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外国人最想和你聊的文化话题:北京的胡同

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2018年12月28日

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 Realize Beijing's Hutongs 认识北京的胡同

     1 认识北京的胡同
     A hutong is an ancient city alley or lane typical in Beijing, where hutongs run into the several thousand. Surrounding the Forbidden City, many were built during the Yuan (1206-1341), Ming (1368-1628) and Qing (1644-1908) dynasties. In the prime of these dynasties the emperors, in order to establish supreme power for themselves, planned the city and arranged the residential areas according to the etiquette systems of the Zhou Dynasty. The center of the city of Beijing was the royal palace-the Forbidden City.
     One kind of hutongs, usually referred to as the regular hutong, was near the palace to the east and west and arranged in orderly fashion along the streets. Most of the residents of these hutongs were imperial kinsmen and aristocrats. Another kind, the simple and crude hutong, was mostly located far to the north and south of the palace. The residents were merchants and other ordinary people.
     The main buildings in the hutong were almost all quadrangles--a building complex formed by four houses around a quadrangular courtyard. The quadrangles varied in size and design according to the social status of the residents. The big quadrangles of high- ranking officials and wealthy merchants were specially built with roof beams and pillars all beautifully carved and painted, each with a front yard and back yard. However, the ordinary people's quadrangles were simply built with small gates and low houses. Hutongs, in fact, are passageways formed by many closely arranged quadrangles of different sizes. The specially built quadrangles all face the south for better lighting; as a result, a lot of hutongs run from east to west. Between the big hutongs many small ones went north and south for convenient passage.
     Hutong represents an important culture element of Beijing city. Thanks to Beijing's long history and status as capital for six dynasties, almost every hutong has its anecdotes, and some are even associated with historic events.
     2 北京有名胡同的表达方式
     Hutongs are a type of narrow streets or alleys, most commonly associated with Beijing,
     China. In Beijing, hutongs are alleys formed by lines of siheyuan, traditional courtyard residences.Many neighbourhoods were formed by joining one siheyuan to another to form a hutong, and then joining one hutong to another. The word hutong is also used to refer to such neighbourhoods.
     Sanmiao Street               三庙街
     Baidai Hutong                百代胡同
     Gongwangfu                 恭王府
     Bada Hutong                 八大胡同
     Dongjiaomin Xiang              东交民巷
     Lingjing Hutong               灵境胡同
     Baocha Hutong               宝钞胡同
     Erduoyan Hutong               耳朵眼胡同
     the Pulp Street               烟袋斜街
     Baozi Hutong                报子胡同
     Dongtiao Alley               东条胡同
     Big Stone Tiger Alley           大石虎胡同
     现在,北京胡同文化发展已经开发出了一项旅游新项目--蹿胡同。 来自四面八方的外国朋友乘坐北京古老的交通工具人力三轮车,经什刹海西沿,过银锭桥到鼓楼,登楼俯看北京旧城区和四通八达的胡同,然后前往后海地区,参观京城古老的南北官房胡同、大小金狮胡同、前后井胡同。走进普通的四合院,和北京人聊一聊,了解普通北京人的生活,最后沿柳荫街到有"红楼大观园"之称的恭王府,体验旧时王公贵族的居住环境和御花园。





