[00:05.69]In the Britain of King William III, turning up late could get you killed.
[00:10.65]State business was meant to run like clockwork.
[00:13.81]Time was money. Money was power.
[00:22.37]In the Highlands of Scotland, though, the timeless tradition of the clans still ruled.
[00:28.25]To William's annoyance, some clans remained obstinately loyal
[00:32.17]to his predecessor, James II, the Stuart king driven out in 1688.
[00:39.65]Even worse, those Jacobites had won a short-lived victory over William's troops
[00:44.89]at the Battle of Killiecrankie.
[00:58.25]William's right-hand man in Scotland, the Lord Advocate,
[01:01.41]believed it was high time to teach the clans a lesson in loyalty.
[01:06.29]The chiefs were given a deadline to pledge an oath of allegiance - January 1st, 1692.
[01:13.69]Acknowledge William as your lawful king.
[01:16.53]Those who make the pledge will be rewarded, those who don't, punished.
[01:21.09]The Chief of the MacDonald clan of Glencoe missed his appointment
[01:25.21]by five days.
[01:32.85]At dawn on February 13th, 1692,
[01:36.45]Williamite troops from the Argyle Regiment, already quartered in Glencoe,
[01:41.37]were ordered to carry out a massacre.
[01:44.09]They butchered 38 of the clan
[01:46.65]and the rest of the village - old men, women and children,
[01:50.01]some half-naked - fled into a raging snow storm
[01:54.05]where many of them died.
[01:58.77]In London and Edinburgh, news of the massacre at Glencoe
[02:02.57]was greeted with pious professions of shock,
[02:05.81]especially, of course, from those who'd had the responsibility of organising it.
[02:11.01]An enquiry was held but, needless to say, it was a sham.
[02:16.89]If the intention had been to cow the Jacobites into submission,
[02:20.97]it had all gone horribly wrong.
[02:23.45]The massacre was a public relations disaster for William's government.
[02:27.97]The Scottish parliament voted it an act of murder.
[02:32.85]How could victim and perpetrator ever be reconciled now?
[02:37.17]How could Scotland, stricken with poverty,
[02:39.97]with its national pride deeply wounded,
[02:42.85]ever come together with its rich and ruthless neighbour?
[02:47.93]But come together they did, and the two countries,
[02:51.09]for centuries divided by politics and religion,
[02:54.57]would make a future together based on profit and interest.
[02:59.33]What began as a hostile merger would end as a full partnership
[03:03.21]in the most powerful going concern in the world - Britannia Incorporated.
[03:08.97]It was one of the most astonishing transformations in European history
[03:13.37]and this is how it happened.
[03:57.93]In England, the 1690s were the years when the victors of 1688
[04:03.33]congratulated themselves on a "Glorious Revolution".
[04:11.61]In Scotland, there'd be years of purgatory.
[04:19.05]After the massacre at Glencoe came famine and pestilence.
[04:23.69]For several summers in a row, the sun refused to appear.
[04:27.69]Torrential rains poured down.
[04:29.85]Cattle and sheep became diseased with foot rot.
[04:33.45]Fields of barley and oats turned into mildewed slurry.
[04:37.89]The Jacobite clergy said this was God's wrath
[04:41.73]for turfing out the rightful king.
[04:47.81]In all this darkness, there were some who saw the light,
[04:51.73]a light that was going to shine hot and strong on Scotland.
[04:57.09]A plan that would transform the country from impotence and destitution
[05:02.21]into riches and power beyond anyone's wildest dreams.
[05:06.21]It would make Scotland - or its colonial trading post, New Caledonia -
[05:11.73]the hub of the universe.
[05:14.97]And where was that to be? Well, of course, in Panama.
[05:21.89]A group of merchants and bankers, including William Paterson,
[05:25.73]Scottish founder of the Bank of England,
[05:28.37]had the idea of creating a Scottish trading post
[05:31.69]on the Isthmus of Darien in Panama.
[05:34.85]At first sight, the idea sounds like the purest lunacy,
[05:38.77]but look at the map of world trade and it becomes visionary.
[05:42.93]A major obstacle to east-west trade
[05:45.49]was the long, dangerous, and ruinously expensive journey round Cape Horn.
[05:51.33]A trade route that cut through Panama was an obvious boon.
[05:55.65]At Darien, the distance between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans
[05:59.97]was only 40 miles.
[06:02.29]Goods could be carried across the narrow strip of land to waiting merchant ships.
[06:10.57]The trading economy of the world would be revolutionised
[06:14.65]and Scotland would run it.
[06:24.41]The Darien scheme instantly captured the imagination of the Scottish people.
[06:29.17]Men and women from all over Scotland
[06:32.69]queued up to invest in the venture.
[06:43.73]When the first fleet sailed from the Firth of Forth in July 1698, flying the Saltire
[06:50.29]and the extraordinary company flag of Indians, llamas,
[06:54.37]towered elephants and the beaming rising sun,
[06:59.29]it was carrying more than the 1,200 people selected to be the lucky colonists.
[07:04.41]It was carrying the hopes of an entire nation.
[07:10.41]But the only information the Company of Scotland had about Darien
[07:14.13]was from a pirate surgeon called Lionel Wafer,
[07:17.77]who claimed he knew the Caribbean very well
[07:20.81]and had convinced them the place was paradise.
[07:24.53]The climate was mild, he said, the soil fertile
[07:27.61]and the natives friendly.
[07:29.77]They were also vain, spending much of the day combing their long hair
[07:34.81]so, naturally, the ship's cargo included combs - thousands of them.
[07:39.89]The rest of the cargo says something about the conditions
[07:43.45]they were expecting to encounter.
[07:46.09]Crate-loads of catechisms and Bibles for converting the pagans.
[07:50.73]1,400 hats, an even greater supply of wigs.
[07:54.45]The Darienites were expecting to live like lairds of the lagoon!
