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时代经典商业英语词汇:贸易

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  《时代经典商业英语词汇》:TIME《时代杂志》上典雅的用词、优美的文章一向广受各界推崇,被誉为了解西方文化的宝典。其用词极为精练、简洁,如果您希望能充分享受阅读TIME的乐趣,首要的工作就是认识TIME的常用词汇。

  barter

  易货贸易

  A rare stillness suffused Saturday morning in Sarajevo.

  萨拉热窝的周六早晨出奇的沉寂。

  With the guns silent for a moment,parents gathered up their hungry children and headed for the market

  炮声未响,父母带着饥肠辘辘的孩子到市场,

  to barter for what meager supplies of food and clothing had made it through Serbian lines.

  寻找穿越塞尔维亚防线的少数食品、衣物,以进行易物交易。

  country of origin

  原产国

  Most Americans think of the Swatch as a trendy timepiece

  大多数美国人认为Swatch是制造流行的手表,

  that was embraced from K Mart Shoppers to the owners of SOHO galleries.

  从K Mart的购物者到苏活区艺廊的主持人都喜欢它。

  But in its country of origin,Switzerland,the Swatch represents nothing less than an amazing instrument of industrial rejuvenation.

  但是在它的原产国瑞士,Swatch所代表的不外是惊人的产业再生力量。

  dumping

  倾销

  The turning point for the U.S.semiconductor industry may have been in 1985,

  美国半导体产业的转折点是在1985年。

  when American companies filed an antidumping petition against Japanese chipmakers.

  美国公司发出一份控告日本芯片制造厂的反倾销陈情书。

  The Japanese were selling 256-kilobit memory chips at $2 each,for example,even though they cost an estimated $3 or more to produce.

  例如日本在美国以每颗2美元的价格,销售256K的内存芯片,但是制造成本却大约是3元以上。

  The report pointed out violations of fair trade by each area in 10 separate categories,

  报告指出,在各个地区违反公平贸易的项目总共有10个,

  such as quotas,anti-dumping measures and government procurement.

  包括配额、反倾销措施及政府采购等。

  EPZ

  出口加工区

  Though provincial governments have been given more freedom,

  虽然地方政府已经得到更多空间,

  they haven't passed it on to entrepreneurs.

  但它们并未将这自由空间转移给企业家。

  Foreign investors are welcome,but corruption devours profits.

  外资受到欢迎,但贪污侵蚀了利润。

  Even longtime investors complain that the rules seem to keep shifting.

  即使长期投资者也抱怨朝令夕改。

  Ho Chi Minh City's Export Processing Zone Authority lured foreign companies on the basis of preferred taxfree status and then announced an 8% business tax.

  胡志明市的出口加工区以优惠的免税待遇来吸引外商,然后却又宣布8%的企业税率。

  government procurement

  政府采购

  Court papers describe a scheme in which California's Teledyne Industries paid Parkin and Lackner

  法庭文件描写一件阴谋:加州的Teledyne Industries付钱买通Parkin与Lackner二人,

  to obtain confidential information about government procurement plans for a system to identify military aircraft.

  以获得有关政府采购能辩认识别军机系统的机密资料。

  When equipment has not been delivered,because of the glacial government procurement process.

  当装备因缓慢的政府采购程序而无法送达时,

  Reno has personally borrowed gear from the Pentagon.

  雷诺亲自去向五角大楼借装备。

  gray market

  灰色市场

  Unlike rare jewels,chips have had the advantage of being untraceable,

  电脑芯片不像稀有的珠宝。它的优点是无法追查原主,

  so they can be quickly unloaded on gray and black markets.

  所以很容易在灰色市场与黑市脱手。

  ITC

  国际贸易委员会

  The U.S.International Trade Commission,the federal agency that deals with unfair trade complaints by American companies,

  美国国际贸易委员会是专门处理美国企业对不公平贸易控拆的联邦机构。

  is handling a record number of cases(38 last year).

