[00:09.40]NARRATOR: In the winter of 1807,
[00:12.96]a lone fur-trapper journeyed deep into the heart of the Rocky Mountains.
[00:21.24]Somewhere near the headwaters of the Yellowstone River
[00:24.64]he found a lost world.
[00:39.96]ruled by ice, fire and brimstone.
[00:52.04]A world of extremes that challenges all that strive to live here.
[01:37.68]A place that has become perhaps the most treasured wilderness on Earth.
[02:15.72]Winter in Yellowstone.
[02:20.44]Minus 40 degrees.
[02:24.80]Fahrenheit or centigrade, it doesn't really matter,
[02:30.32]at minus 40 the two scales read the same.
[02:36.56]For half the year, Yellowstone is frozen solid.
[02:44.48]Yet in the middle of this ice world there is scalding heat.
[02:54.56]This is no ordinary place and this is no ordinary winter.
[03:08.16]The fate of everything here lies in the hands of forces
[03:11.88]of almost unimaginable power.
[03:23.40]Yellowstone is deep in the heart of the Rocky Mountains of North America.
[03:29.16]An isolated high plateau defended by rugged peaks.
[03:40.88]And its location is what makes it so different.
[03:48.12]Right beneath Yellowstone a unique quirk of geology means that molten rock
[03:53.52]from deep in the earth comes unusually close to the frozen surface.
[04:03.72]No one knows why it happens right here,
[04:06.68]but its impact is what has made Yellowstone world famous.
[04:32.00]Yellowstone is the most extensive geothermal area on Earth.
[04:41.76]It has over 10,000 thermal wonders
[04:44.68]and more geysers than the rest of the world put together.
[04:59.92]Old Faithful is Yellowstone's most well-known geyser.
[05:04.84]It shoots 5,000 gallons of water
[05:07.16]150 feet into the air almost every hour.
[05:22.00]But the forces that fuel this spectacular display
[05:25.36]have an influence far greater than we can see on the surface.
[05:32.08]Paradoxically, it's all this underground heat
[05:35.24]that helps make the Yellowstone winter
[05:37.40]one of the coldest and toughest in America.
[05:49.12]It's November and winter is beginning to take hold.
[06:18.96]As it gets colder, one animal here gets stronger.
[06:24.52]Wolves. The winter is their time.
[06:29.96]Gradually, it weakens their prey.
[06:54.68]This is the Druid wolf pack,
[06:56.60]one of the largest and most powerful in Yellowstone.
[07:30.76]The pack have this bull elk surrounded.
[07:36.24]But there's a problem.
[07:39.16]The pack won't follow the bull into the river.
[07:42.48]They won't risk freezing to death in the ice cold water.
[07:54.24]What's more, now the elk's antlers are at just the right height
[07:57.68]to keep the wolves at bay.
[08:18.12]But it's now the elk that has a problem of his own.
[08:24.24]Although it's only knee deep, he can't stay in this freezing water forever.
[08:38.48]A young female is not prepared to let him go.
[08:48.08]But the elk is strong.
[08:51.48]One-on-one he has the advantage.
[09:05.40]Her only support is another youngster.
[09:11.56]They are neither strong or experienced enough
[09:13.96]to bring this elk down.
[09:16.36]But it's enough to make him turn and run
[09:23.96]back to the river where he knows they won't follow.
[09:36.40]But the longer he stays in the freezing water,
[09:39.44]the weaker he will get.
[09:46.16]Others before him have waited here too long,
[09:50.84]and wolves are patient.
[09:57.44]Right now his strength is his only advantage.
[10:01.56]He has to try again.
[10:10.48]This time even the young wolves stay put.
[10:16.20]Without the support of the pack they never really stood a chance.
[10:21.28]And the pack have already decided that this early in the winter,
[10:25.16]a bull elk in his prime is just too strong.
[10:31.52]But as the winter gets colder
[10:33.56]and the snow gets deeper the tables will turn.
[10:48.96]By the end of November,
[10:50.80]the arc of the sun barely breaks above the trees.
