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常见的英语同义词50组(1)

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    在学习英语词汇中,有时同义词的辨析是很不容易的,我们一般从三方面进行区分,即:语法、语义和文体。语法主要是词性、搭配、句式等的区分;语义主要是词义的本义、引申义、比喻义和内涵和外延等的区分;文体主要是正式和非正式、褒义和贬义等的区分。下面是笔者整理的50组同义词。

 

1.路

way: Wherever there is room for an object to proceed, there is a way.

road: A road is a prepared way for traveling with horses or vehicles.

path: A way suitable to be traveled only by foot passengers or by animals.

route: A route is a line of travel, and may be over many roads.

street: A street is in some centre of habitation, as a city town or village, when it passes between houses of dwellings.

avenue: A avenue is a long, broad and imposing( 壮严) or principal street.

 

2.时代(期) (时期)

period: It indicates any passage of time, great or small. /an extent of time of any length.

(时代)  time(s): It refers to a period in history. in ancient times/ in Victoria time (新时代)

epoch: It indicates a long period of time marked by events or development of a particular kind.

The first flight into space marked a new epoch in the history of mankind.

(纪元)
era: It refers to a very long period of time marked by a particular feature in a great new era of world revolution

(时期)
age: It shows a particular /a fairly definite period in history. the Bronze Age, Iron Age

 

3.战斗 (打仗)

fight: It is a bodily struggle (奋斗 斗争)

struggle: An effort of any kind to overcome difficulty.

(战斗) battle: A fight between armed forces.

(战役) campaign: A series of related military operations in a war.

(战争) war: A period of fight between countries or states when

weapons are used and many people are killed.

(对抗) combat: A fight, conflict, controversy.

 

4.牧师 (教士 牧师)

priest: A person, esp. a man specially trained for various religious duties and ceremonies, in the  Christian church, esp. in the Roman Catholic church

(牧师) minister: A member of clergy, esp. Protestant churches.

(牧师) clergy(pl): The officially appointed leader of the religious activities of a particular church or temple.

clergyman: clergymen(pl) a member of clergy.

(牧师) pastor: A Christian religious leader in charge of a church and its members, esp. in a Protestant church.

(教区牧师) vicar: A priest in charge of an area(parish) in the church of England.

father: A little of respect for a priest, esp. in the Roman Catholic.

 

5.服装

clothing(collect): (fml) General term of clothes.

clothes(no single): Coverings of the body such as coats,

dresses, suits, shoes, hats.

garment(fl): A suit of clothes used by actors./a single article of clothing.

costume: 1) The fashion of dress peculiar to a people,  nation, class, period, etc.

         2) A dress worn by actors in a play. uniform: worn by all members of the community.

dress: 1) A kind of outer garment worn by women (连衣裙).

       2) worn on special occasions (礼服) evening dress/ morning dress

suit: A set of outer clothes to be worn together. evening suit/swimming suit

coat: A garment with sleeves worn on top of other clothes from rain, heat, etc.

overcoat: A warn coat worn in the street.  

 

6.哭

cry: The most general one.

(哭泣) weep: To let flow tears.

(抽泣 抽嗒) sob: To weep or sigh with short quick breaths.

(哭天抹泪 涕泪交流) snivel: To sniffle and cry in a irritating manner.

(哭嚎 又哭又闹) blubber: To cry loudly noisily.

(发出低声报怨声) whine: To make a low complaining cry.

(嚎哭) bawl: To utter loud cries (always in bad sense).

(痛哭) wail: To cry aloud from pain or sorrow.

(呻吟) moan: To make a low, miserable sound in pain or sorrow.

(呻吟) grown: To make a low sound of pain, unhappiness or disapproval

(哀悼) mourn: To feel or show sadness or sorrow for someone who has died.

(哀悼) lament: To express great sorrow or regret.  

