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新SAT文法:简洁有效才能拿高分

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2016年07月29日

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相信看过星爷的《大话西游》的同学们一定会对孙悟空的一段台词记忆深刻:

“大家看到啦?这个家伙没事就长篇大论婆婆妈妈叽叽歪歪,就好像整天有一只苍蝇,嗡……对不起,不是一只,是一堆苍蝇围着你,嗡……飞到你的耳朵里面,救命啊……” (悟空倒地翻滚,异常痛苦。)

这段话是孙悟空在抱怨唐僧的唠叨,电影中的孙悟空不喜欢啰嗦的表达。其实,新SAT文法对句子的考察也不喜冗长,偏爱简洁。

英语句子的简洁性是英语写作的高级目标,学会写简洁的句子是一个人语言应用能力的重要体现。当然,简洁并不完全意味着最短的选项即为正确答案,有时候当你选择一个过于简短的选项,会失去部分有效的句意。

所谓“简洁性”是指用尽可能少的词和尽可能简单的句式结构表达尽可能多的内容。在处理简洁性这一原则的时候,我们应把握以下原则:

1.删去或简化无实义的表达

Original: He is a man who is always busy. He often switches in a hasty manner from one task to the next.

More concise: He is always busy. He often switches hastily from one task to the next.

尽管在这两个例句中,前后两句话含义相同,但毫无疑问,改造后的句子要简洁得多,它们符合表达的“经济性”原则。要提高英语表达的效果和效率,就要设法提高语言表达的简洁性。

同学们可以将下表中列举的简洁化表达运用于做题中:

Cutting empty words

Original More concise

At all times Always

At the present time Currently

At this point in time Now

For the purpose of For

The question as to whether Whether

Used for the purpose of Used for

Due to the fact that Because (表示原因使用because最简)

Because of the fact that Because

The reason why…… is that Because

In spite of /despite the fact that Although

Call your attention to the fact that Remind you that

The question as to whether Whether

There is no doubt No doubt

Used for fuel purpose Used for fuel

He is a man who He

In a hasty manner Hastily

In the final analysis Finally

For the purpose of For

2.避免重复

Original: Novice drivers who do not have much experience driving are more More precise: likely to be involved in car accidents.

More concise: Novice drivers are more likely to be involved in car accidents.

在第一句中,“we do not have much experience driving”是不必要的,因为我们已经得知他们是 “novice drivers”。因为“Novice”表示的就是缺乏经验的新手,不需要重复使用 “do not have much experience driving”。

那么,我们来结合题目看看如何做到不使用重复的词:

The pattern Box observed in 2012 may repeat itself again, with harmful effects on the Arctic ecosystem.(OG P357)

A)NO CHANGE

B)Itself,

C)Itself, with damage and

D)Itself possibly,

正确选项:B

通过判断,我们会发现题目中的repeat和选项A中的again重复,题目中的harmful effects和选项C中的damage重复,题目中的may和选项D中的possibly重复,所以正确答案为B。类似重复的表达还有 “each year”和”annually”, “at the same time”和 “simultaneously”等,希望同学们可以在做题过程中多多积累。

3.优先原则:

3.1主动语态优先于被动语态:主动语态通常比被动语态更直接(direct),更有力(powerful);

3.2直接使用动词优先于there be结构;

Original: There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground.

More concise: Dead leaves covered the ground.

3.3行为动词 优先于be动词

Original: The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired.

More concise: Failing health compelled him to leave college.

3.4 词优先于短语,短语优先于从句,从句优先于完整句

Original: The weight-loss industry faces new competition from lipolysis, which is a cosmetic procedure that is relatively noninvasive.

More concise: The weight-loss industry faces new competition from lipolysis, a relatively noninvasive cosmetic procedure.

钱歌川教授在《翻译的基础知识》一书印证了flesh 的研究结果:“伊丽莎白时代的文句,长度平均是四十五字,维多利亚时代平均是二十九字,到现代便只是十几二十字了。”现代英语正朝着更简洁的方向发展,同学们在做题的过程中多多注意语言的简洁有效性,这才是王道。


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