[10:56.52]As its angle decreases, so does its power.
[11:13.28]And as the sun loses its hold over the land,
[11:17.64]other forces begin to take over.
[11:24.32]Yellowstone has a dark secret
[11:27.44]that affects everything that lives here,
[11:30.36]especially in the winter.
[11:45.24]It's only from high above ground
[11:47.16]that we start to get a glimpse of the true nature of this place.
[11:55.64]Yellowstone is a giant bowl 50 miles wide
[11:59.84]right in the middle of the Rocky Mountains.
[12:05.40]There's nowhere else like it.
[12:09.68]And there's only one thing that could have created it.
[12:19.32]Three miles beneath this frozen surface
[12:22.20]is a colossal chamber of molten rock.
[12:26.28]Today it powers Yellowstone's geysers.
[12:30.24]But every million years or so,
[12:32.64]the pressure in this magma gets critical and the chamber explodes.
[12:41.28]The last eruption, 640,000 years ago,
[12:45.84]was more than 1,000 times larger than Mount St Helens.
[12:52.56]It blasted away mountains and ejected hundreds of cubic miles of debris
[12:56.84]into the atmosphere, burying half the USA with ash.
[13:07.16]The heart of Yellowstone is one of the world's biggest volcanoes.
[13:14.92]One day it will erupt again.
[13:18.88]It could be today or in another million years.
[13:27.40]But even as the volcano is sleeping,
[13:31.36]breathing quietly through its geysers,
[13:36.28]it has a profound effect on Yellowstone's winter.
[13:44.00]The volcano made Yellowstone's giant bowl but it didn't stop there.
[13:51.24]Ever since, the huge pressure below the surface
[13:54.08]has been pushing it higher into the air,
[13:57.24]and as it gets higher it gets colder.
[14:01.64]And now at its present altitude of 8,000 feet,
[14:05.12]this giant bowl simply accumulates freezing air
[14:08.32]from the surrounding mountains.
[14:12.40]In the winter, the sleeping volcano becomes a giant deep freeze.
[14:28.84]On the open plateau, right in the middle of this frozen volcano
[14:32.88]is an animal that has lived here since the last ice age.
[14:40.20]Bison are exposed to the worst of the Yellowstone winter,
[14:44.88]but they are built for it.
[14:50.00]Their thick coat is such good insulation
[14:52.36]that they only need a tiny amount of energy to keep warm.
[14:56.04]So they slow their metabolism right down and concentrate on feeding.
[15:08.76]With massive neck muscles they sweep their heads down through the snow
[15:12.68]to get to the grass beneath.
[15:17.64]But the grass has long ago put its summer goodness down into its roots
[15:22.60]and now has about the same nutritional value as cardboard.
[15:31.16]They will need to do all they can to save energy
[15:34.12]if they are to ward off starvation until spring returns.
[15:47.28]As the winter strengthens its grip,
[15:49.88]elk move into more sheltered valleys at the edge of Yellowstone.
[15:55.52]They don't have the bison's ability to move deep snow.
[16:03.68]But this brings them into the territory of the Druid pack.
[16:23.16]As the grazers are beginning to weaken,
[16:25.96]life for the wolves is getting easier.
[16:34.84]They are now successfully hunting about twice a week.
[16:46.72]They even have the energy to play.
[16:50.24]But their play has a purpose.
[16:52.48]It fine-tunes their hunting skills
[16:55.68]and helps bond the all-important pack structure.
[17:00.84]Though there are 16 of them,
[17:02.76]they can only hunt an animal as large as an elk if they hunt as one.
[17:13.16]The strength of the pack is what will get them through the winter.
[17:40.04]Bald eagles spot carcasses from miles away.
[17:46.84]But there is strong competition for a kill like this.
[18:18.08]He has been shadowing the wolves, and moves in now they have gone.
[19:17.64]It's December, and even the great Yellowstone River
[19:21.72]is succumbing to the cold.
[19:25.76]It's only where the water runs fast that it still runs free.
