30:35.04]To understand why, we need now
[30:37.36]to look at one of the most extraordinary working partnerships in British history,
[30:41.84]Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and Thomas Cromwell,
[30:45.40]Wolsey's former enforcer and now Secretary of State.
[30:51.80]Here they are, then, the Tudor odd couple,
[30:54.68]on the frontispiece of an English Bible.
[30:59.36]You take away one, and the Reformation wouldn't have happened,
[31:02.84]at least not the way it did.
[31:05.60]Because they were like two pillars, theological on the left
[31:08.84]and the political on the right, with the king, triumphant, in the middle.
[31:14.84]Their agenda was always more radical than the king's.
[31:21.28]was the product of the kind of anti-establishment killer instinct
[31:24.36]you might expect from a Putney clever Dick out to make a name for himself.
[31:28.88]Cranmer's convictions were more profound and thoughtful,
[31:33.20]but he too had strong personal reasons to side with the Reformers.
[31:37.44]Shortly before he was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury,
[31:40.76]Cranmer had secretly married a German woman, Margareta,
[31:44.56]thereby committing himself to one of Luther's most shocking innovations.
[31:51.92]Cranmer, like Cromwell, was devoted to the Renaissance idea
[31:55.56]of a strong prince in a strong Christian state.
[31:59.88]The people were going to be given their Bible from on high,
[32:04.00]authorised, and no other version was going to be tolerated.
[32:08.00]This picture of an orderly, even authoritarian Church of England
[32:12.32]is exactly what you see on the frontispiece of this Great Bible,
[32:16.72]officially commissioned by Thomas Cromwell and published in 1539.
[32:27.04]Thomas Cromwell is probably the least sentimental Englishman
[32:31.12]ever to run the country.
[32:33.28]He understood with a clarity that Henry could never quite manage
[32:36.76]that it would not be enough for the break with Rome to be proclaimed
[32:40.16]and then expect everyone to fall into line.
[32:43.12]He was anticipating a fight, and he was prepared to fight hard.
[32:49.96]Cromwell knew that sooner or later
[32:52.12]the Pope would throw his big gun into the battle -
[32:55.12]excommunication. And if the king was to win the war,
[32:58.92]he'd better fight back with something more or less novel in the language of politics,
[33:05.64]The country had to be aroused to a new sense of its sovereignty, its potency.
[33:10.76]Demonise Rome as the foreigner, the alien, the enemy.
[33:18.96]To this engine of chauvinist propaganda,
[33:21.72]Cromwell added the necessary machinery of coercion.
[33:25.80]An oath had to be sworn recognising the royal supremacy,
[33:29.84]the legitimacy of the heirs of the king and Queen Anne,
[33:32.96]and the bastardisation of the Lady Mary.
[33:37.68]Insulting the new queen was treason,
[33:40.12]calling the king a schismatic or a heretic was treason.
[33:43.76]For the first time in English law, it was a crime just to say things.
[33:51.28]Cromwell managed to turn England into a frightened, snivelling, jumpy place
[33:56.60]where denunciation was a sanctimonious duty
[34:00.48]and countless petty little scores got settled by people who were protesting
[34:05.08]that they were just doing "the right thing".
[34:14.28]Nowhere in Cromwell's strong-arm regime
[34:17.08]did his shock troops seem to enjoy their work more thoroughly
[34:20.44]than in the visitations to the monasteries,
[34:23.44]done with lightning speed during the course of 1535 and early 1536.
[34:31.64]The uprooting of nearly 10,000 monks and nuns,
[34:35.40]the destruction of an entire ancient way of life
[34:38.56]had little to do with reforming zeal.
[34:45.92]When you look at Cromwell's flying squads up close and in action,
[34:49.80]you don't really get the impression of a bunch of men
[34:52.00]who thought of themselves as renovators. Wreckers, more likely.
[34:56.36]For one thing, they seemed to enjoy their work a bit too much.