[08:00.61]But before the ship got anywhere near Darien,
[08:03.37]the dream had turned into a nightmare.
[08:07.33]Forty crew and passengers died on the long voyage,
[08:12.13]and when they found their golden island, it was, of course,
[08:15.89]a mosquito-infested swamp.
[08:19.05]The natives did not, it seemed, want their combs or anything else.
[08:23.97]In a sweltering, rainy jungle,
[08:26.13]all the colonists' efforts went into lugging cannon
[08:29.77]into a primitive stockade bravely christened Fort St Andrew.
[08:35.69]They were dying now of disease and hunger
[08:38.93]at a rate of ten a day, and their supplies ran with maggots.
[08:46.09]And there was no outside help.
[08:48.37]Tropical New Caledonia was a direct threat to the English trading empire
[08:53.33]and the government in Westminster was determined it should fail.
[08:59.09]A law was passed making it illegal
[09:01.69]for any Englishman to invest in the scheme
[09:04.49]or give assistance to the desperate Darienites.
[09:08.53]When a second Scottish expedition arrived
[09:10.97]at New Edinburgh, all they found were hundreds of graves.
[09:21.33]Back home, when the full extent of the disaster sunk in,
[09:25.57]the fate of the Darien expeditions became a national trauma.
[09:29.97]They consumed a full third of Scotland's liquid capital,
[09:34.09]but the most serious casualty of the fiasco
[09:36.85]had been the last, best hope of a national rebirth -
[09:40.49]Scotland going it alone.
[09:42.89]That hope died in the malarial swamps of Darien.
[09:48.53]Many laid the failure of Darien squarely at England's door
[09:52.49]for its deliberate sabotage of the scheme.
[09:55.49]A wave of Anglophobia swept the country
[09:58.25]startling the men who ran things in Westminster.
[10:01.93]They became more worried when it looked likely that Queen Anne,
[10:05.93]who had succeeded William in 1702,
[10:08.65]would die childless.
[10:11.01]A crisis over the succession loomed.
[10:13.77]For the defenders of the revolution of 1688,
[10:17.01]whoever succeeded her simply had to be Protestant.
[10:21.49]In Scotland, after the humiliation of Darien,
[10:24.85]many Scots favoured Anne's half-brother, the Catholic James Edward Stuart,
[10:30.85]who was living in exile with England's old enemy - France.
[10:35.85]Westminster could not tolerate these kinds of threats
[10:39.05]from its own back yard.
[10:41.85]It had to take away Scotland's independence and insist on full political union.
[10:48.65]The creation of a single British state under a single parliament
[10:52.85]was now a matter of immediate urgency.
[10:56.57](SHOUTING AND DRUMS BEATING)
[10:58.93]The politicians knew they needed a sweetener to make the Union
[11:03.21]more palatable... and this is it.
[11:06.53]In this chest was deposited The Equivalent,
[11:09.61]the exact amount lost in the Darien adventure,
[11:12.89]all ?98,000 of it.
[11:16.89]You can almost hear the advocates of union saying, as they beamed broadly,
[11:21.65]"Now, this is what union means.
[11:25.21]"You seem to be a little hard pressed for funds.
[11:28.37]"Well, now Scotland's debts will be Britain's.
[11:32.61]"Sink or swim, we shall do it together."
[11:37.05]The Equivalent money, along with favourable trade concessions,
[11:40.65]was the carrot dangled before members of the Scottish parliament.
[11:45.85]By now, there were many who were already looking south,
[11:49.41]saw reality, smelled the profits.
[11:53.01]But behind the carrot, of course, lay the stick.
[11:56.17]Westminster threatened to block Scottish exports to England
[11:59.93]unless Scotland entered union negotiations.
[12:06.89]The writing was on the wall.
[12:09.61]Distraught, Lord Belhaven delivered a lament over the funeral pyre
[12:14.65]of Scottish independence.
[12:18.29]I see our mother Caledonia,
[12:20.49]like Caesar sitting in the midst of the Senate,
[12:24.41]attending the final blow and breathing out her last.
[12:30.41]We are an obscure, poor people, though formerly of better account,
[12:35.53]removed to a remote corner of the world
[12:39.01]without name and without alliances.
[12:43.65]In 1707, the deed was done.
[12:47.33]A Treaty of the Union had been drafted.
[12:50.21]It took just ten weeks to go through the Scottish parliament,
[12:53.85]six through Westminster.
[12:57.81]Scotland and England were now joined at the hip.
[13:08.73]What kind of nation was this Great Britain?
[13:15.01]To answer that, all you needed to do was to go to the new Royal Naval Hospital,
[13:20.85]a palatial retirement home for pensioned-off servicemen,
[13:28.49]It was a triumphal statement of how Britain saw its place in the world
[13:33.45]in the early 18th century.
[13:48.65]On the ceiling, painted by Sir James Thornhill,
[13:51.89]a jubilant allegory celebrates the reign of William of Orange and his wife Mary.
[14:01.73]Thornhill's design is a shameless steal from the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles,
[14:07.09]but the artistic larceny is, of course, making a point.
[14:12.05]Here, Apollo the sun god shines not on the Catholic Sun King, Louis XIV,
[14:18.01]but on the British monarchs.
[14:20.65]Over there, in France - despotism and popery.
[14:25.09]Over here, thanks to William - liberty and Protestantism.
[14:29.81]Over there - the curses of serfdom, misery and superstition.
[14:35.17]Over here - the blessings of navigation, trade
[14:42.05]But, of course, you don't go to ceiling paintings for the unvarnished truth.
[14:47.53]The truth was that we had been at war for almost 25 years,
[14:51.69]give or take a few intermissions.
[14:54.57]And during that time, Britain had been transformed by the experience.
[15:00.41]It was no longer a case of gallant little England defending the sceptr'd isle
[15:04.77]against the serried ranks of despots.