[19:38.52]It looks uncomfortably cold,
[19:41.12]but then the water, at around freezing point,
[19:43.44]can be 50 degrees warmer than the air.
[19:49.04]Under the ice there's a rich supply of stone fly larvae
[19:52.48]waiting to hatch in the spring.
[19:57.00]Dippers make the most of these few small windows to a liquid world
[20:00.88]before they shut completely.
[20:16.16]Where the water stands still it is now frozen solid.
[20:23.28]Yellowstone Lake is 136 square miles,
[20:27.08]and now completely covered in three feet of ice.
[20:37.24]A coyote travels across this frozen desert looking for something to eat.
[20:45.32]It's a wonder that anything can survive here at all.
[20:50.68]Hundreds of feet beneath him on the lake bed,
[20:53.36]geysers erupt just like they do on land
[20:55.96]and they melt holes in the ice,
[20:59.28]the only sign that there is a lake here at all.
[21:13.04]As the year comes to an end,
[21:15.12]it seems hard to imagine this winter getting any tougher.
[21:19.60]But there's another twist to the volcano's story
[21:22.64]that is about to make things even worse.
[21:30.16]Over time the continent of North America has moved,
[21:34.52]inch by inch, over many millions of years.
[21:40.64]But deep down below the Earth's moving crust,
[21:43.80]the source of magma that fuels Yellowstone's volcano
[21:48.12]has stayed put.
[21:58.00]As the crust has moved over this volcanic hotspot,
[22:02.48]eruption after eruption has blasted a massive 500-mile-long scar
[22:07.56]right through the Rockies.
[22:15.96]In the winter this giant scar, called the Snake River Plain,
[22:20.88]funnels moist air from the Pacific Ocean
[22:24.16]right through the wall of the Rocky Mountains
[22:26.96]and up into Yellowstone's deep freeze.
[22:36.04]Here it finally freezes and falls as snow,
[22:41.16]huge quantities of it.
[23:00.04]Whilst everywhere around gets 10 feet of snow a year,
[23:03.80]thanks to the legacy of its volcano, Yellowstone can get as much as 50.
[23:18.56]Otters seem to thrive in the Yellowstone winter.
[23:31.52]But now that the rivers are not only frozen but covered in deep snow,
[23:36.36]they are struggling to find open water to fish in.
[23:56.00]They can't fish here, the fast flowing water is too dangerous.
[24:00.64]Somehow they need to find a way past the falls.
[24:53.64]With the falls safely behind them, the otters are forced to keep moving on.
[25:02.68]Open water has become a rare thing in Yellowstone.
[25:16.68]Out on the frozen grasslands, the bison are struggling, too.
[25:22.88]This year is already the snowiest for the last decade,
[25:26.48]snowier than many of this herd have experienced in their lives.
[25:32.36]Now, as the snow gets deeper than a critical four feet,
[25:36.12]the effort of swinging this massive head back and forth for so little reward
[25:41.20]is becoming too much.
[25:50.20]Though the snow front is passing through,
[25:53.12]it's followed by the wind,
[25:55.00]which now starts to scour the heart of Yellowstone.
[26:20.48]A bison's coat can keep it warm down to minus 30 degrees Fahrenheit.
[26:28.52]The wind chill is now pushing these bison to that limit.
[26:43.96]But these are the last wild bison herds in America
[26:47.64]which have survived here for tens of thousands of years.
[26:51.76]They know what to do.
[27:07.32]To move is risky, it will tap into their now dwindling energy reserves.
[27:14.60]But this year, it's a gamble worth taking.
[27:25.52]Their way out is a river whose water is not frozen.
[27:30.52]A thermal river fed by warm water from Yellowstone's geysers,
[27:36.04]an ancient route which leads to a place where, if they're lucky,
[27:40.20]they will be able to survive.
[28:03.20]It's January, and night is twice as long as day
[28:06.72]in Yellowstone's deep freeze.
[28:10.24]The wind and the storms have gone,
[28:12.96]but now the clear skies suck any last trace of heat into space.
[28:20.28]As morning comes, something extraordinary has happened.
