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时代经典商业英语词汇:财政税务

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《时代经典商业英语词汇》:TIME《时代杂志》上典雅的用词、优美的文章一向广受各界推崇,被誉为了解西方文化的宝典。其用词极为精练、简洁,如果您希望能充分享受阅读TIME的乐趣,首要的工作就是认识TIME的常用词汇。

credit crunch

信用紧缩

Not that selling the properties is easy.

出售财产并非易事。

The glut of industries on the block,coupled with a global credit crunch that limits the resources of prospective buyers,

有太多的公司等着买主,供过于求,再加上全球性的信用紧缩,限制了可能买主的来源,

guarantees depressed prices for even some choice enterprises.

因此即使是一些绩优的企业,也保证卖不到好价钱。

deficit

赤字

The old enemy,the Soviet Union,has vanished.

旧敌人苏联消失了。

With the U.S.running a $41 billion trade deficit with Japan,

但是美国对日本的贸易赤字高达410亿美元,

the once deferential partner begins to look to some Americans like the new enemy.

使得一度对美国恭恭敬敬的伙伴被某些美国人视同新敌人。

That led to a state deficit of $14 billion,the largest any state government has ever incurred.

这个因素导致州政府的赤字达到140亿美元,冠于全美任何一州。

devaluation

贬值

Fearful of a sudden devaluation of their hoards,East Germans last week staged a minirun on banks,

东德人民因害怕他们的存款会突然贬值,上个礼拜演出一次小规模的挤兑,

withdrawing cash for shopping sprees.

把现款提出来去大量购物。

In Britain an impassioned parliamentary debate last week revealed the public's deep unease about the agreement in the wake of a devaluation of the t has shaken the government's economic policies.

在英国国会上周的激辩反映出在英镑贬值动摇政府经济政策的风波下,英国大众对条约深深的不安全感。

discount

贴现

European economic officials achieved some success in quelling the speculative chaos unloosed last week,

欧洲的经济官员已稍微抑制住这波风潮,

when Germany failed to support the French franc by reducing its discount rate as much as had seen expected.

德国上周调降贴现率,但不如预期的低,所以德国无法支撑法国法郎,引发投机性交易的大混乱。

flat tax

比例税

Under the system,adults will pay a flat rate based on the cost of government services in their localities,rather than property taxes assessed according e of the home.

在此制度下,成年人将依据政府在他住的地区所提供的服务成本来付出比例税,而非依据房屋价值所征收的财产税。

flight of capital

资本外逃

During the years of its most explosive growth in the late 1970s and mid-1980s,

在它急速成长的1970年代后期与1980年代中期,

B.C.C.I.became a magnet for drug money,

国际信贷银行像一块大磁铁,吸引贩毒的钱,

capital flight money,tax-evading money and money from corrupt government officials.

资本外逃的钱,逃税的钱与政府官员贪污的钱。

IRS

国家税务总署

Recent Census Bureau and IRS data suggest that only 1 in 4 people who employ household help bothers to pay Social Security taxes.

最新的人口统计局与国家税务总署资料显示在雇用帮佣的家庭中,只有1/4付了社会安全税。

Given the natural reluctance to confide in government agents,the real figure is probably much lower.

若考虑到人民对政府机构调查的不信赖感,实际的比例可能更低。

prime rate

Nor has the Federal Reserve Board's actions to lower interest rates provided much of a lift outside the housing market,even though the prime rate has 10.5% two years ago to 8% today.

Only First national of Chicago,the 13th largest U.S. bank,

cut its prime rate a half-point,to 9.5%.

progressive tax

累进税

Several of Clinton's top aides want to move away from higher taxes on income and toward a progressive tax on consumption,

某些克林顿总统的高级助理倾向不提高所得税,而代之以对消费行为课征累进税,

like the value-added taxes widely used in other countries.

有如其他国家常用到的增值税。

I was holding forth on one of the more devastating imbecilities of the Reagan era,

||| 我不断地表达里根时代中最具破坏性的愚蠢措施之一,

the abolition of theprogressive income tax in favor of a two-tier flat tax rate.

就是扬弃累进所得税而选择一种两级制的比例税。

Proposition 13

第13号提案

Proposition 13,the 1978 referenedum that froze property taxes at 1% of assessed value,

1978年公民投票通过的第13号提案将财产税冻结在估价的1%,

depleted county treasuries,leaving the state to pick up the bills for things like schools and welfare services.

而这提案掏空了州库,让政府以其他经费来偿付教育与福利支出。

subsidy

补贴

Automakers and other unionized corporations would benefit from a new health-care subsidy for their employees who retire before age 62.

汽车厂与其他有工会公司的员工,在62岁以前退休者,仍可享受到新的健保补贴。

Advocates on both sides of the subsidy issue acknowledge that in the long run,

两方之中,鼓吹补贴政策的人士,仍然承认就长远来看,

free trade benefits everyone.

自由贸易会使大家都受惠。

tax shelter

避税工具

It would be understandable if the Clintons treated their Whitewater investment largely as a much needed tax shelter.

如果克林顿将他们夫妇在白水公司的投资,主要视其为极需要的避税工具,那是可以理解的。

"Hi!I just had a baby an hour ago,and I'm back at work already.

“嗨,我一小时前刚生了个孩子,而现在我已经回来上班了。

And while I was delivering,I took a seminar on tax shelter options."

而当我在分娩的时候,我还参加了一项有关选择避税工具的座谈会。”

value-added tax

增值税

The value-added tax,or VAT,common in Europe

增值税在欧洲很普遍,

and supported in principle in the House by Texas' Archer and Sam Gibbons of Florida,

而且受到众议院中得克萨斯州的Archer与佛罗里达州的Sam Gibbons众议员原则性支持。

is far easier to enforce,as goods are taxed at each stage of production and distribution.

这种税因为在商品的每一个制造与销售过程中抽税,是更容易执行的税制。


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