[15:08.05]Now, we sat at the heart of the greatest war machine in the world.
[15:18.33]That machine couldn't work without the lubrication of money,
[15:23.01]so along came a national debt needed to pay for it all.
[15:27.49]And this debt needed servicing, so enter the armies of money men -
[15:32.33]accountants, tax assessors, Customs and Excise officers.
[15:38.21]Buried inside all the crowing propaganda of the Greenwich ceiling,
[15:42.57]there was one crucial nugget of truth.
[15:45.29]Louis XIV could demand money for his wars,
[15:49.17]William III had to ask for it.
[15:52.61]Almost everywhere else in Europe,
[15:54.77]the more military the state, the stronger the king, except in Britain.
[16:00.13]Here parliament, not the monarchy, signed the cheques.
[16:03.61]The longer the war went on, the stronger parliament became, as the purse it had
[16:08.69]grew bigger and bigger.
[16:11.41]What's more, the kind of politics raging in Britain,
[16:15.05]we can recognise as distinctly modern.
[16:17.89]Two parties - the Whigs and Tories - diametrically opposed, not just about
[16:22.57]the policies of the day, but about the entire political character of the nation
[16:27.93]and the upheaval of 1688 that had created it.
[16:32.85]Whigs and Tories were not two parties who, when the barracking was done,
[16:37.73]could meet up for a drink and a bawdy joke.
[16:40.93]They went to different taverns, coffee houses and clubs.
[16:44.37]They were two armed camps.
[16:49.61]And the artillery barrages that flew between them were often red hot.
[16:56.61]250,000 votes were at stake in elections,
[16:59.97]more than 20% of the adult male population.
[17:03.17]And nothing was spared to grab them - money, drink, libels, gangs of toughs.
[17:10.09]This was all-out war at the hustings.
[17:12.89](SHOUTING AND SCREAMING)
[17:17.21]Tories accused the Whigs of being fanatics, the dregs of the populace,
[17:21.89]atheists, Commonwealth men.
[17:25.93]Whigs accused Tories of being willing tools of the Jesuits and the French.
[17:34.73]Since the Revolution said there should be an election every three years,
[17:38.89]this guaranteed an awful lot of politics.
[17:45.25]The political temperature reached fever pitch
[17:47.45]in 1714 when Queen Anne died with no heir.
[17:52.81]To make sure of a Protestant successor,
[17:55.57]no fewer than 57 individuals with blood ties to Anne were passed over
[18:00.73]to arrive at the next King of England -
[18:04.09]an uncharismatic, middle-aged man who didn't speak English.
[18:08.73]George, Elector of Hanover, now King George I of Great Britain.
[18:16.25]The Whigs backed his arrival in Britain
[18:19.13]and were rewarded when the new king appointed a Whig government.
[18:23.45]In response, the Tories ridiculed the new king as a lecherous dolt.
[18:28.45]His coronation was greeted with rioting in twenty towns.
[18:42.57](SKIRL OF BAGPIPES)
[18:46.17]But by far the most serious trouble now came from across the border.
[18:51.61]The Union failed to dampen enthusiasm in Scotland for the Jacobite cause.
[18:56.85]In fact, quite the opposite.
[18:59.01]The promise of trade and abundance had failed to cross the Firth of Forth,
[19:04.33]and all of Scotland was suffering from high taxes
[19:07.89]imposed by Westminster.
[19:10.53]The Jacobite leader, the Earl of Mar, buoyed up by promises of support
[19:14.77]from English Tories and Jacobites,
[19:17.61]declared James the rightful king at Braemar
[19:20.97]and proceeded to raise an army.
[19:25.69]The Jacobite slogan of "King James and no Union" meant support
[19:29.97]from both the Highlands and Lowlands came swiftly.
[19:34.13]10,000 men joined the rebellion.
[19:43.09]When news came through of a Jacobite rising in Lancashire,
[19:46.81]the government knew it was in serious trouble.
[19:51.65]But the Earl of Mar set new records for military ineptness.
[19:55.89]After the Battle of Sheriffmuir, which ended in a draw,
[19:59.85]and with his troops outnumbering the Hanoverian army,
[20:02.93]Mar moved energetically into retreat!
[20:06.85]By the time James Edward Stuart landed at Peterhead on December 22nd,
[20:11.65]it was all over.
[20:20.29]The Hanoverian dynasty remained,
[20:23.17]but the Jacobite rising was yet another demonstration of just how unstable
[20:27.65]the new political order was.
[20:30.01]After this stormy start to the 18th century,
[20:33.09]if anyone would've predicted it would be followed by decades of calm,
[20:37.45]they would've been thought an absurd optimist,
[20:40.41]yet that's exactly what happened.
[20:45.13]It came about through the efforts not of a king, a religious leader, or a general,
[20:50.69]but a political manager of uncanny genius.
[20:58.93]He'd been, like his father and grandfather before him, a Norfolk squire and an MP.
[21:04.09]He'd moved smoothly through the big-money jobs - Paymaster-General,
[21:08.77]Chancellor of the Exchequer.
[21:10.93]He'd come to dominate British political life for a quarter of a century.
[21:16.09]He was... Robert Walpole.
[21:21.33]Although he never actually had the title,
[21:24.25]Walpole was, in effect, Britain's first Prime Minister
[21:27.73]and, under his leadership, the British economy boomed as never before.
[21:43.41]Walpole's appeal was to shameless self-interest.
[21:46.93]From the pursuit of it, he believed, would come the country's greater good.
[21:51.25]"Which do you prefer?" he might've said.
[21:53.97]"A battle over principles and religious convictions?"
[21:57.49]That was only going to lead to war, turmoil and poverty.
[22:02.13]"Or would you rather have what I offer you? Peace, political stability and low taxes."
[22:08.49]What today we'd call "a healthy business environment".
