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用英语说中国旅游华北地区10:平遥古城自然概况1

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2016年03月25日

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The Ancient City of Pingyao

平遥古城

Natural Features

自然概况

Pingyao is a small town in central Shanxi Province into whose history goes back 2700 years,when it was first built during the reign of King Xuan(827-782BC)of the Western Zhou Dynasty. Since the“Province and County System" by Emperor Qin in 221 BC,the city has been the county seat in all the times. Despite so many events or incidents, it survived practically as it was in the 600 years or more since Ming and Cling dynasties,and ranks as the only intact ancient city of Ming and Cling dynasties well preserved in China.

位于山西省中部的平遥古城是一座只有2700多年历史的文化名城。平遥古城遥古城始建于西周宣王时期(前 827一前782)自公元前221年,秦实行“郡县制”以来,平遥城一直是县治所在地,一直延续至今。平遥古城历尽沧桑,但自明清以来的六白多年间,平遥城市面积和布局基本末变,成为迄今为止国内保存最完整的一座明清时期的古代县城.

The city wall stretches for about six kilometers.The town is protected by a city moat,both three meters deep and wide. Outside the city is a drawbridge.Witnin the city,four big streets and eight small streets radiate to join with 72 lanes.

平遥古城墙绵延约6公里。整个城市由4条深3米、宽3米的护城壕旧护,城门外面有一座吊桥。古城内,4条大街和8条小街纵横交错,连接着72条小巷。

Preserved in the ancient city are near 4000 traditional quadrangle residences of common people,over 400 of which are fairly intact, in addition to the few even more cherished houses of Ming Dynasty and those rare proto-types of Yuan Dynasty. These shelters are typical of northern China and Shanxi province,specifically with the following features:1.Perfect combination of cave dwelling and quadrangle courtyard; 2. Rectangle layout with an enclosed but elaborate space; 3.Mostly shed or flat roofed;4. Grand courtyard as a whole but elegant inside;5.Carefully observing Chinese geomancy as well as other customs.

平遥古城内现今保存有近4000处传统的四合院民居,它们大多有百年以上的历史,其中有400余处保存得相当完好,还有少部分为明代和罕见的元代民居,十分珍贵。这些民居具有典型的汉民族北方居民特点,又是三晋地区民居的典型代表,其特色表现在以下几个方面:(1)是地上窑洞与四合院的完美结合;(2)有狭长的平面布局和封闭但极为卜富的院落空间;(3)屋顶多为单坡和平顶相结合;(4)民居l院落整体形态为外雄内秀; (5)民居中体现了丰富的中国传统风水和其他民俗内容。

So many ancient houses,city walls,streets,lanes as well as other cultural sites of Ming and Qing Dynasties are so perfectly preserved in Pingyao City that it is really the only prototype found in areas of Han people in China.

平遥古城如此众多的明清时明民居和古城墙,古街,古巷等其他古迹能完好地保存至今,是极为罕见、弥足珍贵的孤例。

In 1986,State Council announced the city as a state city of history and culture,and in December of 1997 UNESCO inscribed it on“World Heritage List" with their consideration that“The Ancient City of Ping Yao is an outstanding example of a Han Chinese city of the Ming and Qing Dynasties(14th一20th centuries)that has retained all its features to an exceptional degree and in doing so provides a remarkably complete picture of cultural,social,economic,and religious development during one of the most seminal periods of Chinese history.”

1986年,平遥古城被l务国院公布为国家级历史文化名城。1997年12月l被联合国科教文组织列人《世界遗产名录》,世界遗产委员会对其的评价是:平遥古城是中国汉民族城市在明清时期的杰出范例,平遥古城保存了其所有特征,而且在中国的历史发展中,为人们展示了一幅非同寻常的文化、社会、经济及宗教发展的完整画卷。


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