  它现在正处理创历史新高的案件数目(去年有38件)。

  MFN

  最惠国

  Despite lapses into protectionism,the U.S. has generally been both a promoter and a beneficiary of free trade.

  |||

  虽然美国逐渐倾向保护主义,但大体说来它是自由贸易的推动者与受益者。

  It grants 159 of the 170 countries on earth most-favored-nation status,or MFN,subjecting their products to roughly the same relatively low import duties.

  在170国中,他给予其中的159国最惠国特遇,对它们的产品大致均课以比较低的进口关税。

  protectionism

  保护主义

  The latest version of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade will wholly or partly eliminate national tariffs,subsidies,quotas and other forms of protectionism for dozens of industries.

  最近的关贸总协定版本,将要求将数十种产业的保护政策,例如关税、补贴、配额及其他形式等,加以全部或部分消除。

  The overriding U.S. national interest is an open world in which Amierca can thrive.

  美国最主要的利益就是建立一个可以蓬勃发展的开放世界。

  (That is why protectionism and the anti-NAFTA campaign,merely other forms of isolationism,are so dangerous.)

  (因此保护主义与反“北美自由贸易协定”的行动是危险的,因为它们只是孤立主义的另外一种形式罢了。)

  Super 301

  超级301

  President Clinton revived a tough provision of U.S.trade law in an attempt

  克林顿总统重新祭出美国贸易法中强硬的一条条文,

  to get Japan to trim its $59 billion trade surplus.

  希望逼日本降低它对美的590亿美元贸易出超。

  The measure,the so-called Super 301,creates a "hit list" of countries deemed to be unfair traders

  这个称为“超级301”的措施会列出一张被认定是不公平贸易国家的“黑名单”,

  and threatens punitive tariffs up to 100%.

  并且威胁使用可高达100%的惩罚性关税。

  Encouraged by frustrated U.S. trade groups and corporations,

  在气馁的美国贸易团体与企业的鼓励下,

  legislators had Japan in mind when they passed the provision-dubbed Super 301-as part of last year's trade bill.

  国会议员在去年的贸易法案中通过了所谓的超级301条款,心中想的对象就是日本。

  trade friction

  贸易摩擦

  The Administration wants to fight for the U.S. computerchip industry,

  美国政府愿意替美国的电脑芯片厂奋斗,

  but it does not want trade friction to topple Japan's fragile reform coalition government.

  但它不想制造贸易摩擦,让日本脆弱的改革派联合政府垮台。

  TOYOTA calls that charge "groundless and meaningless."

  丰田称此项指控“毫无根据与意义”,

  but spokesman Yoshihara Tateishi says,

  但是发言人Yoshihara Tateishi说:

  "We are fully aware of the trade friction,

  “我们完全了解这种贸易摩擦,

  and our approach will be modest and prudent."

  而我们的处理方式将会是温和且谨慎的。”

  USTR

  美国贸易代表署

  Racing against a U.S.-imposed deadline,

  为了赶上美国所设的最后期限,

  Japanese negotiators and U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor produced the first major market-opening agreement between the two countries since talks began in July 1993.

  日本的谈判代表和美国贸易代表坎特达成了自1993年7月开始谈判以来,第一个主要的市场开放协议。

  Take That!And That!

  需索无度

  1.If posturing and tough talk were all it took to remedy the U.S.-Japan trade gap,

  如果摆姿态和放话就能解决美日贸易逆差问题,

  everything would be fine by now.

  那么现在什么事都已经解决了。

  The grumpy Fed.11 encounter in Washington between Bill Clinton and Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa has produced a surplus of bluster.

  2月11日,美国总统克林顿与日本首相细川护熙不愉快的会面导致了更多的争执。

  "We will not modify our position," Hosokawa warned afterward.

