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外国人最想和你聊的文化话题:垃圾食品

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2018年12月04日

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 Realize Junk Foods and Their Bad Effects 认识垃圾食品及其坏处

     1 垃圾食品及其坏处
     Junk food is an informal term applied to some foods that are perceived to have little or no nutritional value (i.e. containing "empty calories"); to products with nutritional value, but also have ingredients considered unhealthy when regularly eaten; or to those considered unhealthy to consume at all.
     Junk foods are typically ready-to-eat convenient foods containing high levels of saturated fats, salt, or sugar, and little or no fruit, vegetables, or dietary fiber; and are considered to have little or no health benefits. Common junk foods include salted snack foods like chips (crisps), candy, gum, most sweet desserts, fried fast food and carbonated beverages (sodas) as well as alcoholic beverages. High-sugar cereals, particularly those targeted at children, such as Froot Loops, are also classified as junk food.
     A study by Paul Johnson and Paul Kenny at The Scripps Research Institute suggested that junk food consumption alters brain activity in a manner similar to addictive drugs like cocaine or heroin. After many weeks on a junk food diet, the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure. After the junk food was taken away and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for two weeks instead of eating nutritious fare.A 2007 British journal of nutrition study found that mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their children.
     A report published in the journal of the federation of American societies for experimental biology suggests that babies of mothers with a high-sugar and high-fat diet while pregnant are more prone to junk food themselves. The study was conducted on rats and suggests that "infants whose mothers eat excessive amounts of high-fat, high-sugar junk foods when pregnant or breastfeeding are likely to have a greater preference for these foods later in life".
     2 世界卫生组织公布十大垃圾食品的表达方式
     A 2008 report suggests that mothers who eat junk food while pregnant or breast-feeding have children who are more prone to obesity. The children are also more prone to diabetes, raised cholesterol, and high blood fat.
     deep-fried type of food      油炸类食品
     preserved type of food       腌制类食品
     processed meat type food (meat, dried meat floss, sausage, etc.)
     加工类肉类食品(肉干、肉松、香肠、火腿等)
     biscuit type of food (excluding low-temperature baking and whole-wheat biscuits)
     饼干类食品(不包括低温烘烤和全麦饼干)
     soft drinks cola type of food   汽水可乐类饮料
     convenient food (mainly refers to instant noodles and puffed food)
     方便类食品(主要指方便面和膨化食品)
     canned food (including fish classes and fruits)
     罐头类食品(包括鱼肉类和水果类)
     plum preserves food (preserved fruit)
     话梅蜜饯果脯类食品
     frozen dessert food (including ice cream, ice bar and a variety of ice cream)
     冷冻甜品类食品(冰激凌、冰棒、雪糕等)
     meals, grilled food          烧烤类食品
     油炸食品热量高,含有较高的油脂和氧化物质,经常进食易导致肥胖,是导致高脂血症和冠心病的最危险食品。不论是水果类罐头还是肉类罐头,其中的营养素都遭到大量的破坏。腌制食品会使经常进食腌制食品者肾脏的负担加重,发生高血压的风险增高。加工的肉类食品(火腿肠等)可能有导致癌症的潜在风险。常吃奶油类制品可导致体重增加,甚至出现血糖和血脂升高。方便面对心血管有相当大的负面影响。烧烤类食品含有强致癌物质三苯四丙吡。冷冻甜点因含有较高的奶油,易导致肥胖。