[35:00.08]"I laid unto him a concealment of treason,"
[35:03.40]wrote one of Cromwell's hit men to his chief about a prior he had at his mercy.
[35:08.64]"I called him heinous traitor in the worst terms I could devise,
[35:13.76]"and him all the time kneeling and making intercession unto me
[35:18.24]"not to utter to you the premises of his undoing."
[35:22.68]Such were the pleasures of reform.
[35:27.64]The property bonanza that followed the dissolution of the monasteries
[35:31.40]was on a scale no other English revolution ever approached.
[35:36.32]Abbeys like this one at Laycock were offered at bargain basement prices,
[35:40.76]and loyalty to the new order secured with bricks and mortar.
[35:45.80]The former residents were soon forgotten
[35:48.36]or reduced to delectable family legends of headless nuns and spectral monks.
[36:13.56]Let's call the next chapter of the story, "circa regna tonat" -
[36:19.32]around the throne the thunder roars.
[36:25.20]Thomas Wyatt used the line in a poem written in a cell in the Tower of London
[36:30.56]after he'd just witnessed the execution of five innocent men.
[36:34.80]A few days later, an innocent woman would also die.
[36:38.80]As you probably know, she was Anne Boleyn,
[36:41.80]and as you can probably guess, the author of this bloody drama
[36:45.60]was Thomas Cromwell.
[36:51.48]It wasn't the birth in 1533 of a baby girl, Elizabeth, that did for Anne.
[36:57.68]Henry was disappointed, but he didn't turn against his new wife.
[37:02.24]No, he laid his hand on the baby's head,
[37:05.24]recognising her as his legitimate daughter
[37:08.20]and hoped for better luck next time.
[37:11.80]18 months later, Anne was pregnant again.
[37:16.16]At the beginning of January 1536, more good news.
[37:20.52]Catherine of Aragon was dead.
[37:23.20]Henry was relieved. "God be praised," he said,
[37:26.28]"that we are free from all suspicion of war."
[37:32.44]Maybe it was at this point that the cogs and wheels of Cromwell's mind
[37:37.08]started to whirl.
[37:39.24]For Cromwell had decided to engineer a reconciliation
[37:42.40]between Henry and the Emperor Charles V.
[37:45.80]With the Emperor's Aunt Catherine now safely dead,
[37:48.24]the timing was perfect except for one thing - Anne.
[37:54.24]For the price of peace would doubtless include the relegitimising of Lady Mary,
[37:58.96]and to this Anne would never agree.
[38:02.12]Therefore, so Cromwell reasoned, Anne must go.
[38:08.84]On the 29th of January, Anne miscarried.
[38:12.48]Had the baby lived, it would have been a boy.
[38:15.44]The disaster seems to have reawakened Henry's darkest fears.
[38:19.96]"I see now that God will never give me a male heir," he told Anne.
[38:25.04]To one of his intimates he hinted that Anne had seduced him through witchcraft.
[38:31.12]Anne was defenceless.
[38:33.28]Cromwell moved against her with breathtaking speed and ferocity.
[38:37.24]From the decision to act, taken around Easter time 1536,
[38:41.48]to the first arrests, took just two weeks.
[38:45.04]Anne was doomed.
[38:50.48]What Cromwell now cooked up was a thing of pure devilry,
[38:55.56]a finely measured brew, one part paranoia, one part pornography.
[39:00.56]Moments of dalliance, nothing really untoward in a Renaissance court.
[39:05.36]A handkerchief dropped at a May Day tilt, not belonging to the king.
[39:09.20]A dance taken with a young man, also not the king.
[39:13.56]A blown kiss, a giggle.
[39:15.72]All these were twisted by Cromwell into a carnival of unholy, traitorous sex.
[39:24.52]The Queen, it seems, had had sex with just about everyone.
[39:28.40]She'd had sex with her court musician, she'd had sex with the Groom of the Stool,
[39:33.40]the most important courtier in the privy chamber.