 

7.美丽 漂亮

good-looking: Having an attractive appearance in a strong, healthy way used for men and women not things.

beautiful: ( a woman or a thing) Suggesting symmetry of features or perfection of proportion, elegance and mobility. beautiful flowers, a beautiful girl/voice/city/face beautiful weather.

handsome: Of attractive appearance applies to men. a handsome fellow/actor/horse/buildings/young man.

pretty: (a girl, or a small thing) Suggesting liveliness and sweetness, pleasing or nice to look at. a pretty little woman/garden, a pretty girl/ picture/piece of music,  

lovely: (something) So beautiful that it makes you feel good to look at it or even to think about it. The garden looks lovely.  

fair: Beautiful( of woman in poet) light in color esp., skin hair.

gorgeous: (persons or things) (inf) Extremely beautiful or handsome.  

 

8.拉 拖

pull: The most general one.

draw: It implies a smoother, steadier motion and generally a lighter force than pull.

drag: It usually refers to horizontal motion or motion up an incline (slope) and it suggests laborious efforts over rough ground or against friction, resistance or gravity.

The escaped prisoner was dragged out of his hiding place.

haul: It implies continuous pulling or dragging of heavy or bulky objects.

The fisherman is hauling a net.

tug: It applies to hard often sudden violent effort to pull.  

He tugged at my sleeve to ask directions.

jerk: To pull suddenly.

He jerked out the knife that was stuck in the wound.

tow: To pull by a rope or chain. We towed the car to the nearest garage.

wrench: To pull hard with a twisting or turning movement.

 

9.旋转

turn: The most general one.

(自转) spin: To turn quickly around a central point.

It emphasizes the continuity of the action, and usually the narrow extent of the circular motion.

The wheel is spinning on its axis.

(急转) whirl: To round very fast.

It implies the lock of conscious control.

The leaves whirl in the wind in the yard.

(转动) rotate: To turn round a fixed point with a circular movement.

The earth rotates once every 24 hours.

(绕转) revolve: To turn or move in a circle around a central point.

It indicates circular or elliptical (椭圆) movement.

The planets revolve around the sun.

 

10.生气 气愤

anger: The most general one.

(易怒) be cross: Feeling easy to get angry.

(愤慨) indignation: (fml) Anger.

It stresses righteous anger at what one considers unfair, mean or shameful.

We expressed our indignation at the ruthless exploitation.

(愤怒) wrath: Very treat anger. (literary)

It suggests a desire on intent to revenge or punish.

(狂怒) rage: Wild, violent anger.

It suggests loss of self- control from violence of emotion. in a rage /to fall into a rage.

(暴怒) fury: Violent, extreme and destructive anger.

She flew into a fury.

 

11.错误

(误会) mistake: A wrong thought, act. It implies carelessness  Anyone can make a mistake.

(过错 弱点) fault: A bad point, but not of a serious moral kind. It refers to behavior and character. His only fault is that he lacks ambition.

find fault with sb / at fault shortcoming: Weakness, failing  

It refers to failures or deficiencies in things as well as people.

In spite of all her shortcomings I still think she's one of the best teachers in the school.

(疏忽) error: A mistake (formal sometimes literary)

It implies deviation from a standard or model

 The accident was caused by human error.

(缺点 毛病) defect: sth lacking or imperfect.

It refers to quality.

The radio was returned because of a defect.

(失误 过失) blunder: A very stupid or unnecessary mistake.

It implies ignorance.

This is the fatal blunder of his life.  

 

12.图画

picture: The most general one.

(彩图) painting: pictures with color.

(绘画 图画) drawing: A picture made with a pen, pencil and crayon. Sketch, diagrams and graphs are all drawings.

(草图) sketch: A rough not detailed drawing.

(图解 图表) diagram: A drawing, figure that shows the arrangement of something.

(曲线图) graph: A diagram in which a straight line, curved, or zigzag line shows how two sets of numbers or measurements are related.

(插图) illustration: A picture to go with words of a book.

(图样 草图) draft: The first rough written form of anything.  

(平面图) plan: A line drawing of a building as it might been seen from above.

(主视图) elevation: A flat upright side of a building.

(海图) chart: A map esp. a detailed map of a sea area. 

 

13.特别

(专门的,与众不同的) special: Different in some way from what is common, ordinary, or usual.

It stresses having a quality, character, identity, or use of its own.

The tube contains special gases.

