外国人最想和你聊的名人话题:弗洛伊德 - 听力课堂
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外国人最想和你聊的名人话题:弗洛伊德

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2018年08月10日

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 About Freud 关于弗洛伊德

     Sigmund Freud, born Sigismund Schlomo Freud was an Austrian neurologist who founded the discipline of psychoanalysis.
     Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind and the mechanism of repression, and for creating the clinical method of psychoanalysis for investigating the mind and treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient (or "analysand") and a psychoanalyst.
     Freud established sexual drives as the primary motivational forces of human life, developed therapeutic techniques such as the use of free association, discovered the phenomenon of transference in the therapeutic relationship and established its central role in the analytic process; he interpreted dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires. He was an early neurological researcher into cerebral palsy, aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy, and a prolific essayist, drawing on psychoanalysis to contribute to the history, interpretation and critique of culture.
     由于对弗洛伊德的许多学说仍有很大争议,因此很难估计出他在历史上的地位。他有创立新学说的杰出天赋,是一位先驱者和带路人。但是弗洛伊德的学说与达尔文和巴斯德的不同,从未赢得过科学界的普遍承认,所以很难说出他的学说中有百分之几最终会被认为是正确的。尽管对弗洛伊德的学说一直存在着争论,他仍不愧为是人类思想史上的一位极其伟大的人物。他的心理学观点使人们对人类思想的观念发生了彻底的革命,他提出的概念和术语已被普遍使用──例如,本我(Id),自我(Ego),超我(Super-Ego),恋母情绪(Oedipus complex)和死亡冲动(Death Drive或Death Instinct)。大多数心理学家现在已经确信无意识思维过程对人的行为起着一种决定性的作用──一种在弗洛伊德之前被大大低估了的作用。弗洛伊德不是心理学的鼻祖。从长远的观点来看,人们也许会认为他作为心理学家所提出的学说并非十分正确,但是他显然是在现代心理学发展中最有影响、最重要的人物。