[39:36.16]She'd had sex with the king's tennis partner, presumably between sets.
[39:40.48]She'd even had sex with her own brother.
[39:43.68]She had presided like some possessed Messalina
[39:47.36]over this diabolical orgy of treason,
[39:50.68]even perhaps conspiring to pass off the poisoned fruit of all this copulation
[39:55.12]as the royal heir.
[40:00.92]It was the confession of her musician, Mark Smeaton, extracted under torture,
[40:06.16]that supplied the fig leaf of legality for Cromwell's judicial murders.
[40:11.48]It was enough to send all five of Anne's so-called lovers to the block.
[40:15.96]Thomas Wyatt, swept up in a wave of arrests, but spared prosecution,
[40:20.68]saw them die, peering through a grating of his cell in the bell tower.
[40:27.76]"The bell tower showed me such a sight that in my head sticks day and night,
[40:33.88]"that did I learn out the grate, for all favour, glory or might,
[40:38.80]"that yet circa regna tonat."
[40:47.64]Two days later, it was Anne's turn.
[40:51.36]As a special privilege,
[40:53.52]an expert swordsman had been brought over from France to do the job.
[40:57.68]"I heard say the executioner is very good," Anne told the constable at the Tower.
[41:02.72]"And I have a little neck."
[41:05.24]And then she put her hands around her throat and burst out laughing.
[41:21.16]When news of Anne's execution reached Dover,
[41:24.44]it was said the candles in the town's church spontaneously ignited.
[41:31.68]For the vast majority of the country,
[41:33.84]which despite the break with Rome still regarded itself as Catholic,
[41:38.40]her death seemed like a long overdue judgement
[41:41.68]on those they called heretics and twopenny bookmen.
[41:53.72]Cromwell, meanwhile, stepped up his assault on the old religion
[41:57.72]with a series of fierce injunctions, enforcing royal supremacy
[42:02.16]and crushing the cult of saints and shrines.
[42:07.48]The Becket shrine in Canterbury, the richest in the land,
[42:10.80]was vandalised and ransacked.
[42:14.96]The following year, 1537, Henry, with a new wife, Jane Seymour,
[42:19.96]celebrated the longed for arrival of a son, Edward.
[42:25.72]But twelve days later, mourned the death of his new queen.
[42:32.84]At Walsingham, the statue of the Virgin was burned.
[42:36.72]Henry's account book for that year contains the following bald statement:
[42:41.40]"Payment for the king's great candle at Walsingham.
[42:44.76]"Salary for the abbot - nil."
[42:50.64]But then, a remarkable thing happened.
[42:53.76]The king decided enough was enough and tried to put the genie back in its bottle.
[42:59.80]An instinctive conservative, he'd been angered and alarmed by the passions
[43:04.40]that religious controversy had aroused.
[43:06.68]And he blamed the English Bible.
[43:09.64]Instead of being read quietly with silence,
[43:12.48]the Bible was now being bandied about in acrimonious disputes
[43:16.64]that raged in ale houses and taverns,
[43:19.52]the exact opposite of the respectful scenes
[43:22.84]promised in Cromwell's Great Bible.
[43:26.68]In 1543, a law was introduced restricting the reading of the Bible in English
[43:31.76]to churchmen, noblemen and gentry.
[43:35.40]For ordinary people who'd got used to the idea of an English-speaking God,
[43:39.72]this was a real deprivation.
[43:42.44]We get an inkling of that in a brief inscription
[43:45.32]written that year by an Oxfordshire shepherd
[43:48.20]on the flyleaf of a small religious tract.
[43:51.48]It reads, "I bought this book when the Testament was abrogated
[43:55.88]"that shepherds might not read it.
[43:58.60]"I pray God amend that blindness.
[44:01.60]"Written by Robert Williams, keeping sheep upon Saintbury Hill."
[44:12.40]By the time Williams wrote his prayer on his hillside,
[44:15.60]the course of reform in England had suffered major setbacks.
