The US rose to top spot in a closely watched economic league table yesterday, as its economy was praised for its market efficiency and ability to innovate.
总部位于瑞士的智库世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)昨日发布了其一年一度的全球竞争力报告。该机构在报告中表示，美国经济失衡对其生产率和全球经济构成了威胁，但结论是，美国的经济成就超过了这些风险。 In its annual report on global competitiveness, the World Economic Forum, the Swiss-based think-tank, said US economic imbalances posed a threat to its productivity and the global economy but concluded that its achievements outweighed these risks.
Also appearing in the top 10 were seven European economies – Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Finland, the UK and the Netherlands – as well as Singapore and Japan.
The rankings, which have been produced by the WEF since 1979, are used by many countries either to shower praise on a government’s achievements or to criticise its failings. But this will prove harder than usual this year as the WEF has adjusted its model, with large effects on countries’ places in the league table.
The WEF also released a revised league table for last year, based on its new methodology. Finland, which topped the league for many years, has dropped to sixth. The WEF gave it the second spot in last year’s published report but yesterday’s revisions suggest it should always have been sixth.
The US has clearly benefited from the change in the WEF’s calculations. Last year, the report ranked the world’s largest economy sixth but the revised table puts it top.
China and India are often believed to be the most competitive economies in the world – a threat to advanced economies with low-cost manufacturing and services, but also an opportunity with huge markets and combined populations of more than 2bn.
For all the awe that their economies create, China and India rank 34th and 48th respectively in the World Economic Forum’s global competitiveness index. Their low ranking reflects the need for these economies to improve many aspects of their markets and average living standards before they can be compared with advanced economies.
China needs to improve its higher education, financial markets and training, while India, falling slightly down this year’s league, is plagued by macroeconomic instability, poor health and education systems and low labour market efficiency.
But in the sub-indices, the size of China’s domestic market and its access to foreign markets are ranked 2nd and 1st respectively, while India ranks 4th on innovation.