     The majority of Beijing's hutongs were built between the 13th and 19th centuries during the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties.
     北京的胡同大部分建于13到19世纪的元、明、清三个朝代。
     According to experts, the word hutong originated from mongolian language meaning"well".
     专家认为,"胡同"这个词来源于蒙古语,意思是"井"。
     So the original meaning of Hutong should be"a place where people gather and live."
     古时候人们生活和聚集在井的周围,所以"胡同"一词的本意应是"人们生活聚集的地方"。
     Hutong first appeared in Beijing during the Yuan Dynasty.
     胡同在北京第一次出现是在元朝。
     With the growth of the population, many old Hutongs have disappeared to make way for high-rise apartments.
     随着人口的增长,一些老胡同被拔地而起的高楼取代。
     Most of today's Hutong were formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties that followed.
     今天我们看到的大多数胡同是明清两代的产物。
     Nobody knows exactly how many Hutongs there are in nowadays Beijing.
     没有人能够确切地说出北京有多少胡同。
     Or to make it clear, it could build a highway from Seattle to Boston, all across America.
     说得更清楚些,相当于从西雅图修一条高速路直达波士顿,这可是横穿美国大陆啊!
     Today you can find various Hutongs with different shapes, lengths or directions.
     今天您可以发现不同形状、长度和方向的胡同。
     The shortest one is only 40 centimeters wide.
     最窄的胡同仅40厘米宽。
     And some Hutongs have more than 20 turns.
     还有些胡同有20多个弯。
     As we walk through the Hutongs, you may find most of them look almost the same with gray-colored walls and bricks.
     当我们进入胡同时,您也许会发现几乎所有的墙和砖都是灰色的。
     Actually inside those walls are the courtyard houses, where people live. In Chinese we call them "siheyuan".
     其实,在这些墙的后面就是居民的家,我们称其为"四合院"。
     "Si"literally means four,"he"means to surround,and"yuan"refers to the courtyard.
     "四"的字面意思是4,"合"就是围起来,而"院"就是后院的意思。
     So a rectangular wall enclosing four houses, one built on each side facing into the center,is called a Siheyuan.
     也就是一个长方形的围墙围着四间屋子,每间屋子的门朝着院子中间。
     When they were first built, usually one Siheyuan was owned by only one family, but nowadays, with the growth of the population, most Siheyuans are shared by 4 to 10 families.
     过去,一个四合院只属于一个家庭,而现在随着人口的增长,大多数四合院住四至十户人家。
     Hutongs are the countless little alleyways that connect the courtyards of traditional houses.
     胡同是无数条连接北京四合院的小巷子。
     The hutongs not only link Beijing's streets and communities but also its past and present.
     胡同不仅连通了北京的街道和社区,它还联系着北京的过去和现在。
     Hutongs are still an integral part of Beijing life.
     胡同仍然是北京生活的一部分。
     Or wander down Rongxian-the longest hutong at 2 km or squeeze through Qianshe-the narrowest at only 40 cm wide!
     或徜徉在长达两公里的绒线胡同,或侧身挤过最窄处只有40厘米的钱舍胡同。
     As they offer the travelers a rare glimpse into China's fascinating past.
     因为透过这难得一见的胡同,游客能看到中国引人入胜的过去。
     Even houses tucked away in very small lanes have their own courtyards and trees.
     最小的胡同里的房子也有院子与树。
     Investigation showed that the Stone Tiger Alley where Cao Xueqin lived was in Xidan, called Small Stone Tiger Alley.
     经进一步查证,曹雪芹住过的石虎胡同在西单,名小石虎胡同。
     No.33 Small Stone Tiger Alley in Xidan was the Right Wing Zongxuefu (school), where Cao Xueqin once worked before he went to the West Mountains to write his book.
     西单的小石虎胡同33号在清时是右翼宗学府,曹雪芹到西山著书之前曾在这里任差。
     Conditions improved a great deal and many of the original hutongs were renovated and preserved.
     胡同的条件得到改善,对很多早期的胡同进行了修缮和保护。
     And it is not surprising that tourists are fascinated by the hutongs.
     你不会感到吃惊为什么他们对胡同如此着迷。
     "Siheyuan" style residences and the "hutongs" that linked them were unique to old Beijing.
     比如,四合院和纵横其中的胡同都是老北京特色建筑物。
     The Hutongs are the old traditional areas of Beijing. They are really fascinating.
     胡同是北京古老而传统的地方。它们有迷人的魅力。
     Hutongs are something like lanes where very traditional Chinese houses can be seen.
     胡同就是小巷,在那儿你可以看到传统的中式房屋。
     Beijing's hutongs are particularly famous however, as there are literally thousands of them.
     北京的胡同格外著名,因为它有几千条。
     Generation after generation of children spent their childhood in the hutongs of old Beijing, playing with unique folk toys.
     在老北京的胡同里,有许多从民间滋生的玩具,陪伴着一茬又一茬孩子度过快乐的童年。
     In old times, transportation was not as convenient as today, so street vendors played a very important role in Hutong life.
     过去,交通不像现在这样发达,街头小贩在胡同中起到重要作用。
     They wandered from lane to lane selling various goods or providing all kind of services.
     他们往来于胡同间,贩卖各种货品或提供各种服务。
     The main attraction of Hutong life is friendly and interpersonal communication.
     胡同生活的最大魅力在于人与人之间的友好交往。
     Children living in one courtyard play together and grow up together like one big family.
     孩子们在一起长大,如同一家人一样。





     Susan:Hi Sue, what are you doing this afternoon?
     苏珊:嗨!你今天下午做什么?
     Cathy:Nothing. I've got nothing planned. Why?
     凯西:不做什么。我没有任何计划。有事吗?
     Susan:I thought it would be a good idea to take a trip around the Hutongs.
     苏珊:我想我们应该去逛逛胡同。
     Cathy:That's a great idea! I have always wanted to do that.
     凯西:好主意!我一直想去逛逛胡同。
     Susan:Well, we can take a guided tour this afternoon if you'd like.
     苏珊:哦。如果你愿意的话,我们可以跟着导游去。
     Cathy:That sounds good.
     凯西:好的。就这样。
     Susan:The Hutongs are the old traditional areas of Beijing.They are really fascinating.
     苏珊:胡同是北京古老而传统的地方。它们有着迷人的魅力。
    

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