[44:20.68]In 1540, Cromwell had fallen, tossed to the executioner
[44:25.92]after his schemes for an alliance with Europe's Lutheran princes collapsed.
[44:32.12]Unfortunately for Cromwell, the Lutheran princess, Anne of Cleves,
[44:36.76]the mail-order bride he'd arranged for Henry,
[44:39.48]had turned out to be nowhere near as cute as Hans Holbein had painted her.
[44:48.32]By then, Parliament had enacted the six articles
[44:51.76]which under pain of death outlawed marriage for priests
[44:55.36]and reaffirmed the sanctity of the mass.
[45:00.72]To the dismay of the reformers,
[45:02.88]these core Catholic beliefs turned out to be Henry's, too.
[45:09.92]So Henry's final position on matters of religion was this:
[45:14.12]A national Church divorced from Rome, but remarried to the English crown,
[45:19.72]stripped of cults and shows, but still in essence Catholic.
[45:24.36]All things considered,
[45:26.52]Henry was pretty satisfied with the middle way he thought he'd found.
[45:30.24]Which is what we see in this massive picture from the studio of Hans Holbein.
[45:34.84]King Henry, all-powerful, all-knowing,
[45:38.48]the guardian and ruler of the temporal AND the spiritual realm.
[45:47.52]The munchkins grovelling at his feet are the Guild of Barber-Surgeons.
[45:52.48]They hail the king as the healer and a great physician,
[45:55.68]which is just how Henry liked to see himself in his final years -
[45:59.52]the Tudor medicine man who had laid the body of England on the operating table
[46:04.72]and cut out the cancers of popery and superstition.
[46:08.96]The patient was now fully recovered, the nation duly grateful,
[46:12.72]the operation a complete success.
[46:18.32]Except, of course, it wasn't, because after Henry would come Henry's children,
[46:23.36]each with their own idea of what was best for the country's health -
[46:27.96]Edward, the heir apparent, and his half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth,
[46:32.88]both of whom were restored to the succession
[46:35.24]a few weeks before their father's death.
[46:39.16]Between them they covered the religious spectrum
[46:41.32]from hard-line Protestant to fanatical Catholic.
[46:45.16]And the road the country took after Henry,
[46:47.48]back to a Catholic past or forwards into a Protestant future,
[46:51.56]would depend, like never before, on the lottery of births, deaths and marriages.
[47:01.20]When Henry died in 1547,
[47:03.96]he left ?00 to pay for two priests to say prayers for his soul forever.
[47:11.84]You have to wonder how he apparently failed to notice
[47:14.60]that Edward had been educated by fervent Protestants
[47:17.84]who obviously had no time for such superstitious nonsense.
[47:25.04]Led by Thomas Cranmer, they saw the nine-year-old boy king
[47:28.96]as a new Josiah,
[47:31.12]the biblical king who had taken it as his mission to destroy idolatry.
[47:39.40]Now this would be the real Reformation.
[47:42.96]For just look what happened in the six years of Edward's reign.
[47:46.52]All the customs and ceremonies of the old Church,
[47:49.60]the blessing of candles at Candlemas and palms on Palm Sunday were banned.
[47:55.08]Away went the religious guilds and fraternities.
[47:59.00]The cults of saints that had survived Cromwell's attacks,
[48:02.80]along with their relics and their pilgrimages, were forbidden.
[48:06.64]And images, statues, stained-glass, paintings,
[48:11.00]were attacked with chisels and limewash.
[48:21.88]A new Book of Common Prayer required in all parishes for the first time
[48:26.28]brought English into the heart of the church service.
[48:30.92]To get a measure of the cultural revolution that took place,
[48:34.88]you need only come here to Hailes Church in Gloucestershire.
[48:43.28]Three years of state-sponsored iconoclasm have produced this.
[48:48.40]No more stone altar, just a user-friendly communion table.