[28:35.04]All moisture in the air has turned to ice,
[29:47.76]But this is a cruel beauty.
[29:50.84]Minus 66 Fahrenheit was recorded here in Yellowstone.
[29:55.20]Off the record, it gets colder still.
[30:07.08]This bison is still out on the open plateau.
[30:11.48]The deep snow with its windblown crust has made it almost impossible to feed.
[30:16.60]The extreme cold will now tip the balance of survival further,
[30:20.64]most likely too far even for a bison.
[30:43.72]A red fox can stay in the cold heart of Yellowstone all winter,
[30:48.32]so long as it can find food.
[30:55.28]It's looking for mice
[30:56.72]that survive the winter insulated beneath the blanket of snow.
[31:04.52]The fox is light enough to move about on the delicate crust
[31:08.12]but the mice are six feet beneath it.
[31:35.16]It listens for the tiny sounds of its prey moving about below,
[31:39.84]but must take great care not to scare them away.
[32:38.12]The otter family has arrived at Yellowstone Lake.
[32:42.32]Here they can fish in the holes kept open by the underwater geysers.
[32:55.24]But every time they catch something,
[33:01.04]this coyote has been watching and waiting.
[33:33.16]The otter dives under the ice to hide its fish from the coyote.
[33:44.52]The coyote can't see the otter because of the thick cover of snow.
[33:52.40]But he can hear him.
[34:01.12]The otter emerges without the fish.
[34:05.04]He's stashed it somewhere under the snow. But where?
[34:32.44]A huge Yellowstone cutthroat trout.
[34:40.16]With the help of the otters, a wily coyote can catch fish, too.
[35:11.64]The thermal river has led the bison to one of the main geyser fields.
[35:20.60]Here the heat from below comes close enough to the surface to melt the snow.
[35:30.28]And a bison can graze as if it were spring.
[35:42.12]The same volcanic forces, so massive that they created the weather
[35:47.16]that drove the bison here, now offer comfort.
[35:58.80]The only problem is, the grass that the bison now relish
[36:02.44]has such a high concentration of silica that it wears down their teeth.
[36:08.04]And it's laced with enough arsenic to slowly poison them.
[36:20.52]For these bison, it's not an easy choice to come here.
[36:27.56]But as long as they don't have to stay here too long
[36:30.32]it's a lot better than facing the Yellowstone winter head on.
[36:43.36]Incredibly, there is life that thrives here.
[36:48.72]In Yellowstone's thermal springs,
[36:50.96]the temperature is a constant near-boiling.
[36:55.84]Yet here are huge colonies of heat-tolerant microbes.
[37:03.28]As the boiling water flows out from the centre of springs,
[37:07.24]it cools, forming bands of different temperatures,
[37:11.16]each with a different collection of microbes
[37:13.60]with a totally different colour.
[37:21.64]Grand Prismatic Spring is one of the wonders of the natural world.
[37:29.40]It's thought that it was in conditions like this
[37:32.40]that life on Earth first started.
[37:51.12]It's now February,
[37:52.92]and when almost everything else in Yellowstone is on its last legs,
[37:56.80]the Druid pack is reaching peak condition.
[38:02.68]And it's now that the young females come into season.
[38:10.04]Hanging back from the pack is a lone male wolf.
[38:17.48]He has no territory of his own but follows the pack,
[38:20.60]scavenging from their successes.
[38:27.16]But right now, food is not his priority.
[38:35.88]The young females won't mate with the pack's alpha male
[38:39.16]as he is their father.
[38:43.60]So the intruder could well be in with a chance,
[38:47.28]as long as the alpha doesn't see him.
[38:56.32]Whilst the pack are distracted, one female sneaks away.
[39:05.72]She won't give up the security of the pack for him,
[39:09.12]so they meet close by in secret.
[39:24.04]But the pack are now coming their way.
[39:42.32]The alpha male is on to him.
[39:49.52]He won't tolerate any other male in his territory,
[39:52.48]let alone with one of his females.
[39:55.96]When wolves mate, they become locked together for up to half an hour.
