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时代经典商业英语词汇:宏观经济

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《时代经典商业英语词汇》:TIME《时代杂志》上典雅的用词、优美的文章一向广受各界推崇,被誉为了解西方文化的宝典。其用词极为精练、简洁,如果您希望能充分享受阅读TIME的乐趣,首要的工作就是认识TIME的常用词汇。

Club of Rome

罗马俱乐部

Books such as Paul Ehrlich's The Population Bomb In 1968 and the Club of Rome's 1972 study The Limits to Growth,

Paul Ehrlich 1968年著作《人口炸弹》及罗马俱乐部1972年的研究报告《增长的极限》造成人们恐惧,

raised fears that unchecked population growth might lead to mass starvation.

以为未加节制的人口增长会导致大规模的饥荒。

In the 70s,the Club of Rome predicted,with hilarious imprecision,

1970年代时,罗马俱乐部令人捧腹地粗略预测,

a coming doomsday of uncontrollable pollution,wild overpopulation and resource depletion(by 1992,for example,no oil).

失控的污染、人口爆炸及资源枯竭即将来临

CPI

消费者物价指数

The TIME group predicts that the CPI will climb at an annual rate of 7.2%in the fourth quarter

时代集团预测消费者物价指数在第四季将爬升至年增率7.2%

and slow to 3.8% by tate next year.

但在明年结束前将会减缓至3.8%。

Economists placed greater trust in the CPI report,

经济学家对消费者物价指数比较信任,

contending that the surge in the wholesale index was merely a fluke.

认为批发物价指数的飙涨只是偶发现象。

crowding out

排挤效果

For corporate America,health care has become a crippling expense.

对美国企业来说,健保已成了对企业杀伤力极大的一项支出。

General Motors laid out $3.2 billion last year,more than it spent on steel,to provide medical coverage for 1.9 million employees,dependents and retirees.

通用汽车公司去年编列32亿美元去付它190万名员工、眷属与退休员工的医药费用,比公司买钢铁的预算还高。

Unchecked,the U.S. medical bill will more than double in the next 10 years to $1.6 trillion,crowding out spending for other urgent needs.

假如再不节制,美国人的医药支出会在未来10年内增长一倍达到1.6兆美元,排挤其他更重要的资金需求。

deflation

通货紧缩

The potential for still lower inflation is real-and the gruesome possilility of deflation can't be ruled out.

更低的通膨率是可能发生的,而残酷的通货紧缩的可能性并不能排除在外。

The only question:will inflation succeed?

唯一的问题:通货膨胀可能成功吗?

Upon the answer(which many think will be soon apparent)depends the immediate economic future of the U.S.

美国短期的经济前景全依赖问题的答案。

If it succeeds,the downward spiral of deflation will be definitely checked.

如果通货膨胀成功,那么往下盘旋的通货紧缩就可确定已经控制住了。

depression

萧条

Few would advocate a literal reprise of Franklin D.Roosevelt's response to the Great Depression,

很少人会主张拿出当年F.D.罗斯福对付经济大萧条的方法,

which included strong gusts of government spending and massive publicworks projects.

包括大幅提高政府的支出与公共工程的预算。

While some economists have described the current slump as a near depression,

有些经济学家把当前的低迷形容成“接近萧条”

that phrase overstates the case if it is taken as a comparison with the period 1929-33,

用这词就嫌夸张了,

when the U.S. economy contracted by nearly a third.

因为在1929至1933年间,美国的经济萎缩了1/3之多。

deregulate

自由

Rajiv's goal was to give his country reform,modernization,deregulation

拉吉夫的目标是带给印度改革、现代化、自由化

all catchwords under-pinning his frequently quoted aim of "bringing India into the 21st century."

这些都是支持他经常挂在嘴边的所谓“带领印度进入21世界”大方向的一些口号。

New technology and deregulation are blurring the lines between telephones and cable TV,

新科技与政府管制的取消使得电话与有线电视的界线开始模糊,

provoking a battle for America's homes.

双方为抢夺美国家庭用户,展开一场大战。

econometrics

计量经济学

The reluctant laureate was honored for pathbreaking work in the early 1940s that laid the foundation for econometrics,which uses mathematical models to study the behavior of aneconomy.

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这位不情愿得奖人以他在1940年代另辟蹊径的研究,为以数学模式来研究经济行为的计量经济学立下了根基,而得到此奖。

Such barometers as car sales and housing starts have remained dismayingly weak,

一些景气的温度计,像是汽车销售及新屋营建,都维持在令人气馁的低档,

mostly because Americans have been worrying about their incomes and jobs.

主要因为美国人对收入与工作仍感到担忧。

“What is happening here is the reverse of what the government really wants,"says Walter Williams,president of American Busi-ness Econometrics,a consulting firm.

