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02 段落发展模式

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2019年06月11日

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02 段落发展模式

段落是构成文章的重要组成部分,段落的构成一般来说有其一定的发展模式。掌握段落的发展模式,有助于我们识别主要信息和次要信息,抓住关键所在。现在,我们简述一些常见的段落发展模式,让大家能对文章的段落有更深的了解,以便于提高阅读速度,带来显著的效果。

总的来说,段落发展模式分为两种:等级型发展和线型发展。

1.等级型发展

等级型发展又分为定义型、分类型、举例型、比较型和对比型。

①定义型

该类型的段落特点是科学合理地解释描写对象的含义或概念,有些解释写的是全部特征,有的是部分特征。该类型的段落经常用到以下词汇:refer to,mean,be defined as,be described as,be known as,be thought of as,be referred to as, be called 等。

②分类型

该类型段落的目的是为了让读者更加清楚地了解所述事物的各种类型。分类也分为两种情况:一般到具体和具体到一般。直白点来说就是:总分和分总的结构模式。因为大部分情况下总分结构比较多,所以分类段的第一句一般为主题句。该类型段落一般使用以下词汇:divide into…kinds,fall into…types,include…kinds,consist of…sorts, make up of…types 等。

③举例型

作者用具体的例子来说明自己提出的观点。通常是由句首的主题句和下文中阐述主题句的细节句子构成。举例型段落一般会用到以下词汇:such as,generally,for example,especially,for instance,as follows 等。

④比较型

该类型的段落主要是为了比较两个描述对象,一般会用到以下词汇:as,like,similarly, compared to,in common,rather than,than等。

⑤对比型

对比型段落和比较型段落经常一起使用,所以常常难以区分。我们要注意,比较型段落和对比型段落都属于文章的辅助信息,是为了说明主题句而写的。主题句一般是简要说明两个描述对象之间的相同点或不同点。主题句的位置很不确定,需要读者在阅读中加以区分。对比型的段落一般会用到以下词汇:on the other hand,however,while, despite,otherwise,though,in contrast 等。

2.线型发展

线型发展又分为时间型、因果型和描述型。

①时间型

该类型段落一般用于记叙文,作者使用介词和副词将事件按照时间的先后顺序描述出来。时间顺序不固定,有的是由远及近,有的是由近及远,但毫无例外的是,这类段落在时间上都具有连贯清晰的特点,能让读者明晰事件的发生过程,从而便于读者抓住主干信息。

②因果型

这样的段落一般是将事实摆出来,然后解释导致事实的原因;有的是先说原因,再说导致了什么事实。这样的段落就是因果型段落。不管位置怎样安排,主题句永远是那个概括因果关系的句子。

③描述型

该类型段落的空间顺序感比较强,空间顺序一般为由表及里、由内到外,上、下、前、后、左、右。这样的段落既存在记叙文也存在于说明文当中。但一般说明文主题句多一些。

超强实践

请大家试着找出以下文章的段落发展模式。

-1

San Pedro man has been sentenced to four years in prison for endangering a diver who died last year when his breathing equipment got tangled in kelp off Catalina Island.

Craig Lightner was sentenced Monday after pleading guilty in July to involuntary manslaughter in the death of 47-year-old Mark Rascon, according to the Los Angeles County district attorney's office.

The men had been trying to illegally catch the blue-banded Goby fish while diving on July 27, 2013.They were using air hoses and “unsafe” breathing regulators, but Lightner didn't teach Rascon how to properly use the equipment, prosecutor Carol Rose said in a statement.

And when Rascon's breathing equipment became tangled in kelp, Lightner called the U.S.Coast Guard to report a missing diver instead of rendering aid, Rose said.

Rescuers found Rascon's body 80 feet down.

Coroner's officials determined Rascon suffered an embolism during the dive, which led to his drowning, according the district attorney's office.

-2

National wars foster unity; civil wars are defined by its collapse.And that makes for great storytelling.Division means tension, choice—the things that stories feed on.It's not surprising that the civil wars of history have been fertile ground for writers; and here are 5 great examples.