[22:13.21]From the beginning, Walpole, nicknamed "Cock Robin", had made a bet
[22:18.09]that the politics of the future would be about portfolio management
[22:22.65]rather than religious passion or legal debate.
[22:26.57]In 1712, he'd been sent to prison for embezzlement
[22:30.05]and the experience gave him a painful lesson
[22:32.93]in how tightly intertwined were political and financial fortunes.
[22:39.09]But perhaps his greatest asset
[22:41.81]was his unerring grip on the psychology of loyalty.
[22:46.89]Walpole made a point of taking
[22:49.05]every new Whig member of the House out to dinner.
[22:52.77]Tete-a-tete. And there, with a glass of his best claret in your fat little hand,
[22:58.01]and a haunch of mutton juicily oozing on the trencher
[23:01.77]and Cock Robin's glittering eyes
[23:04.41]twinkling amiably at you, assuring you that the life of the party, the state of the nation,
[23:10.45]depended on you, the new member from Little Mucking-on-the-Wold.
[23:14.61]How could you not express undying devotion and loyalty to his interest?
[23:22.13]Walpole sat at the controlling centre of a vast empire of patronage.
[23:28.13]The jobs at his disposal conferred honour as well as cash on the holder
[23:33.33]and they were dangled on a string by the great political puppeteer.
[23:40.01]In retrospect, we can see that Walpole built Britain's, in fact the world's,
[23:44.45]first modern party political machine.
[23:47.81]He had placemen in parliament primed to vote as he directed.
[23:52.17]He had George I and then George II
[23:54.93]eating out of the palm of his hand.
[23:57.77]And in case anyone was tempted to flirt with the opposition,
[24:01.97]he had the kind of information that could make life really difficult for them.
[24:06.45]In short, Walpole had the goods.
[24:12.17]The goods, in fact, in every sense of the word.
[24:15.77]As well as looking after the country's interest,
[24:18.41]Walpole made sure he looked after his own.
[24:22.05]Just how much of a fortune he made for himself is spectacularly on view
[24:26.97]here at his country house in Norfolk, Houghton Hall.
[24:33.05]Houghton was the Whig Xanadu, the last word in opulence.
[24:38.13]Anything that riches could buy, Walpole bought.
[24:41.37]Marble, mahogany, figured damask,
[24:44.17]shimmering silks and satins, classical sculpture,
[24:47.81]glorious Renaissance and Baroque art,
[24:50.37]all shipped to his East Anglian pleasure dome.
[25:02.09]But Houghton was not just about living the good life, much as its master revelled in it,
[25:07.45]it was also a statement of grandeur meant to stun sceptics
[25:12.33]into recognising that only someone truly in command
[25:15.61]of the nation's fortunes could possibly afford something like this.
[25:21.45]King George may have had the throne, but Cock Robin had the palace.
[25:27.17]There's no doubt that Walpole's appeal to self-interest was infectious.
[25:32.09]With the glittering prizes dangled before their noses,
[25:35.41]the governing class of the country - 180 peers and 1,500 country gentry -
[25:41.53]lined up to trade in party passion for Palladian houses.
[25:46.57]They stopped shouting and started building.
[25:56.41]And what they built was designed to insulate them from the grubbiness
[26:00.49]of the real world - and Robert Walpole showed them the way.
[26:06.81]This stone column marks the spot where the village of Houghton stood.
[26:10.97]It had been here for centuries, but now it was just an inconvenience.
[26:15.29]It was too close to Walpole's house and it definitely spoiled the view,
[26:20.05]so he simply had it demolished and moved down the road.
[26:26.25]Of course, they could tell themselves, and they did,
[26:29.49]that their houses and parks were not just monuments to wealthy self-indulgence.
[26:35.29]They were also a testimony to the greatness and glory of the nation.
[26:43.49]Stephen Switzer, one of the leading landscape architects of the day,
[26:48.17]certainly saw this as his duty.
[26:51.49]Magnificent gardens, statues and waterworks complete the grandeur.
[26:57.25]It is then that we may hope to excel the gardens of the French
[27:01.69]and make that great nation give way to the superior beauties of our gardens,
[27:06.77]as her late prince has to the invincible force of British arms.
[27:14.21]This was the kind of battle the rich and powerful in Hanoverian Britain
[27:18.57]really liked to fight - war by gardening.
[27:28.05]Stourhead in Wiltshire is one of the great 18th-century landscape gardens.
[27:33.37]Taking inspiration from ancient Roman villas,
[27:36.05]aristocrats like Sir Henry Hall, who built Stourhead,
[27:40.09]even thought of their parks as a kind of public education
[27:44.13]and encouraged locals to pay a visit, provided they stuck rigidly
[27:49.09]to the designated tour route.
[27:52.45]That route would not just meander between ponds and trees,
[27:56.29]but towards classical buildings
[27:58.45]designed to kindle feelings of virtue and patriotism in their breast.
[28:13.21]But sharing all this pastoral graciousness
[28:16.53]only went so far.
[28:20.09]For the ruling class, their land was now a money pump.
[28:24.09]Big profit-yielding farms replaced strip farming,
[28:27.73]and smallholders were turfed off their land.
[28:30.81]Too bad. Landowners needed all the money they could get to keep up appearances,
[28:36.25]not just in the country, but in the town, and above all in the place
[28:40.37]which was the biggest, brashest, fastest-growing city in Europe - London.
[28:50.33]Here, the winners and losers of Walpole's Britain jostled side by side.
[28:56.25]700,000 of them.
[28:58.85]One in ten Englishmen.
[29:01.49]Foreign visitors were astounded at the noise,
[29:04.57]the hectic throngs packing the streets, the tireless hucksterism,
[29:09.29]the glittering greediness of it all.
[29:14.21]The modern morality tales of painter and engraver William Hogarth
[29:18.21]are peopled by innocents arriving dewy-fresh from the country...
