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自己练口语时候需要注意哪些内容?

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2017年03月20日

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大家平时都是怎么练口语的?下面内容是根据雅思口语的四项评分标准给出的一些具体的建议和可行的方法,当然,最重要的还是要坚持练习。

Fluency & Coherence

流畅性及连贯性

1. Repeat after a recording 复述练习

The Frst time you repeat it will probably be slower than the actual recording so keep repeating until you gain the same speed as the native speaker. Be aware that you may need to use sound links, contractions and weakened forms to match their speed.

通常第一次做复述练习时,念的速度会比较慢,你必须重复练习,直到你讲话的速度与以英语为母语的使用者的速度一致。练习速度时你必须同时活用“连音”、“缩略语”以及“弱读音”。

2. Repeat the same topic 重复练习相同的主题

The first time you say a Part 2 topic, for example, you will produce a somewhat slow response with little information. The more often you repeat it, the more fluently your response should come out. Remember when you begin to produce more fluent answers, you will need to add more information to ensure that you keep talking for 1-2 minutes.

刚开始练习口语测试的Part 2时,你的反应会较慢,头脑中的资料会比较少,重复练习可以改善这种状况。记住,当你讲得比较流利后,你就必须提供充分的资料来让你的回答足以持续~2分钟。

3. Use it or lose it 尽可能使用新词汇

The reason why you pause or hesitate is often in search of vocabulary which is not readily available to you. The more you use a word, the more likely it will become active vocabulary. By the same token if you never use a word that you have learnt, it is destined to be forgotten.

通常你在口试时停顿或犹豫,是因为你正在脑海里寻找合适的词汇。平时多练习使用学过的词汇,词汇才会真正属于你。

4. Focus on English, not IQ 专注在英文能力上

Another reason why you may break down is that you have no opinion.As a student about to study your Master's Degree, of course you want to sound very educated and knowledgeable, but remember IELTS stands for International English Language Testing System, it's not an IQ test. Examiners are testing your English not your intelligence. If you can't think of a smart response, then say something obvious, boring, or even stupid but use good English while you are doing so. Saying something is better than nothing. If you say nothing then you lose points in each criterion, not just fluency. If you say something stupid, you will still gain points in each criterion. The only thing you may lose is face but who cares? You'll never see the examiner again.

导致你在发言中停顿的另一个原因是因为你没有自己的看法。参加IELTS测试的考生多半是为了攻读硕士,当然会希望自己听起来是个有知识的人。但请牢记,IELTS考查的是你的英文能力,而非智力。万一实在没有好的想法,或只有一些无趣、甚至愚蠢的想法,还是要尽量开口说,因为随便说也比什么都不说好。

5. Read, read, read 阅读各类型的文章

Again if you break down due to a lack of opinions then start reading up on a variety of topics and pay particular attention to different people's opinions. Nobody ever has a totally original opinion-everyone copies and adapts a number of ideas from various people when formulating their own opinion.

如果你是因为缺乏想法而导致回答停顿的话,那你必须开始阅读各种类型的文章,并多注意别人所发表的意见。没有人天生就是文思泉涌的,每个人都是参考别人的各种想法并将其转换成自已的意见。

6. Don't be shy for 11-14 minutes 暂时抛开害羞的个性

Even if you are shy in your native country using your native language-a person known to be of few words, you will have to change your personality for a mere 11~14 minutes as the examiner can only make an evaluation of what he/she hears. Again, if they hear nothing or very little, then it will affect each criterion. Try to be as tallcative as possible and say as much as possible.

如果你是个害羞或不善言辞的人,那你必须在口试的11~14分钟里暂时抛开你害羞的个性,尽可能让自己表现得像个能言善辩的人。

7. Use signpost expressions 使用“指引性”的词语

Signpost expressions are words that give the listener some direction, for example: Firstly, By this I mean, For instance, In contrast, To be honest. All these expressions give the listener some idea of what kind of information to expect next, which makes it easier to follow and understand the conversation.

使用一些“指引性”的词语,给听者指引方向,让听者能立即且清楚地知道你要表达的信息,例如:Firstly(首先)、By this I mean(我的意思是)、For instance(例如)、In contrast(相反)、To be honest(老实说)。

Lexical Resource

词汇量

1. Read, read, read 尽可能多地阅读文章

Read something you enjoy reading; the more you enjoy it, the more you will read and the more you read, the more vocabulary you will learn. It doesn't matter if you are reading a signpost on the street or Harry Potter-you can learn English anywhere and everywhere.

读一些你感兴趣的文章或书籍,读得越多,你学习到的词汇就越多。不管是街上的标语,还是像《哈利·波特》这样的小说,英文的学习是无所不在的。

2. Review, review, review 复习,复习,再复习

If you don't review, you will forget. It is often boring to review, but it is absolutely essential to retain and consolidate vocabulary learnt. There's no point learning new words, in fact it would be a waste of time if you can't even remember the words you have learnt previously.

如果你不花时间复习,是很容易忘记的。复习虽然很无趣,但这是记住并巩固词汇必要的方法。如果连已经学过的词汇都记不得,那么拼命学新词汇也只是在浪费时间。

3. Use an English-English dictionary 使用英一英字典

It may be difficult at first but it will have far-reaching effects, as every time you learn a new word you will be reviewing old vocabulary. These days learner dictionaries only use around 2,000 of the most common words found in the English language. Such a vocabulary base should already be developed by the stage a student gets to high school. A translator may have short-term benefits but will only slow you down in the long run.