  细川事后警告道:“我们不会改变立场。”

  "It's just not acceptable for the United States to continue on the same path,"Clinton warned back last week.

  “我们不能接受美国继续照目前的方向前进。”上周克林顿回敬了一顿警告。

  But as both sides grumbled,they tried to keep the brinkmanship within bounds.

  不过即使双方都抱怨连连,它们仍试图把龃龉限制在破裂边缘。

  |||

  "The intent and fact are to be measured and calm about this,"insisted a White House official,even as others waved fists at Japan.

  即使其他人都在向日本挥舞拳头,白宫一名官员仍坚持:“对此事我们的意图实际上是很有分寸而且冷静的。”

  2.Scarcely had Hosokawa settled back in Tokyo than the White House struck.

  细川在东京才刚上任,美国就发起攻势。

  It announced that Japan had failed to comply with previous trade agreements

  白宫宣布日本并未遵守先前的贸易协定,

  by denying Motorola fair access to Japan's cellular-phone market.

  因为它没有给予美国Motorola公司公平的渠道进入日本的移动电话市场。

  "This is a clear-cut and serious case of a failure by Japan to live up to its commitments,"said U.S. Trade Representative Mickey Kantor.

  美国贸易代表坎特说:“这是清楚而严重的证据,显示日本没有遵守诺言。”

  He promised that within a month his office would publish a list of Japanese companies that would be punished-probably through tariffs-if the situation is not remedied.

  他承诺假如此状况未获改善,贸易代表署将在一个月内开出黑名单,列入可能受到惩罚的日本企业。

  One day later,Washington's case was bolstered

  一天后,华府的立场更加坚定了,

  by new Commerce Department figures showing that the trade deficit with Japan rose nearly 24% last year,

  因为商务部最新统计显示去年美国对日本的贸易逆差扩大了24%,

  to a record $59.3 billion.

  到达空前的593亿美元。

  3.The Japanese made their own threat to fight any sanctions

  日本也发出威胁要对抗任何的制裁行动,

  by accusing the U.S. of a "betrayal of trust" in multinational negotiations to reduce tariffs.

  并指挥美国背弃在国际协商中降低关税的主张与承诺。

  But even as the Japanese were applauding Hosokawa's refusal to cave in to Clinton,

  但是即令日本人为细川拒绝对美国低头的主张喝彩不已,

  his government was calculating how to avoid a fight.

  细川政府却仍在算计如何避免一场战争。

  Early in the week Tokyo was unnerved when the yen rose about 6% against the dollar while Washington stood by with arms folded.

  本周稍早日元对美元升值6%,美国却在一旁双的抱胸冷眼旁观,令日本害怕不已。

  The upward pressure came from speculators counting on the U.S. to encourage a stronger yen to make American products cheaper in Japan.

  升值的压力来自市场投机客打赌美国会纵容日元升值,好让在日销售的美国货变便宜。

  Because that would also cut into the profits of beleaguered Japanese companies that sell abroad,

  因为升值会使已烦恼不堪的面向海外的日本企业利润下滑,

  a 5% drop in the Japanese stock market quickly followed.

  所以日本股市也跌了5%。

  4.Tokyo scrambled to propose conciliatory measures

  东京方面赶忙提出讲和的措施,

  to promote imports,speed deregulation,break down monopolies and open up government purchasing to outsiders-

  包括刺激进口、加速自由化、解散垄断企业与外国开放政府采购——

  a standard litany that Washington wasn't buying.

  华盛顿并不吃这一套陈词滥调。

  And the Japanese gave no sign of willingness to compromise

  日本在这方面却并无妥协之迹象,

  on the core U.S. demand that their progress in opening markets should be measured by "objective criteria"-in effect,guaranteeing that competitive products get a share of the market.

  美国要求的重点是,市场开放的脚步应由“客观标准”来判定,也就是保证让美国竞争性产品在日本市场取得一席之地。

  5.The cellular-phone problem illustrates how even the most competitive American products-

  移动电话的问题显示出即使最具竞争力的美国产品

  Motorola claims 40% of the global cellular market-can be tripped up in Japan.

