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用英语说中国旅游华北地区 07:孔庙、孔府、孔林自然概况1

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2016年02月29日

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Temple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion

孔庙、孔府、孔林

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Natural Features

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自然概况

Qufu in Shandong Province is the hometown of Confucius(551一479 BC) who is a great thinker,statesman and educator in China's history,and founder of the Confucian school of philosophy,which is the ideological root of all varieties of Chinese culture. Its position in the making of Chinese nationality and culture is never surpassed for 2000 years. Qufu,admired by all rulers and intellectuals in history,has numerous cultural sites,among which the most famed areTemple and Cemetery of Confucius and the Kong Family Mansion.

山东曲阜是中国历史上伟大的思想家、政治家、教育家、儒家学派的创始人孔子 (公元前551一479))的故里。中国悠久灿烂的汉文化,其思想根源都可追溯到先秦孔子。孔子在塑造中国民族性格和传统文化上的历史地位,两千年来无人可及。曲阜作为历代帝王、文人名士仰慕的地方,遗留下大量的文物古迹,其中最著名的是孔庙、孔林、孔府

The Confucian Temple is in the center of Qufu City. It was built in 478 BC. There are still 466 halls, pavilions and other rooms intact, covering a total area of 21. 8 hectares. Repeated improvement and expansion has turned the temple into a palatial complex with nine rows of courtyards

孔庙位于曲阜市中心.建于公元前478年。全庙共有厅、堂、楼、轩等各各式建筑466间,其总面积约21.8公顷。数十次的重修、扩建,使孔庙成为拥有九进院落、规模宏大的古建筑群。

The Great Accomplishment Hall , the major structure of the temple,is 33 meters tall. It is roofed with yellow glazed tiles and has octagonal eaves. The front 10 stone columns are carved with dragons. In addition to a statue of Confucius, the hall also houses stone inscription of the Ming Dynasty,which tells the life story of Confucius in 120 pictures,as well as a great deal of stone tablets.

孔庙的正殿大成殿高3米,殿脊为黄色琉璃瓦,八角形殿檐。殿前十根石柱上雕有龙图。除孔子塑像外,殿内还有明朝时期立的石碑。碑上的120副图画讲述了孔子的生平。此外,殿内还有大量的石匾。

The Confucian Family Mansion,right next to the Confucian Temple,was the residence of Confucius' descendants and also the residence just next to the imperial palace in scale. It covers i6 hectares with 463 rooms. The family mansion now houses a large number of documents,files and cultural relics.

孔府紧靠孔庙,是孔子的后代子孙们居住的地方,规模上仅次于皇宫。孔府占地 16公顷,有厅,堂、楼、轩等各式建筑463间。府内收藏大量的历史档案、文件和文物。

The color of the roof tiles of the mansion is elegant gray. The front part of the mansion is the Office Quarter,while the rear quarter is the family residence and garden. The mansion is famous for not only the numerable cultural treasures but also the Kong Family's Mansion Banquet, which it is said,follows a menu with quite a few imperial dishes for the emperor.

孔府是用雅致庄重的灰瓦建造的。孔府,前部为官衙三堂,后为内宅和孔府花园。在这儿,不仅可以看到大量珍贵文物,还可品尝著名的孔府宴,据说其中多种菜式是当年皇帝的御膳。

The Confucian Cemetery,occupying more than 200 the family graveyard of Confucius and his descendants for hectares,has served as more than 2 300 years.

孔林占地200公顷之多,是孔子及其后裔延用了2 300多年的家族墓地。

Cemetery of Confucius is situated in the suburb north of Kong Family Mansion. It is the largest artificial cemetery in China,with a perimeter of over a dozen kilometers. It is also the most intact and the oldest survivor of family graveyards.

孔林位于孔府以北的城郊,周长十几公里,是中国最大的一座人造陵园,也是保存年代最长、最完整的一座氏族古墓园。

Together,the Confucian Temple。Confucian Family Mansion and Cemetery were inscribed in World Heritage List in 1994.

孔庙、孔林、孔府于1994年被列入《世界文化遗产名录》。


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