[40:00.84]The intruder can't break free.
[40:43.12]For now the alpha male has done enough.
[40:45.84]He's seen the intruder off and he needs to return
[40:48.68]to reassert his position in the pack.
[40:58.80]The intruder retreats to a precarious life in the shadows.
[41:04.36]But whatever happens to him, so long as he was coupled for long enough,
[41:09.12]he will have young brought up
[41:11.12]in the security of one of the strongest packs in Yellowstone.
[41:52.52]Since the beginning of winter,
[41:54.12]Yellowstone's herds have been getting steadily weaker.
[42:00.28]Now at the end of February,
[42:02.52]the tables have completely turned to favour the Druid pack.
[43:18.84]As February turns to March, it seems like the winter will never end.
[43:25.88]But now the clear, cold days have gone.
[43:30.88]The snow still comes, but it's a wet snow
[43:33.84]that strips the warmth from you faster,
[43:39.68]now, when you are right at the end of your strength.
[44:04.40]But there is hope.
[44:07.12]Now is the turning point of the winter.
[44:15.24]At the spring equinox, there are 12 hours of night,
[44:18.44]and 12 hours of day.
[44:21.76]From now on, light starts to win over dark.
[44:37.48]March is also the turning point in the history of Yellowstone.
[44:43.84]On 1st March, 1872,
[44:46.72]American President Ulysses S Grant
[44:49.52]recognised the extraordinary wonders of Yellowstone
[44:52.72]by making it the world's first national park.
[45:16.40]The park's creation marked the beginning of a new era
[45:19.68]where the world's wild places would be valued
[45:23.40]simply for being wild.
[45:51.08]Now, as the days lengthen,
[45:53.20]the winter starts to loosen its grip on Yellowstone.
[46:04.08]But with the end of winter, also comes the end of the wolves' reign.
[46:19.44]On a mountain peak right on the edge of Yellowstone,
[46:22.92]footprints in the snow are the sign that a challenger has appeared
[46:26.56]to reclaim this land.
[46:36.36]A grizzly bear mother with her new cubs emerges from her den.
[46:44.36]For six months, snow and ice have ravaged Yellowstone,
[46:48.40]but she has slept underground, waking only to give birth to her cubs.
[46:53.12]And then from time to time, to feed them.
[47:04.48]As winter gives way to spring,
[47:06.72]she leads them out into the wilderness for the first time.
[47:16.12]In Yellowstone's great volcano,
[47:19.44]in spite of everything the winter has thrown at them,
[47:23.28]most have made it through.
[47:38.44]The forces that have helped keep Yellowstone
[47:40.72]in the grip of such a deep winter have finally let go.
[47:46.60]It is the sun that will now dominate once more.
[47:56.84]Its power will now take over,
[48:05.16]bringing new life to this place.
[48:21.84]But also it will bring new challenges
[48:25.72]that all will have to face
[48:29.76]in the heat of Yellowstone's summer.
[48:48.00]Bringing Yellowstone's unique, natural beauty to the screen
[48:51.40]would have been impossible without the tireless help of the local experts
[48:55.00]that know it like the back of their hand.
[48:57.88]Each has their own story to tell.
[49:00.76]JEFF hENRY: I was born the night of a blizzard
[49:02.68]and my mother has always told me that
[49:04.36]she thinks that's why I'm so in love with winter.
[49:10.80]NARRATOR: Ex-park ranger and photographer
[49:13.04]Jeff Henry's 30 years of experience in Yellowstone
[49:16.36]helped the BBC crew unlock some of the national park's hidden secrets.
[49:22.64]But they could never get hold of Jeff once the snow started to fall.
[49:29.56]Winter's by far my favourite season.
[49:32.88]I wish I could be the reverse of a bear and hibernate in the summer
[49:37.08]and just wake up in the autumn, be looking at a new winter.
[49:41.12]I get really excited when the first snows come in the autumn.
[49:46.96]Snow to me is a mystical, magical substance.