(特别的) especial: (fml) To an usually great degree, exceptional

It emphasizes the importance of the things or the persons mentioned

This is a matter of especial importance.

(各别的) particular: Relating or belonging to only one thing or person.

It stresses the distinctness of something as an individual which is worth notice. In that particular case, the rule doesn't hold.(适用)

(特种的) specific: Detailed and exact, clear in meaning and explanation,  fixed, determined.(used in scientific articles)

It implies a quality or character distinguishing a kind or a species.

He gave me a very specific instruction. There is a specific tool for each job.

(独特的) peculiar: Strange or perhaps unpleasant.

It implies strangeness. He has a peculiar way of speaking.

 

14.取消 消灭

(取消 解除) cancel: To give up, to declare something is to be effective.

He has cancelled his leave of absence.(消假)

(废除 废止) abolish: To do away with. It refers to practices, social institutions. Bad customs should be abolished.

(消灭 排除) eliminate: To get rid of.

We should eliminate the false and retain the true.

(撤消 废除) repeal: To bring to an end of the effect of a law or an order. Some laws should be repealed.

(根除 消灭) exterminate: To destroy completely and wholly.

Colonialism must be exterminated.

 

15.破碎

break: The most general one.

(压碎 压破) crush: To press together violently as to break, to destroy its shape by squeezing it. It suggests the effect of great external pressure.

The tree fell on top of the car and crushed it.

(打碎) smash: To break thoroughly to pieces with a crushing sound.

She dropped the plate and smashed it.

(打裂) crack: To break without separation of parts.

It suggests the breaking out across a surface.

He cracked the window by leaning against it.

(破裂)  burst: To break open by pressure from within.

The fireworks burst while they were in the air.

(砸碎 破碎) shatter: To break into pieces.

It suggests the breaking up of a thin surface.

The glass was shattered to pieces.

(撞坏) crash: To refer to the vehicle which hits something and is badly damaged.

 

16.环境 形势

(环境 形势) conditions: The location and other factors likely toaffect it. It suggests something that has stayed the same for  some time and which affects daily life such as food, work, and houses.

We are now studying the economic conditions in the developing countries.

(形势) situation: A position or state at a particular time, set of conditions, facts, and events having an  effect on a person, society, etc.

It suggests more general matters such as government planning and finance.

The political situation in these countries are always changing.

(环境 周围 外界) environment: The circumstances, things and conditions that influence you. It refers to spirit aspect, physical aspect and

material aspect. We must try to beautify our environment.

(形势 情况) circumstance(s): A situation or event around us, a certain  kind of atmosphere, the conditions that affect what happens. in (under) the circumstances

(环境 周围事物) surrounding(s): The area and environment around a place or

person. It indicates a very narrow condition, "physically" sometimes reflects spiritual aspect.

They lived in hostile surroundings.

 

17.著名的

well-known: (infl)

famous: The most general one. widely known or honored.

(杰出的 知名的) distinguished: Great, outstanding marked by excellent quality or deserved fame, used especially of people who are famous for serious work in science, the arts etc.

He was a distinguished writer.

(驰名的) celebrated: Famous, (substitute for renowned)

It refers objectively to sb or something that has been give acclaim or honoured with awards or prizes. She was a celebrated actress.

renowned: Highly honored and famous for something good. often refers to places or things, also It suggests something that has become legendary or is no longer available for an objective evaluation.

Edison was renowned for his inventions.

noted: Well-known and admired

It often describes a more intellectual kind of effort and accomplishment indicating an authority  or expert or their theories. Maybe it is not widely

known to the general public. He was a very noted expert.

(臭名昭著) notorious: Famous for something bad.

He is notorious for his crimes.

 

18.强盗

thief: The most general one.

(强盗) robber: It suggests a direct confrontation in which the owner is forced to give up his valuables.

(行凶强劫) mugger: A person who attacks and robs people in a street or in a lift.

burglar: A person who breaks into a house at night to steal something.

(歹徒 暴徒) gangster: A member of a group of criminals, esp. those who are

armed and use guns to threaten.

(匪徒) bandit: an armed robber.

It suggests an organized group in a rural setting.