[29:23.89]...surrendering to the temptations of the city
[29:27.25]and falling hopelessly into a deep, dark, sink of iniquity and disease.
[29:38.37]But however much moralists frowned on the new consumerism gripping the city,
[29:43.65]economic realists knew it was the way forward.
[29:47.29](WOMAN) # Come buy my greens and flowers fine
[29:50.57]# Your houses to adorn #
[29:54.45]There had been other great emporium cities in Europe, but nothing like this.
[29:59.65]London had invented serious shopping
[30:02.65]and it had something like 20,000 shops to prove it.
[30:07.97]Its shops would lure the customer to buy something they'd never thought of acquiring.
[30:12.61]Novelty items like oriental goldfish,
[30:15.61]which became an aristocratic marvel.
[30:18.81]Caged canaries, finches and parrots.
[30:23.33]Unheard-of luxuries became commonplace,
[30:25.89]priced to appeal to the middle class.
[30:28.61]China from Holland from which to sip your tea.
[30:32.77]Exotic fruits like pomegranates and pineapples.
[30:37.41]The first commercially available condoms.
[30:40.05]Lambskin for the rich, linen soaked in brine for the not-so-rich.
[30:46.33]London's consumer culture was Mephistopheles winking an eye,
[30:50.89]crooking a finger, and proffering credit.
[30:56.73]But terrible things could happen to those who ran out of credit and ran out of time.
[31:07.13]A debt of just ? would get you locked up in a debtor's prison.
[31:11.97]The prison, like almost everything else in greedy, managerial, Hanoverian Britain,
[31:17.01]was a business - a matter of pounds, shillings and pence.
[31:22.13]?,000 was the price one John Huggins paid
[31:25.97]for the wardenship of the Fleet Prison,
[31:28.49]the equivalent of half-a-million pounds today.
[31:31.85]The way he could recoup his investment was to charge inmates for their stay.
[31:36.77]The hotel from hell, including, of course, the rent for their shackles.
[31:42.21]A fiver would get you your own cell,
[31:44.93]a few shillings more, something approximating food.
[31:48.69]Less than that, you took your chance in the packed common prison,
[31:52.85]sleeping on the floor, no air, no sanitation...
[31:58.65]...and smallpox waiting to get you.
[32:05.01]"Who are the real criminals?" was the cry on the streets, in coffee houses,
[32:09.77]and in the newspapers of London.
[32:12.13]Everywhere you looked, the line between the law enforcers and the law breakers
[32:19.73]In 1725, the Lord Chancellor was convicted of embezzling ?0,000.
[32:25.73]People had had enough.
[32:29.37]In the 1730s, satires and essays and poems and pictures
[32:33.73]documented a rising wave of revulsion
[32:36.65]at the world Walpole had brought into being.
[32:42.25]A sense that beneath all the platitudes about peace and stability
[32:46.57]lay squalor and corruption.
[32:52.89]A walk through London, for example, was a walk over prostrate bodies,
[32:57.41]big and little.
[33:00.05]Infants, whose mothers were unable, or sometimes unwilling, to raise them,
[33:04.57]were abandoned on the streets.
[33:11.37]But there came a point when someone was tired enough
[33:15.01]of stepping over half-dead babies found in the gutter
[33:18.25]to do something about it.
[33:24.01]That someone was a 53-year-old retired merchant sea captain
[33:28.89]called Thomas Coram.
[33:33.29]Coram had made his fortune in Massachusetts
[33:35.85]from the Transatlantic timber trade.
[33:38.01]All he wanted was to have a quiet life in Rotherhithe
[33:41.97]where he could smell the Thames and the sea.
[33:44.93]But the sight of all those tiny abandoned corpses wouldn't leave him in peace.
[33:50.13]Worse, he knew that the mortality rate for infants born in the workhouse
[33:54.37]and sent out to wet nurse was close to 100%.
[34:01.13]So Thomas Coram determined to tap some of that new-found wealth
[34:05.85]to create a foundling hospital,
[34:08.29]a place where babies could be deposited, legitimate or illegitimate,
[34:12.45]and would be given a decent chance of survival.
[34:17.37]For nearly 20 years, he made himself a nuisance to his friends,
[34:21.69]petitioning the king and everyone else until the funds got raised.
[34:26.21]In 1741, the hospital opened its doors to its first children.
[34:31.09]Not surprisingly, it couldn't cope with demand.
[34:33.89]To decide which children could and couldn't get places,
[34:37.41]there was a heartbreaking lucky dip.
[34:40.01]Mothers lined up to draw wooden balls out of a bag.
[34:43.57]A white ball, and your baby was in. A red ball, you were on the reserve list.
[34:49.45]A black ball... Well, you were back on the streets.
[34:54.09]Inside this cabinet are some of the saddest things
[34:57.45]left to us by the 18th century.
[35:00.45]These are the keepsake tokens given to their babies by desperate mothers
[35:05.57]just at the point when they'd leave them to the tender mercies
[35:09.45]of the Foundling Hospital.
[35:12.85]There's a whole world of sorrow and love
[35:16.61]in this extraordinary cabinet.
[35:19.01]It speaks not just of the destitute.
[35:21.49]Some of the pieces, like this beautiful mother-of-pearl heart
[35:26.13]with the initials, presumably of the baby,
[35:29.93]suggest that some of these mothers were quite well-to-do.
[35:33.29]But in many other cases, the pieces speak of real hardship.
[35:38.05]They were just the things the mothers happened to have on them
[35:42.49]when they had to get rid of the children.
[35:45.69]Some of these mothers had nothing at the last minute
[35:49.33]to offer their little babies except a nut - a nut meant to be worn as a pendant.
[35:54.81]There's a little hole where the string was supposed to be strung through.
[35:59.53]Sometimes things that had a little work on them - like this beautiful sewn heart.
[36:06.09]Or, most desperate of all perhaps,
[36:08.53]just this flimsy little piece of ribbon.