[49:52.44]I've always thought that it's very coarse of the English language
[49:55.08]to have just one word for it. There's snow and then there's snow,
[49:58.48]and then there's snow and then there's snow.
[50:00.72]Fresh snow that falls from the sky and it's here in Yellowstone,
[50:03.52]tends to be light and fluffy, is vastly different from the snow
[50:07.52]that's been underground for three or four months.
[50:14.40]NARRATOR: Three million tourists travel each year
[50:17.36]to enjoy Yellowstone's spectacular wilderness.
[50:20.44]When winter arrives, however, the crowds disappear.
[50:29.04]But for the last 30 years, Jeff has enjoyed a very unusual way
[50:33.20]of both staying for the winter and indulging his love of snow.
[50:39.48]His task is to stop the few buildings in the heart of Yellowstone
[50:43.00]being completely swallowed.
[50:47.12]Jeff becomes what is officially known as a roof shoveller.
[50:52.72]The reason I do that is the snow loads can sometimes, at least some years,
[50:56.68]become so heavy they can crush buildings or break parts of buildings.
[51:03.12]NARRATOR: Jeff must clear up to three metres of compacted snow
[51:06.08]from the roofs, before it falls on anything wandering beneath,
[51:11.88]If the building were to avalanche on top of me,
[51:14.12]it would be the end of the line for me.
[51:18.52]NARRATOR: From December onwards, Jeff spends five months
[51:21.60]clearing snow off Yellowstone's roofs.
[51:24.24]Timing is critical. If he starts a roof too early,
[51:27.68]fresh spring snow will undo all his hard work.
[51:30.56]Too late, and the roof may collapse.
[51:39.28]JEFF: This particular roof has a pitch that's steep enough
[51:42.20]that the snow will avalanche off if it's undercut.
[51:46.52]And to undercut the snow,
[51:48.36]I have to first dig some channels or trenches with a shovel.
[51:56.24]After I've cut those channels, I can lay a steel cable into each trench.
[52:01.96]And I pass that cable underneath the snow pack,
[52:04.24]between the snow pack and the shingles.
[52:06.84]And after the snow is undercut, it will avalanche off.
[52:22.72]Oh, I have to admit I get a tremendous kick out of the work.
[52:26.04]Little me at 190 pounds can move
[52:29.32]untold tons of snow in one swoop.
[52:39.64]NARRATOR: Jeff is especially drawn to what are know as cornices,
[52:42.92]the overhanging shelves of snow that cling to the edges of roofs.
[52:46.60]It's kind of a love/hate relationship.
[52:51.04]This lovely pattern, there's lovely lines in the snow.
[52:53.96]You can see the major lines between major wind events,
[52:57.20]but you can see more minor lines, I guess, between more minor wind events.
[53:02.76]It's almost like the growth rings on a tree.
[53:05.40]It's just absolutely beautiful.
[53:10.16]I can't wait to get up there and destroy it.
[53:14.92]Cornices are especially threatening,
[53:18.12]structurally, because there's so much weight hanging out
[53:20.64]over the edge of the building.
[53:22.76]It's not uncommon for an eaves to break when it has a big overhang.
[53:34.20]I love to do this work. I love to move snow.
[53:36.76]It's a thrill, it's exciting, it's fun.
[53:42.44]I can honestly say there's no place else I'd rather be.
[53:47.36]NARRATOR: But there's one building that's a real challenge for Jeff.
[53:51.04]JEFF: The Canyon General Store is approximately 50 years old,
[53:53.76]52 years old, something in that range.
[53:55.88]And I've cleared this building for about half of its life.
[53:59.92]It's by far the largest building that I have to do.
[54:02.28]I often joke that it is the Bismark of the enemy fleet.
[54:09.00]And it takes me a great many working days,
[54:11.64]as many as 40 of 50 working days per winter.
[54:19.92]NARRATOR: This roof collects more snow than any other in the park.
[54:23.32]Instead of using gravity to remove the compacted snow,
[54:26.52]Jeff has to rely on sweat and toil.
[54:32.68]But he's perfected his own methodical precision labour-saving technique.