(土匪) brigand: A robber who lives by robbing travelers in the country.

(海盗) pirate: A person who robs on the sea. 

 

19.摇动,颤动

shake: The most general one. to move up and down or back and forth.

It refers to persons or things.

(发抖) quiver: To tremble a little.

It suggests a rapid but invisible vibration.

His lips quivered with emotion.

(颤抖) tremble: To shake uncontrollably and slightly as from fear,  cold, excitement etc.

It implies uneasiness and nervousness.

Her voice trembled as she began to sing.

(瞬间发抖) shiver: To tremble from fear or cold.

It suggests a slight and rapid movement.

He stood shivering in the snow.

(极度颤动) quake: to shake or tremble violently.

It suggests a more violent and sudden change.

He quaked with excitement.

An explosion cam make the ground quake.

(抽筋般颤动) shudder: To shake uncontrollably for a movement.

It suggests a more intense shaking.

She shuddered at the sight of a snake.

 

20.说话 谈话

(说话) speak: To use your voice to say words.

(说) say: To speak words.

(发出声音) utter: To make sound and say words.

drawl: To speak in a slow, prolonged manner.

mutter: To express displeasure with compressed lips.

rave: To talk in an angry, uncontrolled way.

gabble: To talk rapidly, making inarticulate sounds.

(谈论) remark: To mention it or comment on it.

(陈述) state: To say, express or put into words, esp. formally.

He stated his view.

(讲述) narrate: To tell formally in writing or speech or describe

something in order with intonation.

He narrated his adventure in the forest.

(详述) relate: To tell formally in details, to give an account of.

He related his experiences.

(讲演) address: To say in speech or writing to a person or group.

tell: To let people know about something.

talk: To say things to someone.

converse: To talk formally.

The scholars are conversing with each other on linguistics.

chat: To talk in a friendly, familiar, informal manner.

The two friends sat in a corner and chatted.

chatter: To talk continuously rapidly about small things.

The schoolgirls went along chattering.

whisper: To talk in a low voice.

She whispered me not to talk so loudly.

murmur: To make a soft sound, esp. to speak or say in a quiet voice.

He often murmurs to himself.

(闲谈) gossip: To talk about the details of other people's actions

and private lives which may not correct or proper.

That woman is very fond of gossiping about others.

stammer: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of excitement, embarrassment.

stutter: To speak with pauses and repeated sounds because of

inherent speech defect.

 

21.事情,事件

(事) thing: An event, a fact, a subject.

He talked of many interesting things.

(事情) matter: Seth that you have to deal with, something to be discussed, thought over.

There are several matters to be dealt with at the meeting.

(事务 责任) business: A special duty, something that has to be done.

Public business is every one's business.

(事务) affair: An event or set of connected events. (pl) private and personal life.

I have many affairs to look after.

(事件) event: An important happening. Events such as birthdays and anniversaries are often celebrated.

Do you know the chief events of 1986.

incident: Not as important as an event. Incidents seldom are celebrated. Sometimes an event becomes an incident after many years have passed.

(偶然事件) happening: An occurrence, and sometimes an unusual one.

There have been strange happenings here lately.

(偶发事件) occurrence: An incident that is usually unexpected and has not been planned ahead of time.

Flood is practically an annual occurrence in this district. 

 

22.承认

admit: To agree to the truth of, usu, something bad.  

It suggests reluctance or possible objection.

He admitted his crime/stealing.

(自白 供认) confess: To admit guilt as to a crime or as to a shortcoming, in the sense of making known to others one's own error or wrong doing.

He confessed his fault/doing something wrong.

acknowledge: to agree the truth of, recognize the fact or existence of what have said or done, good or bad.

It emphasizes openly in a embarrassing or awkward and usually not voluntary way.

I acknowledged my signature/mistakes/errors/having been defeated.

grant: To admit or to agree something is true.

I granted his request/his honesty.

take sth/sb for granted.

concede: To admit as true, just or proper often unwillingly because of overwhelming evidence.

I conceded you that point, but I still think you are wrong.

recognize: To accept or acknowledge it.

It refers to something about law and diplomacy.

The new regime was recognized by China.

