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外国人最想和你聊的文化话题:卢浮宫和埃菲尔铁塔

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2018年12月30日

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 Realize The Louvre and The Eiffel Tower 认识卢浮宫和埃菲尔铁塔

     1 埃菲尔铁塔简介
     The Eiffel Tower, nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. Built in 1889, it has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest building in Paris and the most-visited paid monument in the world; millions of people ascend it every year. Named for its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, the tower was built as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair.
     The tower stands 324 metres (1,063 ft) tall, about the same height as an 81-storey building. Upon its completion, it surpassed the Washington Monument to assume the title of tallest man-made structure in the world, a title it held for 41 years, until the Chrysler Building in New York City was built in 1930; however, due to the addition in 1957 of the antenna, the tower is now taller than the Chrysler Building. Not including broadcast antennas, it is the second-tallest structure in France after the 2004 Millau Viaduct.
     The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift, to the first and second levels. The walk to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by elevator. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.
     The tower has become the most prominent symbol of both Paris and France, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.
     In order to maintain a uniform appearance to an observer on the ground, three separate colours of paint are used on the tower, with the darkest on the bottom and the lightest at the top. On occasion the colour of the paint is changed; the tower is currently painted a shade of brownish-grey. On the first floor there are interactive consoles hosting a poll for the colour to use for a future session of painting.
     2 巴黎其他旅游景点的表达方式
     l'Arc de Triomphe 巴黎凯旋门
     The monument was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, and its iconographic program pitted heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail.
     Notre-Dame de Paris 巴黎圣母院
     Notre Dame de Paris is widely considered one of the finest examples of French Gothic architecture in France and in Europe, and the naturalism of its sculptures and stained glass are in contrast with earlier Romanesque architecture.
     Avenue des Champs-Elysees 香榭丽舍大街
     The Avenue des Champs-élysées is a prestigious avenue in Paris, France. With its cinemas, cafés, luxury specialty shops and clipped horse-chestnut trees, the Avenue des Champs-élysées is one of the most famous streets in the world.
     Chateau de Versailles 凡尔赛宫
     When the chateau was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a suburb of Paris, some twenty kilometres southwest of the French capital.
     Palais Bourbon 波旁宫
     The Palais Bourbon, a palace located on the left bank of the Seine, across from the Place de la Concorde, Paris (which is on the right bank), is the seat of the French National Assembly, the lower legislative chamber of the French government.
     不像伦敦曾经被1666年伦敦大火所摧毁,里斯本曾经被1755年里斯本地震摧毁,巴黎在自中世纪以来的发展中,一面保留了过去的印记,甚至是历史最悠久的某些街道的布局,一面形成了统一的风格,并且实现了现代化的基础设施。长期以来,巴黎一直遵守严格的城市规划,特别是限制建筑物的高度。法兰西第二帝国的规划在许多情况下今天仍然适用。





     Paris, City of Light, and of art. A playland for lovers and a painter's dream.
     巴黎:光和艺术之都,恋人们的游地和画家心中的梦想。
     The Louvre:The museum building or, more properly, the complex of buildings themselves is a good place to start.
     卢浮宫,这座博物馆的建筑,或者更确切地说,这座复合建筑物本身就是一个很好的开始。
     As with most Western and a few Asian and South American museums, large palaces or other traditional architecture are used to house museums of art and of natural science. In the case of the Louvre, the main building used today was formerly the fortress of King Philip Augustus in the 12th century.
     就像大部分西方和一些亚洲和南美洲的博物馆一样,大型宫殿或其他传统建筑被用来作为艺术和自然科学博物馆。以卢浮宫来说,现今所用的主要建筑以前是12世纪时菲利浦·奥古斯都国王的堡垒。
     Not until 1546 did King Francis I begin to redesign and add onto the fortress.
     直到1546年国王弗朗西斯一世才开始重新设计和扩建该堡垒。
     After the French Revolution, the Palais du Louvre was opened to the public.
     法国大革命之后,卢浮宫对外开放。
     In the early 19th century, both Napoleon and Napoleon III added to both the structures and the collections.
     19世纪初期,拿破仑和拿破仑三世都扩建了建筑物并增加其中的收藏品。
     A controversial see-through glass pyramid-shaped structure was added by the architect I. M. Pei in the 1980s.
     19世纪80年代,建筑家贝聿铭增建了一座备受争议的透明玻璃金字塔形建筑。
     As a consequence of centuries of continuous construction and the amassing of art treasures, today the Louvre offers a world-class collection of both French and foreign art.
     由于几个世纪来不停地增建和搜罗艺术珍品,今天卢浮宫提供了世界级法国艺术和国外艺术两方面的收藏。
     Three of the West's premier works of art are here:the statues Victory of Samothrace and Venus de Milo accompany Leonardo da Vinci's most famous painting, the Mona Lisa.
     西方首要艺术珍品其中有三件便收藏于此处:"胜利女神雕像"、"爱神维纳斯雕像"以及李奥纳多·达·芬奇最有名的画作"蒙娜莉萨的微笑"。
     Other major painting collections include works from the middle ages and Renaissance.
     其他重要的绘画收藏还包括中古世纪和文艺复兴时期的作品。
     The treasures of the French royalty are on display here, too, such as their bronzes, miniatures, pottery, tapestries, jewelry, and furniture. Greek, Roman, Egyptian, and Mesopotamian antiquities as well as early Christian artifacts are also considered important collections.
     法国王室的珍宝也在此地展出,例如他们的铜器,袖珍画、陶器、挂毯、珠宝和家具等等。希腊、罗马、埃及和美索不达米亚的古物以及早期基督教手工艺品也都被认为是重要的收藏品。
     Finally, the site of the museum complex contributes to the mystique of the Louvre.
     最后,这座综合博物馆的位置增添了卢浮宫的神秘气息。
     Taken altogether, then, the Louvre holds its own as one of the best museums - if not the best - among the dozens of major and internationally famous art museums around the world.
     整体看来,卢浮宫在全世界几十个闻名国际的主要艺术博物馆之中,就算不是最好的,也必定是最好的博物馆之一。
     Its many and varied buildings, the unparalleled collection of prestigious works of art, and the delightful site of the grounds overlooking France's most famous river all contribute to make the Palais du Louvre a must-see attraction for the serious art connoisseur and art museum-goer alike.
     它为数众多和多样的建筑,无可比拟的艺术名作收藏,以及俯瞰法国最著名河流的理想占地位置,使得卢浮宫成为艺术鉴赏行家和美术馆常客不容错过的观光点。