[48:59.08]This whole arrangement is designed to abolish the distance
[49:02.44]between the priest and his flock.
[49:04.92]The screen which had been a barrier protecting the mystery of the mass
[49:09.16]is now just a way in to the communion,
[49:12.24]a gathering of the faithful along with their priest.
[49:18.32]As if all this wasn't shocking enough,
[49:21.32]imagine that some day in 1550,
[49:24.48]when, for the first time, the priest invited the congregation to partake of communion,
[49:30.48]using those English words never before heard in church,
[49:37.60]The familiarity of this must have made many of them squirm,
[49:41.48]rather like these days hearing a trendy vicar insist, "Call me Bob."
[49:48.68]This radical transformation wouldn't have been possible
[49:52.04]without the active support of Edward.
[49:54.92]While Edward led the Protestant state, resistance came close to home,
[50:00.64]as he recalls in his diary.
[50:03.60]The Lady Mary, my sister, came to me at Westminster,
[50:07.40]where after salutations she was called of my council into a chamber
[50:11.92]where it was declared how long I had suffered her mass.
[50:15.60]She answered that her soul was God's, and her faith she would not change.
[50:20.12]Nor would she dissemble her opinion with contrary doings.
[50:25.16]Edward's chronicle records one of several run-ins
[50:28.32]he and his councillors had with Mary.
[50:30.72]The mass had been outlawed since the Act of Uniformity in 1549,
[50:35.24]but Mary ignored the ban.
[50:37.84]Indeed, she increased her attendance to two, even three times a day.
[50:43.84]She may have had a martyr complex a mile wide,
[50:46.92]but Catholic Mary knew her challenge was simply to bide her time,
[50:51.68]to wait for Edward to die, preferably childless.
[50:55.44]And sure enough, in 1553, this is just what happened.
[51:06.68]And so England's first female ruler since Queen Matilda
[51:10.56]ascended the throne with just two aims in mind:
[51:13.84]To return England to its obedience to Rome,
[51:16.48]and to produce a Catholic male heir who would keep it that way.
[51:21.80]Mary's first aim was achieved with amazingly little resistance
[51:25.16]after it was made clear all those rolling acres
[51:28.08]and all real estate sold off during the dissolution of the monasteries
[51:32.08]would not be restored to the Church.
[51:36.36]In 1554, both Houses of Parliament, contrite as naughty children,
[51:42.04]knelt and asked forgiveness from the Pope's legate, Cardinal Poole,
[51:46.40]for all the anti-papal legislation passed since the 1530s.
[51:52.84]Orders went out for the repainting of churches, the carving of roods,
[51:56.92]the restoration of the Latin mass.
[52:00.60]Heretical England had been received back into the fold,
[52:04.48]had been forgiven by Mother Rome.
[52:11.72]But all this would be literally fruitless
[52:14.76]if Mary was unable to produce a good Roman Catholic heir.
[52:19.92]Her choice of husband was Philip II of Spain.
[52:23.76]To Mary, of course, this union had special personal meaning,
[52:27.92]the vindication of a long dead Spanish mother, Catherine of Aragon.
[52:32.44]If a Spanish Catholic marriage had been right for England then,
[52:36.28]then it should be right for England now.
[52:39.36]But that was 50 years ago.
[52:41.52]Much had been done that could not now be undone.
[52:50.48]A Catholic marriage now was not something that could be taken for granted.
[52:57.60]It now seemed a bad match. It seemed a foreign idea.
[53:01.76]The Queen is a Spaniard at heart, it was said,
[53:04.92]and loves another realm better than this.
[53:09.80]When Thomas Wyatt, the son of Anne Boleyn's old poetical admirer,
[53:13.88]led an army to the gates of London, he cast himself as a patriot,
[53:18.52]pledged, as he said, "to the avoidance of strangers".
[53:23.60]Xenophobia was not enough to dethrone Queen Mary.
[53:26.96]Wyatt's army melted away.