 

23.走路

walk: The most general one.

stride: To walk with long steps.

He strode through the station a few minutes before the train left.

(高视阔步) stalk: To walk stiffly, slowly, and proudly with long steps.

trot: To jog, move quickly, usu refers to horses.

(蹒跚而行) waddle: To walk from side to side with short steps like a duck.

The fat man waddled out of the room.

(蹒跚) stagger: To walk unsteadily, slide and drag the feet almost

falling at each step, usually because of illness,  injury or drink.

After drinking too much, he staggered in the street.

(摇摆蹒跚) totter: To walk unsteadily showing great weakness often used

of very young children learning to walk. The child tottered before his parents.

(拖着脚走) shuffle: To move without lifting the feet clear of the floor  as if wearing slippers.

The old man shuffled along the road.

(趾高气扬地走) strut To walk in a proud strong way, esp. with the chest out and trying to look important.

(慢行) amble: To walk at an easy gentle rate.

It stresses a leisurely but regular movement.

(闲逛) stroll: To walk, esp. slowly, for pleasure.

It emphasizes a slower movement, more wandering and aimless with suggestions of many starts and pauses.

They are strolling through this park.

saunter: A little more formal than stroll.

(漫步 徘徊) wander: To move about without a fixed course, aim, or purpose.

He was wandering about/down/through/up and down the street.

(漫游) roam: To wander with as very clear aim.

It suggests a more serious purpose behind the irregular of circular movement in complete forgetfulness of time.

The lovers roamed around/through the fields.

(跋涉) trudge: To walk heavily and wearily with effort as when one (plod) is tired.

The hunter was trudging through the deep snow.

(重步行走) tramp: To walk with firm heavy steps.

Who has been tramping all over the carpet in muddy shoes.

(扭扭捏捏地走)

mince: To walk with little short steps in an affected manner.

It was a funny sight to see her mince along.

slouch: To walk in a loose, ungainly (不雅观) way.

hustle: To walk in a busy, active way.  

 

24.跳

jump: The most general one. to throw oneself into the air.

(跳起)
leap: (literary) To spring through the air, often landing  in a different place.

The boy leaped over the brook without difficulty.

(跳跃) spring: To leap suddenly and quickly.
He sprang to his feet at the sudden noise.

(跳着跑) bound: To spring lightly along.

It suggests high spirits and excitement.

His dog bounded to meet me.

(轻快地跑) skip: To move in a slight dancing way, as with quick steps and jumps.

The little girl skipped at her mother's side.

hop: To jump on one leg.

The boy had hurt his leg and had to hop along.

vault: To leap over something using the hands or a pole.

You can vault a fence by putting your hands on it and swinging yourself over.

hurdle: To jump over some thing while running.

The horse hurdled the fence and ran into the woods.

 

25.特点 特征

quality: The most general one.

(特点)

characteristic: Quality typical of a particular person and thing, a special and easily recognized quality of sb/sth.

It has may scientific or technical uses.

It implies neutral description in referring to any aspect of something without evaluating its relative importance to the whole.

A useful characteristic of the cat is its ability to catch and kill mice.

(特征) character: The combination of qualities which make a particular person, thing, place, etc.

A tendency not to show emotions is supposed to be part of the British national character.

(性质) nature: The qualities make someone or something  different from others.

It indicates the widest range of traits,  including emotional, mental and physical qualities.

It is only human nature to like money.

(特征) attribute: A quality belonging to or forming part of the

mature of a person or thing.

The word is positive rather than negative.

Darkness is an attribute of night.

(特性) peculiarity: The quality of being peculiar, strangeness,  unusualness.

It shows an unpleasant attribute that is quite noticeable.

One of his peculiarities is that his two eyes are not the same size.

(特色) feature: A typical and noticeable part or quality.

It suggests something positive and specifically

It refers to physical appearance.

A lake is an important feature in this area.

(品质 特性) trait: A particular quality of sb/sth.

It refers to more abstract attributes. Honesty and diligence are the chief traits of his character.

(个性) personality: The whole nature or character of a particular person.

 It refers to the whole indefinable emotional coloration that a specific person gives off. He has a strong personality.


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