     Freud saw man as motivated disproportionately by sex.
     弗洛伊德认为人主要受到性的主宰。
     So, Freud gave up the study of the biology of the brain.
     所以,弗洛伊德放弃了对大脑的生物学研究。
     The method Freud developed to do this sounds simple today.
     弗洛伊德采取的方法今天听起来非常简单。
     Had Freud lived, he might even have welcomed this turn of events.
     如果弗洛伊德还活着,他还可能乐见这种转变。
     Freud felt that his theory of dreams was the greatest work of his life.
     弗洛伊德认为,他的释梦理论是他一生中最伟大的工作。
     Hobson's theory also says Freud was wrong about why dreams are strange.
     霍布森的理论还认为,弗洛伊德关于梦为什么奇怪的观点也是错误的。
     Freud's work stands at the crossroads between psychology and neurology.
     弗洛伊德的理论站在心理学和精神病学的交叉点上。
     Freud began his work as a doctor by studying brain cells and nerve cells.
     作为医生,弗洛伊德开始研究大脑细胞和神经细胞。
     I resonate greatly with the views of Schopenhauer, Voltaire, Nietzsche, and Freud.
     我非常认同叔本华、伏尔泰、尼采、弗洛伊德的观点。
     Doctor Hobson also rejects Freud's theory about why we often forget our dreams.
     霍布森博士还不赞成弗洛伊德关于我们为什么常常忘记梦中情节的理论。
     This is what Freud seems to mean when he distinguishes internal excitement from external excitement.
     当他区别内在的兴奋跟外在的兴奋的时候,这似乎就是弗洛伊德的意思。
     Freud was more clear-sighted about this.
     弗洛伊德对这一点了如指掌。
     It says this is more important in shaping dreams than deep wishes or memories, as Freud thought.
     他说,这在梦的形成中比西格蒙德·弗洛伊德认为的深藏的愿望或记忆更重要。
     Freud became interested in dreams while attempting to treat people who suffered from emotional sickness.
     弗洛伊德在治疗那些患有情绪性疾病的病人时,对梦越来越感兴趣。
     This discovery has given rise to a host of theories about the dreaming brain, many strongly reminiscent of Freud's.
     这个发现产生了许多有关脑做梦的理论,其中有许多非常类似弗洛伊德的学说。
     Around 1900, Freud stated his theory that people try to repress any memories or thoughts that they believed were not good.
     1900年左右,西格蒙德·弗洛伊德阐述了他的理论:人们总是努力去抑制所有他们认为不好的记忆或思想。
     Today that picture is coming back into focus, and the surprise is this: it is not unlike the one that Freud outlined a century ago.
     现在,这样的理论又成了焦点,而令人惊讶的是,这个理论与一个世纪前弗洛伊德所勾勒出来的,并没有太大的不同。
     A century ago, Freud formulated his revolutionary theory that dreams were the disguised shadows of our unconscious desires and rears.
     一个世纪前,弗洛伊德阐述了革命性的理论,即梦是人们潜意识中欲望和恐惧经伪装后的预示。
     Sigmund Freud said no mortal can keep a secret, if his lips are silent; he chatters with his figure tips, betray the rules out of him of every pore.
     西格蒙德·弗洛伊德说没人能保守秘密,及时双唇紧闭,指尖也会说话,每个毛孔都泄露着秘密。
     Sigmund Freud has shaken their heads at the sheer vulgarity.
     西格蒙德·弗洛伊德对其粗俗卑劣感到不齿。
     Carl Jung and Freud both noted that there were inner human drives, namely survival and sexual, that never changed regardless of outside factors.
     卡尔·荣格和弗洛伊德都注意到人类的内在驱动问题,那就是生存和性,它们永远不会为外部因素所动摇。
     The Habsburg capital is on the cusp of modernity, its cosmopolitan mix of nationalities, and the dangerous new notions propagated by Freud are evocatively pictured.
     哈布斯堡首都是现代性中心,在这里,各民族混杂而居,加上弗洛伊德宣扬的心理学理论,各类危险的新思潮迭起。
     Freud published his essay in the July issue of the magazine.
     弗洛伊德在七月号的杂志上发表了一篇文章。
     Freud could not distinguish between sexuality and love.
     弗洛伊德不懂得区分性爱和爱情。
     In the early 20th century, however, work on psychiatric diagnosis went into eclipse as a result of the influence of the psychoanalytic theories developed by Freud and his followers.
     不过到了20世纪初期,弗洛伊德与追随者发展出精神分析理论,在他们的影响之下,精神疾病诊断研究没落了。
     Even Freud's empirical attitude is beyond doubt.
     弗洛伊德绝对信赖经验主义。




     Mike: I have a very scary dream last night.
     麦克:我昨天做了一个很可怕的梦。
     Daisy: What did you dream about?
     黛西:你梦见什么了?
     Daisy: I dreamt that I was chasing by a lot of people, and they wanted to kill me.
     黛西:我梦见我被很多人追着,他们想杀我。
     Mike: Maybe you did something bad.
     麦克:也许你做了什么坏事。
     Daisy: I didn't. I don't believe dream has some meaning.
     黛西:我没有啊。我不相信梦有什么意义。
     Mike: I've read a book by Freud, and I really believe in his theory.
     麦克:我读过弗洛伊德的书,而且我很相信他的理论。
     Daisy: I've learn some of theory in class, I feel it too complicated.
     黛西:我在课堂上学过他的理论,我觉得太复杂了。
     Mike: Psychology is complicated
     麦克:心理学本来就复杂。
     Daisy: Yes, I heard those who study psychology are the smartest people.
     黛西:是的,我听说学心理学的都是最聪明的人。
     Mike: Psychology enables you to know better about others and yourself.
     麦克:心理学可以让你更好地了解自己和他人。
     Daisy: I know myself very well.
     黛西:我非常了解自己。
     Mike: You think you do.
     麦克:你自己这么觉得。
    

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