[53:38.68]Ecstatic that for the first time in her lonely life
[53:41.92]she had someone she could rely on, a Spanish consort,
[53:45.92]Mary set about the zealous work of cleansing her realm of the Protestant heresy,
[53:51.40]undoing Edward's reformation as completely as she could.
[53:55.36]By fire, if that's what it took to do the job properly, and it did.
[54:02.96]In three years, 220 men and 60 women were burned on Mary's bonfires.
[54:10.16]Some, like Archbishop Cranmer, were high-profile victims,
[54:15.52]but most were ordinary people, cloth workers and cutlers.
[54:22.12]And it wasn't just the literate who died.
[54:24.88]Rawlings White, a fisherman, paid for his son to go to school and learn to read,
[54:30.20]so the boy could then read the Bible to him each night after supper.
[54:35.16]Joan Waist of Derby, a poor blind woman,
[54:38.28]saved up for a New Testament and then paid people to read it to her.
[54:47.92]But all this was in vain, for Mary, like Edward, died childless,
[54:53.32]suffering frantically through two false pregnancies,
[54:56.96]the second a cancer of the womb.
[55:00.12]The resurrection of Catholic England was doomed.
[55:04.64]Anne Boleyn had triumphed from the grave over Catherine of Aragon,
[55:08.40]as her daughter, Elizabeth, would outlast Mary and undo all her pious hopes.
[55:21.00]Elizabeth cast herself as the healer,
[55:23.76]someone who would bring the violent pendulum swings of the religious war
[55:27.60]back to a calm and steady centre,
[55:30.28]a middle way between the courses chosen by her half-brother and her half-sister.
[55:41.52]She outlawed the mass and brought back the Book of Common Prayer,
[55:45.64]but she allowed and encouraged priests to remain celibate
[55:49.44]and was certainly in no hurry to abolish the Catholic calendar of saint's days.
[55:57.44]But if Elizabeth put out the fires of religious fanaticism,
[56:01.04]she lit them in the breasts of patriotic Englishmen and women.
[56:06.04]For as cautions as she was, Elizabeth couldn't help her reign being seen by many
[56:11.00]as the reinstatement of a truly English way.
[56:17.44]Under Elizabeth, Englishness was discovered,
[56:20.52]celebrated, shouted from the roof tops,
[56:23.44]and it was, above all, a Protestant Englishness.
[56:27.20]With hindsight, God must have meant this to happen all along.
[56:34.28]Now, Protestantism and patriotism were one and the same,
[56:38.92]and the history you've just seen,
[56:41.16]which at the outset had nothing to do with national identity,
[56:44.72]at the end became obsessed with it.
[56:47.72]And when the Pope offered to bless anyone who would assassinate Elizabeth,
[56:51.96]that bond only became stronger.
[56:54.76]Now Catholics would be forced to choose between their Church and their Queen.
[57:03.56]English Catholic priests trained in foreign seminaries
[57:07.00]would be smuggled into the country and end up either dead
[57:10.36]or in hiding with Catholic families who were rich and powerful enough to protect them.
[57:21.52]So if we ask ourselves the question we asked at the beginning of the programme,
[57:26.32]"Whatever happened to Catholic England?"
[57:29.40]The answer is that it ended up down here,
[57:32.84]in a priest-hole, like this one at Sawston Hall outside Cambridge.
[57:38.56]The splendour of Long Melford reduced to a cloak-and-dagger church.
[57:49.76]For the Catholics of Elizabeth's England
[57:52.40]the retreat of the priesthood to the country house
[57:55.04]would be a final disaster.
[57:58.00]What was once the national Church would become a faith on the run.
6 Burning Convictions（1500——1558）
亨利想从罗马教皇分离，声称自己就是英国的教皇。这导致了英国的改革。在那几十年里英国的天主教被抛弃。1536 和 1538年10000名僧侣被uprooting。修道院分解，他们的财产被重新分配。
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