[36:11.57]Imagine a mother saying goodbye for the last time to her baby
[36:15.57]just taking a bit of ribbon from her hair or her wrist
[36:19.53]and giving it, as she hoped, to her child.
[36:23.69]Now, if this wasn't heartbreak enough, it only gets worse when you know
[36:28.41]that none of these things ever found their way to the children.
[36:35.89]The Foundling Hospital couldn't hope to work miracles overnight.
[36:41.13]Nearly half the babies died in the first year,
[36:44.65]but that was a huge improvement over the usual figures.
[36:50.13]This was the middle-class parish at work -
[36:53.09]well off, busily charitable
[36:55.65]and as much interested in virtue as in wit.
[36:59.13]There had been philanthropy before, but this was the first time that businessmen
[37:03.97]came together with high-profile artists, writers and sculptors
[37:08.53]in a campaign of conscience to attack a hideous evil
[37:12.73]in what was supposed to be a Christian modern metropolis.
[37:22.65]The charges of the hospital would be employed in the service of the nation.
[37:27.65]In the Navy if they were boys or in domestic service if they were girls.
[37:32.41]The Foundling Hospital was philanthropy with a purpose.
[37:40.93]Its charges would be model Britons of the future,
[37:44.93]not gin-soaked, syphilitic rakes.
[37:47.09]They were going to be sober, educated, industrious, God-fearing
[37:52.37]and, above all, patriotic.
[37:54.77]# Rule, Britannia... #
[37:57.73]This was Britannia's time.
[38:00.89]# Britons never will be slaves
[38:07.17](CHOIR) # Rule, Britannia
[38:09.65]# Britannia rule the waves
[38:13.13]# Britons never will be slaves #
[38:18.85]The lyrics for this chest-thumping song were written by two Scots
[38:23.57]for a play about Alfred the Great, and they were sung
[38:27.17]by merchants and businessmen who saw Britain's future lay
[38:31.77]with the blue water empire of trade.
[38:37.77]But someone was in the way of this prosperous future -
[38:41.89]and that someone was Robert Walpole.
[38:44.81]Merchants felt Walpole and his cronies cared too much about land
[38:49.77]and not enough about business.
[38:53.33]So they were not amused when Walpole raised taxes
[38:56.57]on things that made money for them - beer and coal -
[39:00.33]while making damn sure to keep the land tax low.
[39:07.73]What would be the only thing that could raise those land taxes? War, of course.
[39:13.49]So no wonder Walpole, unforgivably, pussyfooted around the Spanish
[39:18.25]when they presumed to interfere with our ships.
[39:23.81]When he signed a treaty with Spain that was seen as an unpatriotic sell-out,
[39:28.89]the merchants were even more incensed.
[39:36.45]Walpole's effigy was burned in the streets by crowds roaring for his political head.
[39:43.09]Walpole's allies and time-servers in parliament
[39:46.25]were suddenly nowhere to be seen.
[39:49.33]His political enemies closed in gleefully for the kill.
[39:53.97]To deprive them of the satisfaction, Walpole walked, a broken man,
[39:59.01]back to his wine and his dogs at Houghton.
[40:04.49]It was the end of an era.
[40:12.37]Now the gung-ho patriots could have their get-rich war,
[40:15.89]and they must have thought it would be a breeze.
[40:22.57]Britain could fight abroad because it was so united at home.
[40:27.97]But in 1745, that unity
[40:31.29]would prove a bitter illusion.
[40:50.05]The Jacobite cause had refused to die,
[40:53.09]especially amongst the clans of north-west Scotland,
[40:56.13]where it fed off continued opposition to the Union.
[41:01.93]What the Jacobites needed was a figurehead
[41:04.53]and, in 1745, they got one,
[41:07.17]a leader many saw as a model of virile fearlessness.
[41:11.25]The son of James Edward Stuart,
[41:13.81]the man known to us and to posterity as Bonnie Prince Charlie.
[41:18.81]The fact the Prince's full name
[41:20.97]was Charles Edward Louis Casimir Silvester Severino Maria Stuart
[41:26.33]should tell us that the Prince was less
[41:28.81]the incarnation of the old Scotland of the clans
[41:31.97]and much more a fully-fledged graduate of the pan-European
[41:35.69]Italo-Polish-Franco-Irish-Catholic international community.
[41:42.81]But still, he was a Stuart,
[41:45.05]and that blood certainly mattered to the Prince himself
[41:48.41]who, at 24, sailed from France to Scotland to win back the throne for his father.
[41:58.73]On the 19th August, 1745, Prince Charles Edward Stuart
[42:03.13]stood here at Glenfinnan, watched his family standard being raised,
[42:08.05]and told the assembled clansmen he'd come to make Scotland happy.
[42:12.53]That would've been news to some of the crofters who'd been threatened
[42:17.21]with having their cottages burned unless they joined the Jacobites.
[42:20.93]But the sight of Bonnie Prince Charlie - and compared to George II
[42:25.65]and to his own embittered, ageing father, he certainly was bonny -
[42:30.41]standing here in the glen at the head of Loch Shiel in his tartan plaid
[42:35.25]did seem to promise, if only for a moment, a new Scottish future.
[42:40.61]Or, at the very least, the end of the miserable captivity of the Union.
[42:45.49]But happiness? Well, that was going to prove a lot harder to come by.
[42:51.45]The structure of clan society meant that support for the prince gathered quickly.
[42:57.65]In England, families were becoming a kind of business.
[43:01.21]In the Highlands of Scotland, kinship was much more a matter of blood.
[43:06.49]Clan loyalty was built around the idea, even when it was a mythical idea,
[43:10.97]of a common ancestor.
[43:13.69]The grandest landlords in the Highlands, like their Lowlands counterparts,
[43:18.29]were becoming connoisseurs of fine claret and chamber music.