The Silver Pigs by Lindsey Davis

Rome thrived on conflict.The struggle for power, and the role of the legions, made great chunks of its history more or less a civil war.There's a huge market now in sword-and-sandal historical fiction drawing on the chaos of Roman politics and wars.(MC Scott bases her vivid accounts of battle and camp life on 20th-century soldiers' reminiscences.) But one of the best examples comes from 1989, when a former civil servant introduced Falco, a chippy, sardonic, harassed investigator, whose adventures begin as Rome tries to recover from the year of the four emperors.

A Morbid Taste for Bones by Ellis Peters

The battle for the English throne between Matilda and her cousin Stephen between 1135 and 1154—18 years of unrest “while God and his angels slept”—seemed bleak for fiction, until Ellis Peters (one of four pen names used by Edith Pargeter for her novels;she also translated Czech literature) recognised that the pervasive uncertainty and unrest were the ideal background for mystery novels.Brother Cadfael fought in the Crusades before becoming a monk; his experience of life and his knowledge of herbs, learned from Muslims in the Holy Land, make him a humane and relatively practical voice amid the superstition, able to see clearly through the crimes that the civil war brings to Shrewsbury Abbey.

The Three Musketeers by Alexandre Dumas

The struggle between Catholics and Protestants, and the national and international intrigue surrounding the French throne in the early 17th century, are the terrain for one of the most famous adventure stories ever written.Episodic and rambling—Dumas, famously, was paid by the line—it holds together and holds the attention thanks to character appeal and sheer rollicking force of storytelling.The sequel, Twenty Years After, links the aristocratic Fronde rebellion in France and the civil wars in Britain.

The King's General by Daphne Du Maurier

The British civil wars saw great brutality (especially if you were Irish) and an explosion of ideas.But authors have tended to focus on the “wrong-but-romantic versus right-but-repulsive” Cavalier-Roundhead conflict between 1642 and 1651 in England.Du Maurier steps outside this by setting her classic in Cornwall, always a land apart, and making the eponymous object of her crippled heroine's obsession the ambiguous and cynical Richard Grenville.Their relationship—passionate but knowing, and somehow above the concerns of lesser humans—has echoes of Rhett and Scarlett (see below), and is bracketed by a haunting fragment of historical truth.

Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell

For many British readers, and certainly British audiences, this 1936 blockbuster is the American civil war.(It seems to last about as long.) It was Mitchell's only published novel, and she originally named her heroine Pansy O'Hara.Behind the legendary passion at its heart, the book captures the scale and the devastation of the war and its aftermath.Some might prefer Stephen Crane's 1895 The Red Badge of Courage, about a young soldier's attempt to overcome his cowardice and get the wound that will win him respect and a way out.

-3

Today thousands of parents seeking a secondary-school place for their children will be having a final mini-panic.The fiercely competitive application process for admissions is at an end, along with the seemingly endless school open-day trips and the scrutiny of Ofsted reports and league tables.They'll have to wait until March to find out whether their child is to be offered a place at their first preference.

Among them will be middle-class liberal-progressive types who could afford private education but choose to send their kids to state schools as a sign of solidarity with those of less privileged backgrounds.In their eyes, they're doing their bit to address Britain's huge and growing inequality gap.But what impact does this really have on equality? Do children from rich, middling and poor backgrounds all enjoy similar life chances by attending the same state school?

David and Samantha Cameron's public embracing of the state school system for their 10-year-old only serves to underline the common myth.The couple's favoured list of state schools has so far included “outstanding” and “exceptional” Church of England girls' state schools in some of the wealthiest parts of London.It's unlikely that their kids will end up at a standard mixed-sex comp—or one of the many poor schools that have failed to improve even after formal intervention, as the National Audit Commission revealed today.

At the redbrick university where I teach, as in universities up and down the country, students who've been educated in tougher inner-city school environments are in a small minority.

But while it's easy to take a pop at aristocrats who pass privilege through the generations, the very wealthy aren't the only ones who enjoy advantages.How many families on an income of £47,000 a year—or whatever the latest definition of middle-classness is these days—produce kids who grow up to become cleaners or lorry drivers? I've never met any.Downward mobility is a rarity, even in these economically tough times.According to a YouGov survey last year, a mere 2% of people born into middle-class families said they had joined the working class.And seven out of 10 people say they still belong to the same social class as their parents.The gap between haves and have-nots continues unabated.The Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission has warned that the UK is on the brink of becoming a nation permanently divided between rich and poor.

