Questions 15– 20
●Read the following article about the development of the knowledge economy and the questions on the opposite page .
●For each question 15 – 20 , mark one letter (A, B, C or D ) on your Answer Sheet for the answer you choose.
There have long been markets in tin, cocoa, silver and the like. There used to be security in thinking that somewhere there was a product, something you could touch and see. Now there are new markets in abstractions, trade in ideas and knowledge. Everyone has knowledge but there used to be no way t o trade it ------except through jobs. That simple fact of economic life was the basis for white collar employment for centuries. The whole job culture grew up because there was no alternative way to sell knowledge , other then the worker or manager providing, for a fixed price, his or her knowledge to an employer to own or control. The quantity of knowledge provided has typically been measured in time.
But today we stand at the thresh-old of a new era. The information economy has matured and become smarter. According to many business commentators, we are now living in a knowledge economy . There has always been a market for knowledge , of course. The publishing industry is based on it. But today the internet is making the distribution of knowledge ever easier. The days when the publisher decided what got published are over. Anyone with a Pc and a modem can talk to the world. This is reducing the friction in the knowledge economy.
Everyone has knowledge of whatever industry she or he is in. say you are a computer dealer, for example. Over the years your have complied a list of the ten best lowest price places to buy wholesale computer equipment. Now you can sell your knowledge to newer, younger computer dealers who have no way to build up this knowledge without losing thousands of pounds finding it out the hard way. Until now, such knowledge remained securely locked in the recipient’s head ,accumulated and then worthlessly withered away. This no longer needs to be the case. Such knowledge can be sold via websites.
Knowledge has a distinct advantage in today’s marketplace. It’s a renewable resource. Better yet, its worth actually increases, . “knowledge is the only asset that grows with use. “ observes Scanford University Professor Paul Romer. But what exactly is knowledge and how can it be packaged to trade on an open market” “ knowledge is experiential information, intelligence applied thorough and gained from experience.” Say Josenph Pine and James Gilmore in their book The Experience Economy.
The value of knowledge often depends on variables such as time and the credibility of the seller.Certian knowledge may have a very limited shelf life. In sights concerning how to set up an internet business in one country, might be worth a fortune on one day and nothing the next , depending on changes in government policy. Markets in knowledge will be significance for one thing. They represent one of the most original uses of the web technology. In some corner of the globe there is a company wanting to source plastic widgets from Poland, and somewhere else another company that wishes to set up a plastics factory there. It’s simply a case of connecting the two.
Indicater.com is a good example of a knowledge trader. It is targeted at food service managers throughout the hospitality industry. “we started with the context rather than extracting money from suppliers. “ explains founder Mike Day. “ we offer food service professionals interactive support to increase sales and profits. People don’t want another one-dimensional site full of advertising that doesn’t help them to do their job more effectively . it has to be customised offering real solutions to real problems. “ the site’s features include access to online training and a tariff tracker to restaurants can check prices throughout the sector.
15. what point is made in the first paragraph?
A Interest in commodity markets has decreased.
B Overall levels of expertise have improved.
C Opportunities to exploit your knowledge were limited in the past
D External market forces have meant knowledge is underpriced.
16 what are we told about the current impact of the internet in the second paragraph?
A publishers benefit from their exploitation of the internet.
B the internet has made it easier to analyse business trends.
C It is difficult to calculate the true economic value of the internet.
D the internet facilitates the development of the knowledge economy.
17 In the third paragraph, what does the writer say about knowledge?
A Acquiring knowledge can be expensive
B The most valuable knowledge concerns IT
C Trading knowledge raises issues of security.
D New businesses find it hard to trade in knowledge.
18. What point is made about knowledge in the fourth paragraph?
A It provides specialist information
B Its appeal lies in its exclusivity
C it can generate new ideas
D Its value accumulates.
19 which application of knowledge does the writer regard as particularly useful?
A analyzing manufacturing trends
B introducing compatible parties
C interpreting time constraints
D advising on legislation
20 what key feature is provided by Indicater.com?
A approaches that reflect the provider’s own experience
B access to appropriately trained potential employees.
C advice which directly benefits the bottom line
D advertising which is carefully targeted
Questions 21 -30
Read the text below about the improved performance of a car company.
Choose the best word to fill each gap from (A, B, C or D) on the opposite page.
For each question 21-30,mark one letter (A, B, C or D) on your Answer Sheet.
There is an example at the beginning, (0)
Improved performance at Carter& Sons
There was good news in Carter & Sons’ annual (0) yesterday. Three years of restructuring (21) in an upbeat statement from the company in advance of the official announcement of its interim (22) due early in August. The chairman, David Carter, reported a “ strong start to the year”, which, although helped by a rather weak (23) period last year, highlighted the logic of refocusing the group on growth sectors. Three years ago the company (24) a review of all its operations in view of the serious financial difficulties that it was (25) As a result of this, its car (26) business was sold to an American group, and its car sales and repair divisions were (27) down so as to allow the company to (28) on the sale of vans and heavy goods vehicles. Three new showrooms have been opened in the UK and Ireland , and the sales (29) has more than doubled in the last two years.
Growth in business across the group has gone up by almost 12 per cent in the first half of the year. This should reassure investors that Carter & Sons is now on (30) to deliver increased earning in the years ahead.
A report B Notice C account D information
21 A terminated B culminated C accomplished D completed
22 A economics B finances C outcomes D results
23 A relative B alike C comparative D equivalent
24 A commissioned B assigned C delegated D appointed
25 A dealing B facing C undertaking D withstanding
26 A additions B extras C accessories D supplements
27 A scaled B marked C slowed D put
28 A emphasise B concentrate C specialize D strengthen
29 A bonus B pack c force D band
30 A way B path C road D track
Read the article below about changing your career
For each question 31-40, write one word in CAPITAL LETTERS on your Answer Sheet .
There is an example at the beginning, (0) .
Time for a new career
“losing your job isn’t the end of the world: it gives you’re the chance the a new beginning (0) says Caroline Poole, 30, Who was made redundant (31) her role as head of marketing campaigns with an insurance group two years ago. The news was a blow, especially after a successful nine-year career with the business, but she was determined to see redundancy (32) a positive force for change.
(33) it seemed a tough lesson at the time, redundancy was the catalyst that redirected my career, “ says Caroline “It gave me the break I needed to understand (34) my career objectives lay.”
Working with a consultant, Caroline explored a number of work options that oppealed to her. She also took advantage of workshops on issues (35) as setting up your own business, and managing your finances. A key consideration for her was (36) easy it would be to balance working in London with home life 100 kilometers away.
She was encouraged to network (37) other marketing professionals and via this route made contact with a communications agency. She took time out to go travelling , and on her return was offered a role in the agency. (38) was proof to her that she still had marketable skills.
Two years (39) from redundancy, Caroline is planning another career break . “ The experience of redundancy has made me view my options with more confidence. I now know that I can dictate my own career path, even (40) it were to mean resigning first and then taking time to find the right direction” she says.