[43:23.21]But the local laird had a lot in common with his crofters.
[43:27.85]They both spoke Gaelic, they wore tartan plaid and sporran,
[43:31.97]and they ensured they had broadswords and daggers ready when the chieftain called.
[43:44.69]Buoyed by the prince's claim that the French were behind them
[43:48.57]and planned an imminent invasion,
[43:50.93]Bonnie Prince Charlie and his army moved swiftly,
[43:54.09]catching the inadequate Hanoverian forces in Scotland
[44:00.49]But when the prince finally took what was the big prize, Edinburgh,
[44:04.65]he hadn't won over the whole of Scotland.
[44:07.61]The Lowlands were overwhelmingly loyal to King George.
[44:11.25]It's quite possible that more Scots fought against Bonnie Prince Charlie
[44:15.73]than for him.
[44:20.77]Nonetheless, it seemed that the prince couldn't put a foot wrong.
[44:25.25]When his army faced the Hanoverians at the Battle of Prestonpans,
[44:29.81]they won a resounding victory.
[44:36.85]At Holyroodhouse, debate raged as to what to do next.
[44:41.45]The Highland chiefs, sceptical of finding support in England,
[44:44.89]advised Charles to make the Stuarts masters of the north,
[44:48.93]but to go no further.
[44:51.09]But for Charles, nothing less than a conquest of England would do
[44:55.45]and he won the day by a single vote.
[44:59.69]The Jacobites were on their way south.
[45:03.97]In rapid succession, Carlisle, Lancaster, Preston and Manchester
[45:08.89]all fell to the prince's army without a shot being fired in their defence.
[45:14.41]With the Jacobites approaching Derby at the beginning of December
[45:18.01]and the bulk of His Majesty's forces fighting in Europe,
[45:21.57]there was close to pandemonium in London and the south.
[45:25.81]There was a run on the Bank of England and all the shops in London closed.
[45:31.41]The few soldiers left to protect the capital were not,
[45:34.93]shall we say, of the kind of calibre to inspire much confidence.
[45:40.77]But just as in 1715, it could be said the Jacobites defeated themselves.
[45:46.21]They didn't do it on the field of battle, but in this room at Exeter House in Derby,
[45:51.13]on December 5th, 1745.
[45:56.13]The prince and his chiefs argued bitterly whether to go forward or retreat.
[46:02.29]"London is just 130 miles away," said the prince.
[46:05.93]"Move on the capital and the French will come.
[46:09.17]"Besides, we've got precious little time.
[46:11.69]"The Redcoats will be back from Europe soon."
[46:16.89]"No," said Lord George Murray, joint commander of the prince's army.
[46:21.25]"I no longer believe the French are coming.
[46:24.21]"It's time to cut our losses. It's time to go home."
[46:29.25]This time, the prince lost the vote by a substantial margin.
[46:36.33]The Jacobites turned about and headed north,
[46:39.57]beginning the long tramp back to Scotland
[46:42.49]through dreadful winter weather, pursued by the newly-returned British regiments.
[46:48.25]Their retreat turned into a nightmare.
[46:52.45]It's hard to know which was more murderous -
[46:55.25]the snows of December and January or the vengeful, pursuing troops
[46:59.41]of George II's son, the Duke of Cumberland.
[47:04.73]Cumberland gave a taste of what he was capable of at Carlisle.
[47:09.73]The garrison had been captured by Jacobites on their march south,
[47:13.77]but they were unable to hold out against Cumberland's advance.
[47:23.73]Into this tiny space were crammed hundreds of Jacobite soldiers,
[47:29.49]locked up without any air or any water.
[47:34.05]What they did have were these shiny stones.
[47:39.01]Smooth, damp, slimy - a terrible memento of their distress.
[47:45.09]To this day, they're called "licking stones"
[47:48.13]because the prisoners were brought to such horrible extremities
[47:53.85]that they were forced and reduced
[47:56.33]to sliding their tongues in these cavities
[47:59.49]to try and collect the pathetic amount of moisture gathered on the rock.
[48:05.49]This really was Hanoverian Britain's Black Hole of Calcutta.
[48:18.01]By the time winter turned into spring in the Highlands,
[48:21.37]it was unmistakably clear that, whatever its temporary successes,
[48:25.29]the Jacobite war was lost.
[48:27.53]With every passing week, the Hanoverian advantage in men, money and guns told.
[48:36.21]The armies eventually faced each other at Culloden, near Inverness.
[48:41.45]Cumberland's force was only a third as big again as the prince's,
[48:45.25]but it was lethally better equipped.
[48:47.85]A new verse of the National Anthem proved to be prophetic
[48:51.73]as the big guns began to fire.
[49:48.89]Just an hour after the firing had started,
[49:52.05]there were 1,500 Jacobite Highlanders lying slaughtered.
[49:56.49]Only 50 of the Hanoverians had perished.
[50:00.45]It was perhaps better to be one of those felled by Hanoverian guns.
[50:05.05]It spared you the sight of British soldiers coming at you, while you lay wounded,
[50:10.01]to finish you off with their newfangled bayonets.
[50:13.89]As one Hanoverian officer noted:
[50:16.73]Our men, killing the enemy, dabbling their feet in blood
[50:20.25]and splashing it about one another,
[50:22.81]look like so many butchers rather than Christian soldiers.
[50:29.85]Charles Edward survived the battle and gave the order:
[50:33.61]Every man for himself.
[50:35.97]He went on the run until it was safe to be shipped back to France.
[50:42.01]In England, the victory was riotously celebrated.
[50:46.05]Effigies of Bonnie Prince Charlie were burned at the stake.
[50:49.81]Many Scots, too, were pleased to see the end of the Jacobite threat,
[50:53.77]delighted the prince had gone.