I have never bought into the idea that our state education benefits all children equally.That's why I send my child to a private school.I don't want my kid to risk being assigned to the scrapheap, as I pretty much was.At my local comprehensive I sat tests without bothering to revise because no one expected me to do well, and I read books that I had long ago mastered.Don't get me wrong: the vast majority of state school teachers do great jobs in difficult circumstances.But if I felt more confident of my social standing and that of my child in the future, my decision about her education might be different.

Liberal middle-class acquaintances, equipped with far more resources than me, accuse me of cheating the system for my child.These are the same parents whose children attend extracurricular activities every day of the week, and who spend fortunes on private tuition.For the most part, they are in complete denial about the social, cultural and financial opportunities afforded to middle-class kids from birth, whatever type of secondary school they go on to attend.

The reality is that our society is designed to favour the better off, so I'll be damned if I don't do everything I can to equip my child.If the day ever arrives that a British government is truly committed to promoting equality of opportunity, I'll gladly cough up the extra taxes or do whatever's required to support it.In the meantime, I'll attempt to snaffle whatever advantages I can possibly afford for my child.

Perhaps my real crime is failing to participate in the myth of meritocracy.What's crucially important to a child's life chances, surely, is the opportunity, or lack of it, afforded to each child at birth.

-4

Walter Potter was a self-taught, Victorian taxidermist who created an extraordinary museum of narrative, whimsical taxidermy that became famous all over the world.He was born—and lived his entire life—in the modest Sussex village of Bramber, a few miles north of Brighton.As a boy, he loved nature and wildlife.From manuals (and a trip to the Great Exhibition in 1851) he taught himself to skin, preserve and stuff the creatures brought to him by local farmers and family friends: cats, foxes, rats, frogs, his own pet canary.

But Potter stands out because he didn't simply preserve the creatures in his care, rather he told stories: his tableaux were unique, retellings in fur and feathers of nursery rhymes or folktales: The Death and Burial of Cock Robin, with all the birds of the air a-sighing and a-sobbing; The Kittens'Wedding, with each feline guest dressed in black tie or white dress; the Guinea Pigs'Cricket Match and Band, the score forever frozen at 189 for 7, and the squirrels playing cards and smoking cigars inThe Upper Ten.

I first visited Potter's museum in the 1970s, after it had moved from Brighton to Arundel, and fell in love with the place.It wasn't just the surreal weirdness of some of the more grotesque pieces (twin Siamese pigs suspended in a glass jar; a two-headed kitten), I was amazed by the incredible attention to detail, the love and care he had taken.

Looking back, and moved, finally, to tell my own story inspired by his work, I admire even more the fact that he created precisely what he wanted.He was not swayed by fashion or finance—though he was a canny businessman—but was driven by passion and determination. He was a man of Sussex, inspired by the landscape and local knowledge, and many of us are indebted to his imagination.

It is a great tragedy for British craftsmanship that the collection was auctioned off piecemeal in 2003 rather than being kept intact, though his legacy lives on.

-5

Microsoft has been winning generally approving headlines for its Microsoft Band fitness tracker and accompanying Microsoft Health platform, since both were revealed—seemingly unintentionally at first—on Wednesday.

One of the key points about both hardware and software is their cross-platform nature: they won't just be restricted to people with a Windows Phone smartphone and/or a computer running the Windows OS.They'll also support Android, iOS and Mac.

Microsoft Health is also open to other devices and apps, with Jawbone's Up and the apps MapMyFitness, MyFitnessPal and RunKeeper the first to be announced.

“We plan to have a regular cadence of Microsoft Health announcements including additional device and service partnerships, SDK availability and additional cross-platform applications and services,” blogged Microsoft's Todd Holmdahl.

Integrating other fitness apps isn't unusual: it's an approach also being taken by Apple's Health app and HealthKit API, as well as Google Fit, which also launched this week.Meanwhile, hardware makers including Fitbit, Withings and Jawbone have built a network of data-sharing deals to work with apps beyond their own.

Even so, Microsoft Health's commitment to cross-platform is notable, if perhaps essential given the relatively small market share of Windows Phone.Do you think it gives the company's new venture a healthy chance of attracting people?


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