  在日本也会灰头土脸。

  In 1987,when it privatized the national phone company,

  1987年,日本政府将国营的日本电信公司民营化,

  Nippon Telegraph & Telephone,Japan's government divided the country into two cellular-phone regions,with NTT operating in both and one fully private competitor in each.

  |||

  并把全国分成两个移动电话区域,NTT在两区都可经营,而政府在每区各容许一家完全民营的竞争对手。

  Though it has flourished elsewhere in Japan,

  虽然Motorola在日本其他地区都生意兴隆,

  Motorola maintains that it has been handicapped in the Tokyo-Nagoya corridor,the more profitable of the two areas,

  它却坚持在东京一名古屋走廊地带这个利润较高的区域受到牵制,

  where its phones are incompatible with the NTT transmitting system.

  因为它的传输系统与NTT不相容。

  6.As part of an agreement to give Motorola "comparable market access"-reached in 1989 after Washington threatened reprisals-

  日本政府在华府威胁报复后,在1989年达成协议愿给Motorola“同等的市场开放度”,

  the Japanese government provided the company a slice of the cellular-phone bandwidth in the Tokyo-Nagoya region.

  接着便在关东地区走廊区域分给Motorola一部分的频宽。

  There was a catch:Motorola's new transmitting equipment would have to be installed by IDO,the wholly private cellular operator in that area.

  但是有个圈套:Motorola的新传输设备必须由该区原来的民营竞争者IDO公司来装设。

  Called upon to build facilities for a competitor,IDO dragged its feet.

  IDO在被叫来帮对手建立设施的情况下,进度极为缓慢。

  In 1992,at Motorola's request,Washington sought and gained a follow-up agreement to speed construction.

  1992年,在Motorola的要求下,华府再度与日本订下后续协定,将加速这些建设。

  7.Last summer Motorola again protested the slow pace,leading the White House back to bargaining with Japan.

  去年夏天Motorola再度抗议牛步化的进度,白宫与日本再度走上谈判桌。

  The U.S.wants guarantees that the new system will be up two years earlier than IDO's projected completion date in March 1997.

  美国要求日本保证新系统必须比IDO原订的1997年3月早两年完工。

  In the view of IDO president Takeo Tsukada,that would lead his still unprofitable company to "certain bankruptcy."

  IDO总经理Takeo Tsukada的说法是如此一来这家尚未见到利润的公司必然破产。

  Motorola says anything less would keep it out of the cellular boom expected to start in April,

  Motorola说若不这样做,它就会被摒弃于自今年4月即将开始的移动电话热潮,

  when new regulations permit Japanese consumers to own phones instead of just renting them.Tokyo,meanwhile,insists that the remaining tangles are just a business dispute between private companies.

  因为新法规允许日本消费者不必再租用移动电话,而可自己拥有。

  "Washington is asking us to guarantee Motorola's business,"complains a Japanese official.

  一名日本官员抱怨说:“华府在要求我们保证Motorola的生意。”

  8.Cellular phones are just one of 31 areas covered by trade agreements at the U.S. could use as gauges of Japanese intransigence and then retaliate.

  美国与日本有31项产品的市场开放协定,移动电话只是其中一项,美国可据此衡量日本不妥协的程度,再考虑报复措施。

  "It's not our desire to be provocative,"says a White House official.

  一名白宫官员说:“我们并不想惹是生非,

  "But the status quo cannot continue."

  但是这种现状不能继续下去。”

  Neither can the present standoff,without the danger of a more serious confrontation that nobody wants.

  目前的对峙也不能持续,否则将造成无人乐见的危险对抗。

  Now,does anybody here know how to just dabble in a trade war?

  现在有谁知道如何在贸易战争上浅尝即止吗?


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