     Americans on the go also tend to eat a lot of "junk food". Potato chips, candy bars, soft drinks and other goodies are popular treats.
     忙碌的美国人也趋向于吃一大堆"垃圾食物"。土豆片、糖果、汽水和其他好吃的东西都颇受欢迎。
     Banana chips-they are sometimes covered in sugar and most likely fried in coconut oil, so they have crazy amounts of fat.
     香蕉片--香蕉片中往往含有大量的糖分,而且很可能是经椰油炸制而成的,所以其中的脂肪"数不胜数"。
     Watch out because even one serving of banana chips can have the same amount of calories as potato chips. There is also more saturated fat than you get from a large order of french fries.
     你要当心,因为一份香蕉片中的卡路里(热量)和一份薯条一样多。而且你从中吸收的饱和脂肪甚至还要多于一份大薯条呢。
     Yogurt-covered raisins-the coating on the raisins is hardly even yogurt. It has yogurt powder but it is mostly made up of sugar and palmkernel oil-and all the fat is mostly saturated.
     酸乳酪葡萄干--包裹在葡萄干外面的其实并不是普通的酸乳酪。那其中确实含有一部分酸乳酪粉,但主要成分确是糖和棕榈核油,而且脂肪也以饱和脂肪为主。
     Mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy and while breastfeeding have obesity-prone children, rat studies suggest.
     对老鼠的研究使人联想到:母亲在怀孕期间以及在哺乳时食用垃圾食品,可能造成有肥胖倾向的孩子。
     Once weaned, the offspring of junk-food-fed mothers prefer junk foods more than the offspring of rats fed a healthy diet during pregnancy.
     一旦断奶,用垃圾食品喂养的母亲的后代,比在怀孕期间喂以健康饮食的老鼠的后代更喜欢垃圾食品。
     Junk food is made to have tastes and textures that appeal to children. And it's heavily advertised, which also affects a child's preferences.
     垃圾食品做得具有吸引儿童的味道和质地。而且它大量地做广告,这也影响到孩子的喜好。
     Taxing high-fat and sugary junk-food is an effective way to fight obesity.
     对高脂肪、高糖分的垃圾食物征税有助于打击肥胖。
     Junk food advertisements account for two-thirds of televised advertisements for food which are shown when children are likely to be watching.
     在孩子们喜欢看的节目播放的时候,垃圾食品广告占去电视食品广告的三分之二。
     Children today are eating more and more junk food and we are slowly getting into a diet crisis.
     如今的孩子,垃圾食品吃得越来越多,我们已经逐渐进入了饮食危机。
     92% of children consume more saturated fat than is recommended.
     92%的孩子摄入的饱和脂肪要高于身体所需水平。
     The Chief Medical Officer has compared the crisis in children's diets to a health "time bomb" which must be defused.
     首席医学专家将孩子的饮食危机比作危害健康的"定时炸弹",必须加以移除。
     Children's dietary health, in particular childhood obesity, is widely recognized as one of our most pressing public health problems.
     儿童的饮食健康,尤其是儿童肥胖问题,被广泛认为是我们当今社会最紧迫的健康问题之一。
     Children are constantly bombarded with junk food marketing.£480m is spent each year advertising products high in fat, salt and sugar on television alone.
     孩子们常常遭到垃圾食品市场的狂轰滥炸,每年厂商花4.8亿英镑在电视上为脂肪、盐和糖含量极高的垃圾食品做广告。
     Junk food marketing contradicts all the messages about healthy eating children receive, undermining their ability to choose better food and their parents' efforts to feed them healthily.
     垃圾食品的营销方式和孩子们所知道的健康饮食习惯背道而驰,从而降低了他们选择更健康食物的辨别能力,而且也削弱了父母想要自己孩子饮食健康而做的努力。
     Research by the Food Standard's Agency, and others, has shown that junk food advertising directly and indirectly influences children's food preferences, purchasing behavior and consumption.
     食物标准机构和其他一些组织的研究显示,垃圾食品的广告都在直接或间接地影响孩子对食物的偏好、购买以及消耗。
     A series of surveys have demonstrated that the majority of parents are in favour of a protecting their children from junk food advertising.
     一系列的调查显示,大多数家长都希望自己的孩子可以免受垃圾食品广告的干扰。
     A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that 68% of parents were in favour of pre-9pm junk food advertising restrictions, with only 7% against.
     英国心脏基金会最近的调查显示,68%的家长赞成对每晚9点之前的垃圾广告进行限制,而只有7%的家长反对该提议。
     Junk food typically contains high levels of fat, salt, or sugar and numerous food additives such as monosodium glutamate and tartrazine; at the same time, it is lacking in proteins, vitamins and fiber.
     垃圾食品通常含有高脂肪、盐或糖,如味精、食品添加剂柠檬黄,同时缺乏蛋白质,维生素和纤维,





     Susan: Jessie, I haven't seen you for a long time. You look bigger.
     苏珊:杰西。很久没看到你了。你看起来胖了。
     Jessie: Yes, I know. I am getting fat.
     杰西:是的。我知道我长胖了。
     Susan: What did you eat?
     苏珊:你吃了些什么?
     Jessie: Junk food, pizza, ice cream, and hamburger and so on, you know.
     杰西:比萨、冰激凌、汉堡包等你知道的,都是些垃圾食品。
     Susan: So why? You know those foods aren't good for you.
     苏珊:为什么?你明知道那些东西对你没好处。
     Jessie: I just couldn't help myself but now I regretted.
     杰西:我就是忍不住。现在我后悔了。
     Susan: Well, if you want to lose weight, you'd better eat less and do more exercise.
     苏珊:如果你想减肥的话就要少吃多运动。
     Jessie: I guess so.
     杰西:我想是的。
     Susan: The point is that you should resist your eating desire and keep your plan on.
     苏珊:最重要的是要抵抗住吃的诱惑,然后坚持计划。
     Jessie: And no junk food.
     杰西:还有不要再吃垃圾食物了。
     Susan: Right. Those foods are full of fat.
     苏珊:是的。那些食物富含脂肪。
     Jessie: Then what should I eat?
     杰西:那我该吃什么?
     Susan: More vegetables and fruit. They are rich in vitamins,
     苏珊:多吃些蔬菜和水果。它们富含维生素。
     Jessie: OK. I will try.
     杰西:好的。我试试吧。
    

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