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高考英语词汇归类复习【1】

所属教程:高考英语词汇

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2015年06月18日

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一、从用法上复习归纳词汇,过语法关

英语词汇大多具有本身词义外,还有其语法功能,我们在复习时就不要把着眼点单纯放在单词记忆上,而 要从它们的语法功能上去把握它们。如在复习动词时我们就要根据它们变化形式多、搭配活跃等特点,从它们 的用法上进行分类记忆。这样,既可记住词汇,又可攻克语法难关。

1.宾语不同,意义也不同

英语中有些动词可同时后接不定式和动名词作宾语,但意义不同。它们是高考试题的考查重点。这类词主 要有:

go on doing(继续干同一件事) go on to do(接着去干另一件事)

stop doing sth.(停止正在干的事) stop to do sth.(停下来去干某事)

regret doing(后悔干了某事) regret to do(相当于be sorry to do)

forget/remember doing(忘记/记得已做过的事) forget/rem-ember to do(忘记/记得要干的事)

mean doing(意味着干…) mean to do(想干…)try doing(尝试做) try to do(设法做)

(95高考)"You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.""Well,now I regret_____ ___that."

A.to do B.to be doing C.to have done D.having done

(92高考)"I usually go there by train.""Why not____________by boat for a change?"

A.to try going B.trying to go C.to try and go D.try going

(87高考)They would not allow him_________across the line. A.to risk going B.risking going C.for risk to go D.risk going

2.都可接宾语和宾补,形式却不同

某些动词如forbid,advise,allow,permit,admit,consider等直接接动词作宾语时要用动名词,但接宾补时,宾补要用不定式。如: We forbid smoking here.(宾语)We forbid you to smoke here.(宾补)You are forbidden to smoke here.(主补)

3.宾语不同、语态不同,意义却相同

有些词如need,require,want,deserve等后可接不定式(要用被动形式),可接动名词(要用主动形式表被动意义),可与worth,worthy一并记忆。两种形式意义相同。如:The room requires to be cleaned/cleaning.

(85高考)This sentence needs______________. A.an improvement B.improve C.improving D.improved

4.只接不定式作宾语的词和词组

只接不定式作宾语的词和词组有:decide,expect,refuse,wish,hope,order,promise,pretend, offer,happen,seem,make up one’s mind,used,be about,be able,have等。如:(89高考)She pretended_______me when I passed by. A.not to see B.not seeing C.to not see D.having not seen

5.只接动名词作宾语的词和词组

只接动名词作宾语的词和词组:mind,risk,avoid,enjoy,escape,keep,suggest,appreciate, practise,delay,finish,feel like,look forward to,can’t help,keep(on),miss,be usedto,excuse,be worth,imagine ,put off,give up等。如:

(92高考)I would appreciate_________back this afternoon.A.you to call B.you call C.your calling D.you are calling

(87高考)The squirrel was lucky that it just missed______.A.catching B.to be caught C.being caught D.to catch

6.系动词

系动词后可用名词、不定式、分词和形容词等作表语,这类词有:

表感观的系动词:look,sound,taste,smell,feel,seem,appear(这些词用形容词作表语)

表变化的系动词:become,get,turn,grow,make,come,go,fall,run表依旧的系动词:remain,keep,stay,continue,stand,rest,lie,hold

可带名词作表语的系动词:be,become,make,look,sound,fall,prove,remain,turn(该词后接的单数名词前多不用冠词。如:He turned teacher.)(91高考)These oranges taste____________.A.good B.well C.to be good D.to be well

7.含"被动"意味的动词

有些动词,如sell,open, close,wash,teach,burn,measure,cut,lock,cost,read,write,tear,wear,pull, clean,add,cook,let(出租)等,它们的主语是事物,且又是表示主语的固有特征和状态,与行为方式状语连用时,要用主动形式表被动意义:

My pen writes smoothly.我的笔好写。Oil burns easily.油易燃烧。

(88高考)That suit_________over 60 dollars.A.had costed B.costed C.is cost D.cost

(97高考)"Is this raincoat yours?""No,mine____________there behind the door."A.is hanging B.has hung C.hangs D.hung

8.具有两种形式的易混动词

中学英语教材中有些不规则动词有两种过去式或两种过去分词形式,使用或考测时极易弄混。如:

hang,hanged,hanged(绞死)hang,hung,hung(挂起)

light,lit,lit(点燃,作谓语)light,lighted,lighted(过去分词作形容词用时,意谓"燃烧着的",作定语)

drink,drank,drunk/drunken(喝,饮;过去分词作形容词同时,意谓"醉的",drunk多作表语,drunke n多作定语)

sink,sank,sunk/sunken(下沉;过去分词sunken作形容词用时,作定语)

bear,bore,born(出生)bear,bore,borne(结果;生育)The woman,who was born in 1940,has borne five children.

lie(撒谎), lied, lied, lying lie(躺,卧,位于),lay, lain, lying

(89高考)Do you know the boy___________under the big tree? A.lay B.lain C.laying D.lying


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