     Mary:I've just finished reading a magazine article about museums of the world. Which museum do you think is the best?
     玛丽:我刚在杂志上读到一篇关于世界博物馆的文章,你认为世界上最棒的博物馆是哪一个呢?
     Wendy:The Louvre in Paris, no contest. I've been there many times and always enjoy it.
     温迪:巴黎的卢浮宫是独一无二的。我曾去过那里很多次,而且每次都很开心。
     Mary:Why do you like the Louvre so much?
     玛丽:你为什么那么喜欢卢浮宫?
     Wendy:Well, it's a combination of things, really. It's one of the largest palaces in the world, a former residence of kings of France and one of the most illustrious.
     温迪:哦,原因真的有很多。卢浮宫是世界上最大的宫殿之一,也是法国国王前居所,而且还是最辉煌的地方之一。
     Mary:They have a massive selection of art, too. Both ancient and modern.
     玛丽:那里还收藏有大量的艺术精品,古代的和现代的都有。
     Wendy:Exactly. What more can you ask for in a museum? It has Oriental antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, Greek and Roman antiquities, sculpture from the Middle Ages to modern times, furniture and objects of art and paintings representing all the European schools.
     温迪:真是这样。博物馆里的东西应有尽有。那里有来自东方、埃及、希腊以及罗马的古董文物,有从中世纪到现代的雕刻品、家具和艺术品,还有欧洲各流派的绘画作品。
     Mary:It's a very old building, too. The first Louvre was a fortress built at the beginning of the 13 century by Philip II to defend the Seine below Paris against the Normans and English.
     玛丽:它也是一座非常古老的建筑。卢浮宫最初是在13世纪由菲利普二世建起的城堡,用来防御巴黎塞纳河下游的。
     Wendy:Yes and then, in 1564 Catherine de Medicis had her architect, Philibert delorme, build a little chateau in a neighboring field to the west called the Tuileries. These were joined together to make a big royal residence.
     温迪:是的,但后来到了1564年,王后凯瑟琳·德·美第奇让她的建筑师菲利波特·迪罗门在西边的邻近地建了一个小宫殿叫做杜伊勒里宫,这些合在一起就构成了一个大型的皇家居所。
     Mary:After that, in the 17th century Louis XIII and his minister Richelieu extended Lescot's west wing northward by adding the majestically domed Pavillon del'Horloge, or Clock Pavillion by Jacques Lemercier.
     玛丽:此后,17世纪路易十三和他的大臣科尔波特的圆顶钟塔,也叫做时钟长廊,向北扩建了建筑师勒柯修建的西翼,设计者是雅克雷蒙西式。
     Wendy:Then, under Louis XIV and his minister Colbert, the Cour Carree, a great square curt, was constructed by Louis Le Vau.
     温迪:后来,路易十四和他的大臣科尔波特又任命路易勒沃建了一个巨大的方形庭院,即卡利庭。
     Mary:So many changes! It must look completely different now to how it looked originally. Later on, Napoleon I began a wing parallel to that of Henry IV along the Seine. Napoleon III finished the wing, thus closing the great quadrilateral.
     玛丽:这么多的改建啊!它现在的样子肯定跟最初完全不一样。后来,拿破仑一世开始加建一条长廊,与亨利四世沿塞纳河建造的长廊平行。拿破仑三世完成了这一翼的加建,至此卢浮宫四大翼的建筑群体全部完工。
     Wendy:The quadrilateral shape is what makes it special. I think one of the most innovative additions was the great glass pyramid.
     温迪:正是这四翼的外形使得卢浮宫独具一格。我认为其中最富有创意的亮点要数巨型的玻璃金字塔。
     Mary:I agree. It was built by the Chinese-American architect. I.M. Pei and opened in 1989. Initially, some people thought it was very strange idea.
     玛丽:我也这么认为。它是由美籍华人建筑师贝聿铭设计的,于1989年开放。最初有些人认为这个设计理念很怪。
     Wendy:Well, it has proved to be very effective in accommodating all of the visitors, I think it looks good too.
     温迪:但后来证明这个设计有效地吸引了各方游客,我也认为它很不错。
    

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