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2011年bec中级考试阅读模拟题(4)

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看惯了我们中国作者分析中国出口面临的挑战和挫折,今天我们看看德国作者怎么以他们的角度出发阐述“应付“中国挑战之策。本文作者是赫尔曼•西蒙,咨询公 司Simon-Kucher & Partners董事长兼创始人,著有畅销书《21 世纪的隐形冠军》(Hidden Champions of the 21st Century)。
  When it comes to competition in global markets, especially in exports, China and Germany are increasingly on a collision course. Germany was the number one exporter from 2003 t0 2008. In 2009 China overtook Germany to become number one — and it will stay there.
In 2010 both nations again showed strong export growth and defended their positions, well ahead of the US in exports. With remarkable similarities between Chinese and German exporters, the competition will be tough.
  Hidden Champions
  Why is Germany, a comparatively small country, so strong in exports? The explanation lies in its “hidden champions”, little known mid-sized world market leaders. My total count of these companies is around 2,500 worldwide, and 1,200 of them are from Germany. They alone account for about one quarter of German exports.
  Surprisingly I found a rather similar structure in China. 68 percent of all Chinese exports come from companies with fewer than 2,000 employees — not from large corporations. It is also amazing that China already has well over 100 hidden champions, probably more than highly developed countries such as France, the UK or Japan.
  Strong ambitions
  One outstanding characteristic of these firms is their extreme ambition with regard to global market leadership. This is the aim that drives hidden-champion entrepreneurs in both China and Germany. In numerous talks in China I asked the audience, “Who wants to become world market leader?” Always more than half raised their hands, very similar to Germany. These ambitions will unavoidably lead to a competitive collision in the global marketplace.
  Germans as low-price competitors
  Globalization usually starts with exports and sales. Manufacturing follows, then R&D, and later on complete management functions. Most German companies are in the late stages of this process. They are not only building huge manufacturing sites in China, but also moving R&D for cheaper and simpler products there. Siemens and Bosch are well advanced on this path. Schenck Process, a world leader in industrial weighing and measuring processes, has even moved its complete competence centre for the mining industry to Beijing. The only way for German companies to remain competitive against the Chinese in the low-cost, low price-segment is to “become Chinese” themselves.
  Tata Nano ‘German’
  A very recent idea which I strongly advocate is that German companies should start to attack their Chinese competitors on the cost side. This requires radically simplified products, known as ultra-low-price products, and manufacturing in the lowest-cost locations. These are usually outside China, in countries such as India, Bangladesh and Vietnam. The Tata Nano car in India is a case in point. It is essentially a German car with nine German suppliers involved, Bosch being the biggest. The components delivered by the Germans were developed and are manufactured in India, not in Germany.
  Chinese as high-value competitors
  But we also see a movement in the opposite direction. The Chinese call it trading up. When I visited the concrete pump plant of Sany in Changsha, China, about a year ago, I was stunned. The first thing I saw in this ultra-modern plant (comparable only to a Scania plant I had visited near Stockholm shortly beforehand) were Mercedes and Volvo truck chassis. Expressing my astonishment, I got the reply, “We mount our concrete pumps on the best trucks in the world.” And it went on. I saw Deutz diesels, Bosch Rexroth hydraulics and controls from Siemens. Sany stated unequivocally that they use only world-class suppliers.A few months later I met Sany’s General Manager Europe in Cologne, near to which Sany is currently building a greenfield plant — the first Chinese plant in Germany. My “Why?” question again found an interesting reply: “Sany has to be in a world-class manufacturing location. If we want to become world-class we must be in direct contact with the best global manufacturing and engineering talent.” In 2009, Sany overtook Putzmeister from Germany as the global leader in concrete pumps.
  Sany is not a typical Chinese company, but it is a harbinger of things to come. I consider the Chinese the most serious competitors for the Germans in the future. But with their strong presence in China and other emerging countries, the Germans are well prepared for the looming fight.
  Learning to learn:
  文章最后一段点题,写出了德国面临的挑战也存在机遇。这种内涵,作者是通过两层转折成功实现的,学习这种写作手法,为以后高阶写作打好基础。
  Language Points:
  1. collision 碰撞 2. manufacturer 制造商
  Exam Focus:
  1.Which statement is Not true about “hidden champions”?
  A They are little know mid-sized world market leaders.
  B They play an important role in Germany’s strong export.
  C Nearly half of them are from Germany.
  D They contribute to 68% of all Chinese exports.
  2. Does the author have confidence in German’s ability in dealing with Chinese enterprises’ challenge?
  A Yes B No C Not given.
  

 

Keys:(1) C(2) D
  参考译文:
  过去两年,我认识的每家企业都历尽了磨难。遗憾的是,好时光不会很快就回来。因此,我编制了一份较有创意和价值的企业省钱途径列表,帮助企业家在面对挑战时仍能生存。
  ● 随机审计费用支出
  费用滥用属于地方病,但如果员工知道,就连他们的手机账单偶尔也会受到检查,那么他们占公司便宜的可能性就会降低。企业应该制定非常明确的费用政策,这样弄虚作假的人就无法浑水摸鱼逍遥法外
  ● 购买二手货
  我们经常为餐馆购买二手厨房设备。如果能省钱,就不要犹豫选择二手货,而非全新商品。
  ● 带头控制成本
  作为老板,你应该经常对成本提出质疑,并努力让人们认为你很节俭,而不是奢侈浪费——至少是对公司资产。如果你大手大脚,就会为别人树立一个效仿的坏榜样——用公司的钱。
  ● 要求提前付款折扣
  如果你握有现金,这或许是提高利润率一个好办法。如果供应商面临资金压力,他们很可能会答应对快速结款支付5%的折扣。如果你把钱存在银行,以目前的低利率,挣到这笔钱需要差不多两年的时间。
  ● 了解每个员工在干什么
  至少每年对所有员工的职责进行一次彻底分析,努力计算出他们的真实生产率——如有必要,就对岗位进行合理化改革。记住:没有人会告诉你他们的工作负荷不够,或者他们的贡献不重要。

 


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