[54:41.56]Well, I try to cut the blocks large enough
[54:44.60]so that they'll be stable when I move them across the roof.
[54:47.72]But not so large that I can't move them.
[54:53.72]On this particular building this year, there'll be somewhere in the order
[54:57.80]of 3,000 blocks of snow.
[55:00.52]So I always reason that if I could save just one or two percent of the effort
[55:03.92]that it takes to move each block,
[55:06.60]that would be one or two percent times 3,000.
[55:14.48]That's why I work in this checkerboard pattern,
[55:17.56]and move all the blocks that I just cut.
[55:20.04]And I don't have to go back and forth
[55:21.40]between the saw and the shovel that often.
[55:24.76]I suppose in some ways, analogous to Yellowstone's wildlife in the winter
[55:31.64]where they have to be so mindful of their energy equation,
[55:36.16]they cannot consistently expend more energy than they take in.
[55:42.32]And if they do,
[55:45.32]it's the end of the line.
[55:54.12]NARRATOR: Fifty days spent alone on a roof
[55:56.56]gives Jeff a lot of time to just think.
[56:00.52]Sometimes I find my imagination runs away with me.
[56:03.56]I think about how this snow not very long ago was
[56:08.40]warm sea water in the South Pacific Ocean.
[56:13.40]In just over three or four months it will be water vapour
[56:18.16]or liquid water, seeping into the earth here in Yellowstone
[56:23.12]or flowing down the Yellowstone River.
[56:27.36]NARRATOR: Jeff's snow clearing work allows him to be
[56:29.52]in the most beautiful parts of the park when no one else is around.
[56:35.60]JEFF: And I think everybody appreciates a little bit of solitude.
[56:41.80]I guess that's part of the reason I do the work that I do
[56:44.00]and spend as much time as I can in the park in the winter.
[56:47.56]Occasionally, it just seems to me that I'm the only person for miles around
[56:51.84]and that's a special feeling, especially in the early 2 1st century.
[56:57.72]I know that my parents first brought me here when I was six months old,
[57:01.08]and essentially I've spent my entire adult life here in Yellowstone.
[57:05.04]I don't know if I believe in destiny in the general sense,
[57:08.12]but I do believe that it was my destiny to come here
[57:10.24]and to spend most of my life here.
[57:12.60]Because of the work I do in the winter here,
[57:14.24]I've had a special opportunity, I think, to make empirical observations
[57:18.40]about the way things have gone in terms of winter weather in Yellowstone.
[57:23.48]I don't think there's any question that things are warmer and drier overall
[57:26.72]than they were when I first got here.
[57:29.92]I've always been dreading the day when I got too old to do this,
[57:34.64]but over the last 10 years or so it seemed that
[57:37.52]maybe Yellowstone would run out of snow before I got too old to move it.
[57:41.48]There's good snow this year, so I certainly hope it continues,
[57:45.24]certainly hope there's snow to move in Yellowstone
[57:47.00]long after I'm not able to do it any more.
[57:50.44]We'll see, I guess.
[57:54.84]I like the challenge when I first climb up onto the roof
[57:57.60]and take that first block of snow off,
[57:59.40]and then when I take the last block off a roof,
[58:01.96]I certainly feel a sense of satisfaction.
[58:04.40]I also immediately start thinking about next season
[58:07.04]when I'll be able to do the same building again.
[58:11.76]Yellowstone will always be my special place.
首集节目将介绍被冰和火统治的一个角落 - 黄石国家公园。黄石公园以绝美雪景而闻名，特殊天然景观不但没有随著时间消逝，反而更显壮观。节目中会详细介绍在零下四十度下，被厚雪覆盖的黄石公园，雪地上如何可以开出一条清澈溪流？每半小时会有一道从地底射出约150迟高的强烈热泉，境况是何等壮观？在零下四十度下的山上，大多数野生动物都会从寒冷的山头迁徒到温泉区觅食。而瘦弱如鹿等动物在弱肉强食的世界中，如何善用黄石的天然环境来保命？
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