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 Realize Junk Foods and Their Bad Effects 认识垃圾食品及其坏处

     1 垃圾食品及其坏处
     Junk food is an informal term applied to some foods that are perceived to have little or no nutritional value (i.e. containing "empty calories"); to products with nutritional value, but also have ingredients considered unhealthy when regularly eaten; or to those considered unhealthy to consume at all.
     Junk foods are typically ready-to-eat convenient foods containing high levels of saturated fats, salt, or sugar, and little or no fruit, vegetables, or dietary fiber; and are considered to have little or no health benefits. Common junk foods include salted snack foods like chips (crisps), candy, gum, most sweet desserts, fried fast food and carbonated beverages (sodas) as well as alcoholic beverages. High-sugar cereals, particularly those targeted at children, such as Froot Loops, are also classified as junk food.
     A study by Paul Johnson and Paul Kenny at The Scripps Research Institute suggested that junk food consumption alters brain activity in a manner similar to addictive drugs like cocaine or heroin. After many weeks on a junk food diet, the pleasure centers of rat brains became desensitized, requiring more food for pleasure. After the junk food was taken away and replaced with a healthy diet, the rats starved for two weeks instead of eating nutritious fare.A 2007 British journal of nutrition study found that mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy increased the likelihood of unhealthy eating habits in their children.
     A report published in the journal of the federation of American societies for experimental biology suggests that babies of mothers with a high-sugar and high-fat diet while pregnant are more prone to junk food themselves. The study was conducted on rats and suggests that "infants whose mothers eat excessive amounts of high-fat, high-sugar junk foods when pregnant or breastfeeding are likely to have a greater preference for these foods later in life".
     2 世界卫生组织公布十大垃圾食品的表达方式
     A 2008 report suggests that mothers who eat junk food while pregnant or breast-feeding have children who are more prone to obesity. The children are also more prone to diabetes, raised cholesterol, and high blood fat.
     deep-fried type of food      油炸类食品
     preserved type of food       腌制类食品
     processed meat type food (meat, dried meat floss, sausage, etc.)
     biscuit type of food (excluding low-temperature baking and whole-wheat biscuits)
     soft drinks cola type of food   汽水可乐类饮料
     convenient food (mainly refers to instant noodles and puffed food)
     canned food (including fish classes and fruits)
     plum preserves food (preserved fruit)
     frozen dessert food (including ice cream, ice bar and a variety of ice cream)
     meals, grilled food          烧烤类食品

     Americans on the go also tend to eat a lot of "junk food". Potato chips, candy bars, soft drinks and other goodies are popular treats.
     Banana chips-they are sometimes covered in sugar and most likely fried in coconut oil, so they have crazy amounts of fat.
     Watch out because even one serving of banana chips can have the same amount of calories as potato chips. There is also more saturated fat than you get from a large order of french fries.
     Yogurt-covered raisins-the coating on the raisins is hardly even yogurt. It has yogurt powder but it is mostly made up of sugar and palmkernel oil-and all the fat is mostly saturated.
     Mothers who eat junk food during pregnancy and while breastfeeding have obesity-prone children, rat studies suggest.
     Once weaned, the offspring of junk-food-fed mothers prefer junk foods more than the offspring of rats fed a healthy diet during pregnancy.
     Junk food is made to have tastes and textures that appeal to children. And it's heavily advertised, which also affects a child's preferences.
     Taxing high-fat and sugary junk-food is an effective way to fight obesity.
     Junk food advertisements account for two-thirds of televised advertisements for food which are shown when children are likely to be watching.
     Children today are eating more and more junk food and we are slowly getting into a diet crisis.
     92% of children consume more saturated fat than is recommended.
     The Chief Medical Officer has compared the crisis in children's diets to a health "time bomb" which must be defused.
     Children's dietary health, in particular childhood obesity, is widely recognized as one of our most pressing public health problems.
     Children are constantly bombarded with junk food marketing.£480m is spent each year advertising products high in fat, salt and sugar on television alone.
     Junk food marketing contradicts all the messages about healthy eating children receive, undermining their ability to choose better food and their parents' efforts to feed them healthily.
     Research by the Food Standard's Agency, and others, has shown that junk food advertising directly and indirectly influences children's food preferences, purchasing behavior and consumption.
     A series of surveys have demonstrated that the majority of parents are in favour of a protecting their children from junk food advertising.
     A recent British Heart Foundation survey found that 68% of parents were in favour of pre-9pm junk food advertising restrictions, with only 7% against.
     Junk food typically contains high levels of fat, salt, or sugar and numerous food additives such as monosodium glutamate and tartrazine; at the same time, it is lacking in proteins, vitamins and fiber.

     Susan: Jessie, I haven't seen you for a long time. You look bigger.
     Jessie: Yes, I know. I am getting fat.
     Susan: What did you eat?
     Jessie: Junk food, pizza, ice cream, and hamburger and so on, you know.
     Susan: So why? You know those foods aren't good for you.
     Jessie: I just couldn't help myself but now I regretted.
     Susan: Well, if you want to lose weight, you'd better eat less and do more exercise.
     Jessie: I guess so.
     Susan: The point is that you should resist your eating desire and keep your plan on.
     Jessie: And no junk food.
     Susan: Right. Those foods are full of fat.
     Jessie: Then what should I eat?
     Susan: More vegetables and fruit. They are rich in vitamins,
     Jessie: OK. I will try.

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