美国商业计量经济顾问公司的总裁Walter Williams说:“国内真实的状况与政府的预期正好相反。”

foreign exchange reserves

外汇储备

The former British colony at the Malay Peninsula only achieved full independence in 1965.

这个位于马来半岛前端的前英国殖民地,在1965年才完全独立,

yet it boasts Asia's highest living standard after Japan,an average per capita income of $15,000

然而其生活水准在亚洲仅次于日本,每人国民所得高达15000美元

and by far the world's highest per capita cache of foreign reserves.

而且享有世界最高的国民平均外汇储备。

GNP

国民生产总值

While more people are working with their heads rather than their hands

虽然更多人不用手而以动脑为职业

and a third of the nation's $5.5trillion GNP is generated by ideas rather than manufactured goods,

且国内每年5.5兆元国民生产总值的1/3出自想法而非工业产品,

whitecollar productivity is no higher now than it was 30 years ago.

但是白领阶级的生产力比起30年前,并没有什么进步。

hyperinflation

恶性通货膨胀

Throughout Cuba,Russia and much of Eastern Europe,

在古巴、俄罗斯以及东欧大部分地区,

people from shopkeepers to school teachers stash greenbacks as a shield against hyperinflation and the sudden devaluation of their own currencies.

从店员到教师等等的老百姓莫不在搜集美元,以抵挡恶性通货膨胀及他们本国货币的突然贬值。

The short-term aim of this self-induced shock treatment is curiously,

有趣的是,这次自动实施“休克疗法”的目的,

to halt hyperinflation,which in December ran at a rate of 600%.

是为了制止恶性通货膨胀。在12月,通膨率已高达600%.

indicator

指标

The index of leading economic indicators fell 0.3% in May.

5月的领先指标指数下跌0.3%。

In the same month new-home sales plunged to a 12-month low,

同月的新屋销售率跌到12个月以来的低点。

despite the best mortgage rates in two decades.

但是房屋贷款利率却是20年来最高点。

In one such report,Commerce said last week that its index of leading economic indicators rose a strong 1.2% in July.

美国商务部上周在经济报千中透露,7月的领先指标指数挺进了1.2%

industrialized countries

工业化国家

At the same time came the liberalization of economic policies in Latin America from Chile to Mexico and the rapid growth of the newly industrialized countries of Asia's Racific Rim.

拉丁美洲自智利到墨西哥都在实施经济自由化政策,而且太平洋边缘的亚洲新兴工业化国家成长快速。

The world was suddenly ravenous for American capital.

这个世界突然之间对美国的资金趋之若鹜。

money supply

货币供给

She assumed tight control over the money supply,

她紧缩货币供给,

deregulated industry,built a free market economy

使产业自由化,建立自由市场经济。

and encouraged foreign investment

而且鼓励外商投资

With inflation still hovering near a mild 3%,

因为通货膨胀率仍盘旋在温和的3%上下,

he Federal Reserve Board would seem to have little reason to tighten the money supply and push interest rates up.

所以联邦储备委员会似乎没有什么理由紧缩货币供给以及调高利率。

Reaganomics

里根经济学

He also suggested that Tsongas was proposing merely an updated version of Reaganomics.

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他也暗示桑格斯只是提出一份更新过的里根经济学而已。

Last week's elections demonstrated that all too many voters still believe the old fantasy of Reaganomics

上周的选举显示还有太多选民相信里根经济学那一套老的梦想,

hat taxes can be cut while government programs grow.

税可以减,政府计划仍能成长。

state-run

国营

Olga Ivanova supplements her meager monthly pension of 205 rubles($2.28 at the current tourist rate)by selling eggs on a Yaroslavl street corner.

Olga Ivanova 在Yaroslavl的街头卖鸡蛋以补贴每月微薄的205卢布退休金收入。

She vaguely recalls buying smoked ham in a state-run shop six or seven years ago,

她依稀记得六七年前曾在国营商店买过烟熏火腿,

but the only meat available now sells for 40 rubles for 2 lbs.,or 20%of her income,at the free market.

但现在只能在自由市场买到肉,价格是两磅40卢布,相当于她20%的收入。

On April 14,1991,armed robbers raided Amsterdam's state-run Van Gogh Museum at night,

1991年4月14日,武装抢匪在晚间闯入国营的凡•高博物馆,

cut tha alarm system and spent 45 minutes picking out 20 works by the Dutch Impressionist.

切断警报系统,并且花了45分钟时间挑走了这位荷兰印象派画家的20件作品。

twin deficits

双赤字

Bringing down America's twin deficits will demand a wealth of ideas and compromises.

欲降低美国的双赤字将需要许多的意见与妥协。

No single fix will do the job.

没有一个单独的方案能竟全功。

In addition,the economy was menaced by those terrible twin deficits in the federal budget and foreign trade.

另外,整体经济也遭到联邦预算与对外贸易双重赤字的破坏。


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