一开始用英一英字典会感到困难,但当你使用它查询新词汇时,你会同时复习到旧的词汇,这样的学习最有效。一般的英一英字典约使用2000个一般性词汇,而这些词汇是学生在高中阶段就已具备的。使用电子字典,虽然可以快速查到词汇的意思,但就长远来看,这反而会减慢你的学习脚步。

4. Use it or lose it 尽可能使用新词汇

Always try to use new words in conversation or writing as this is the best way to remember a word. The more you use it, the easier it will be to recall next time you wish to use it.

当你学习一个新单词后,最好的办法是一有机会就使用它。

5. Practise paraphrasing 练习改述

As a non-native speaker, it doesn't matter how many words you learn; there will always be a time when you don't know the word for something you wish to express.This will be even more likely when you are in a test and you are feeling nervous, tired and maybe even scared. Therefore it's important that you have the ability to paraphrase. Open up any book or even a dictionary and see if you can describe a word using other words-you may use a synonym, parallel expression or even a sentence to describe your meaning. Even native speakers use this technique as everyone's mind goes blank from time to time.

对于母语非英语的人来说,不论你学了多少单词,仍然会有词穷的时候,尤其在考试太过紧张时。因此,具备使用不同的表达方式来表达临时想不出的词汇的能力是极重要的。从一本书或字典中随意选一个词,试着使用同义词甚至是句子来表达它的意思。就连母语为英语的人在临时找不到词汇表达时,也会如法炮制。

6. Learn ail word forms 学习所有的词性变化

Students most commonly use an incorrect word form, that is, they use a noun when they should use a verb or they use an adjective when they should use an adverb.When you learn a new word also find out what the part of speech is and what the other word forms are.

一般学生最常犯的错误就是词性,也就是该使用动词时却用了名词,或该用副词时却用了形容词。当你学到一个新的单词时,一定要把它的词性变化一起记下来。

Grammatical Range and Accuracy

语法运用范围与其正确性

1. Record yourself 录下自己的声音

Often when you are speaking you don't realise how many mistakes you make or what they are. You'll be surprised that you can actually pick up a lot of mistakes yourself if you replay your talk, and by copying it down, it will probably bring out even more errors. Once you've noted your most common errors, get yourself a grammar practice book and practise your weaknesses.

将自己的口试练习录下来,你会发现自己犯了许多平时没有发现的错误。记下自己最常犯的错误,并使用语法书来练习自己语法较弱的地方。

2. Take apart and reconstruct sentences 分解、重组句子结构

Open up any book and choose a sentence. Break up the sentence into smaller sentences and then without referring back to the original sentence see if you can put it back together again. In the IELTS you will need to be able to produce both short and complex sentence forms.You will not get a high score if you only use short simple sentences for the sake of accuracy.

随便从一本书中挑一个句子,练习将句子分解成几个较短的句子,再重组还原成完整的一句。在IELTS口试中,你必须兼顾短句及复合句的使用。如果为了句子的正确性而一直使用简短的句子,肯定是不会得到高分的。

3. Practise linking words and expressions 练习使用连词

The easiest way to make a sentence sound more complex is by using a linking word. Get yourself a grammar book and practise using conjunctions and linking words.

让一个句子听起来完整、漂亮的最简单方式就是使用连词,可使用语法书来练习连词的用法。

4. Read, read, read 持续阅读

The more you read, the more good grammar you will come across.The more accurate and complex grammar you are exposed to, the more likely it is that some of it will rub off on you.

你读得越多,就越能使用复杂而正确的语法,以此来精确地表达你的意思。

Pronunciation

发音

1. Note down phonemics 记下单词的音节

When you learn a new word, it is essential that you also learn how to say it otherwise you can use it in writing but not in speaking. By learning and using the phonemic script for each new word you learn, you will feel more confident when it comes to using it verbally.

当你学到一个新的单词时,练习它的正确发音是必要的,否则你充其量只会把词汇用在书写上而非口语上。

2. Repeat after a recording 复述练习

Practise repeating after a recording over and over again. The first time you may have the clarity but you will most likely be missing the other native speech patterns such as word and sentence stress, rhythm and intonation, sound links, weakened forms and contractions. Keep practising until it sounds identical to the native speaker.

做复述练习。你有可能已经说得很清楚,但却忽略了重音、音调或连音等。不断地练习,直到自己的发音能近似于母语为英语者。

3. Read aloud 大声念出来

This will help you to improve your motor skills. As English is not your mother tongue, your mouth will not be used to using certain muscles. Therefore they need to be given a workout as often as possible. If you read aloud a tapescript it will give you the opportunity also to listen and check your pronunciation.

这能帮助你训练嘴型和舌头。英语并非你的母语,所以你并不习惯于某些肌肉的运用,因此你必须时常练习。大声念出录音稿,你就有更多的机会检查自己的发音。

4. Listen, listen, listen 多听

The more you listen, the more familiar the sounds of the English language will become to you. This will assist in predicting the pronunciation of new words in case you do not have a dictionary handy to look up the phonemics.


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