[50:56.13]But in the heartland of his support, north-west Scotland,
[50:59.61]Charles Edward left behind a population prostrate
[51:02.97]before the avenging army of the Duke of Cumberland,
[51:06.13]determined to break the Jacobite clans for ever.
[51:21.53]Villages were burned to the ground, captured men hanged or shot.
[51:26.17]Cattle were stolen, thousands driven from their homes.
[51:30.21]Even the wearing of Highland dress was banned,
[51:33.09]in an effort to strip the clans not just of their possessions, but of their identity.
[51:44.49]The hopes and dreams of the Jacobites had to live in the secret world of things,
[51:49.69]things that could be hidden or disguised -
[51:53.05]a lock of Bonnie Prince Charlie's hair
[51:55.77]or the mysterious emblems engraved on wine glasses.
[51:59.29]Take a look at this board.
[52:01.65]At first sight, it seems an indecipherable smudge of paint.
[52:06.37]But if you look at it the right way - reflected against
[52:09.85]the silvered mirror of a cylinder,
[52:12.21]it turns into The Lost Love, the boy born to be king,
[52:16.37]the saviour across the water.
[52:21.77]Unhappily for the keepers of the Jacobite flame,
[52:24.77]Charles Edward in exile went rapidly downhill.
[52:28.77]Too many mistresses, far too much drink, years of indolence,
[52:33.13]made him prematurely decrepit.
[52:38.17](WOMAN) # Will ye no' come back again? #
[52:44.49]But the romantic myth of the prince
[52:46.89]would survive the wreckage of his real history.
[52:50.65]It would live in the poems and popular ballads,
[52:54.13]where he would always be the dashing, charismatic boy prince.
[53:02.01]# Will ye no' come back again? #
[53:11.69]But Jacobitism as a political force was spent.
[53:16.05]In the decades following Culloden,
[53:18.21]a transformation would take place in Scotland.
[53:22.53]The Jacobite warriors who'd been unable to break Britannia
[53:26.29]were given an alternative to returning to their old obsessions of clan loyalty -
[53:31.93]join the future, join the army of the British Empire.
[53:35.89]Many thousands took the offer.
[53:38.41]Instead of being the perennial victims of that empire, they now colonised it.
[53:44.05]In the cities, too, a new Scotland was being born.
[53:49.17]In just 20 years or so after Culloden,
[53:51.77]it became common to refer to Edinburgh and Glasgow as hotbeds of genius.
[53:57.53]The collapse of the backward-looking cult of honour made room
[54:01.37]for the flowering of the forward-looking cult of modernity.
[54:07.29]In the academies, drawing rooms and reading clubs of Scottish cities,
[54:11.85]hopeless dreams were replaced by the appetite
[54:15.29]for hard facts and hard cash.
[54:21.89]The first British theory of progress was sketched out by Scottish philosophers
[54:26.61]like Adam Ferguson and David Hume.
[54:29.65]They looked at their own country's tragedy
[54:32.25]and saw in its history the entire arc of human social evolution,
[54:36.89]from hunting and gathering societies
[54:39.49]to settled farmers and, finally, to true civilisation -
[54:43.73]the world of commerce, science and industry,
[54:46.45]the world of the towns.
[54:54.93]It was another Scot, Robert Adam,
[54:57.41]who became the first British king of architectural style.
[55:01.49]Less than 20 years after Bonnie Prince Charlie had retreated from Derby,
[55:06.37]a different Scottish conqueror came to Derbyshire and, this time,
[55:10.41]he was invincible.
[55:23.65]At Kedleston Hall, Robert Adam built in a new style
[55:27.41]for a new kind of aristocrat.
[55:29.85]Its owner, the first Lord Scarsdale, was a true new Briton -
[55:33.85]rich, not just from land, but from the coal mines of Derbyshire.
[55:40.17]What he wanted was a house that would not overpower the visitor
[55:44.33]with vulgar displays of swaggering wealth,
[55:47.73]but somewhere that would speak of Roman grandeur,
[55:51.25]of noble classical austerity, of loftiness of mind, of purity of taste,
[55:56.85]a palace of contemplation, a temple of virtue.
[56:05.53]Could the accumulation of private riches be a force for general happiness?
[56:14.93]The Scot who made the deepest mark on the future of Britain certainly thought so.
[56:20.45]In 1746, while the last survivors of Cumberland's butchery
[56:24.33]were being hunted down, Adam Smith, son of a customs officer,
[56:28.69]had an exhilarating vision of the future.
[56:31.61]That vision was based on Smith's rejection of guilt and sin.
[56:35.89]But it would his revolutionary book, "The Wealth of Nations",
[56:39.25]which would mark Scotland's farewell to sentimental self-destruction.
[56:44.21]Upbeat and optimistic about the happiness of material life,
[56:48.17]Smith laid out, as a matter of scientific fact,
[56:51.53]mankind's natural drive to self-betterment.
[56:56.57]Allowed to follow their natural urges,
[56:58.93]men would create, without even willing it, a better world.
[57:03.21]Richer, freer, more educated.
[57:06.09]The best thing government could do was get out of the way
[57:09.81]and allow the "invisible hand of the market" to do its work.
[57:18.45]The economic world was like a watch, he wrote,
[57:21.65]its springs and wheels all admirably adjusted
[57:24.41]to the ends for which it was made.
[57:27.29]So, too, the countless movements of men would perfectly interact
[57:31.05]for the purposes for which God had made them.
[57:35.01]That purpose was progress, and it was one of history's sweetest ironies
[57:39.89]that it had fallen to Scotland - poor, bloodied, mutilated Scotland -
[57:44.33]to show Britannia the way ahead.
[57:47.49]If you want to see the future,
[57:49.65]forget the pompous monuments of England's past.
[57:53.09]Come north instead to the new towns of Glasgow and Edinburgh
[57:57.41]and see the future of Britain.
[58:00.33]The future, perhaps, of the world.
10 Britannia Incorporated（1690——1750）
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