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薄冰英语语法 第三章 冠词(1-17)

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  第三章 冠词

  一、概说

  3.1 冠词的定义

  冠词是置于名词之前,说明名词所表示的人或事物的一种虚词。冠词也可以说是名词的一种标志,它不能离开名词而单独存在。如:

  (1)From the hill-top we could see the roof of a house. 从山岗上我们可以看到一座房子的屋顶。

  (2)When they reach a certain age, army officers retire from active service. 军官到了一定年龄就退出现役。(army officers和active service之前为零冠词)

  英语冠词有三个,即定冠词(definite article)、不定冠词(indefinite article)和零冠词(zero article)。汉语没有冠词。

  定冠词the来自一个古老的、相当于现今that的代词。它的含义是特指和类指。如:

  (3)The lion is roaring . 狮子在吼叫。(指确定的某一只狮子)

  (4)The lion is the king of beasts. 狮为百兽之王。(指某一类动物)

  定冠词the与指示代词this或that近似,但指示性较弱,一般不重读。如:

  (5)Take the apple. 吃这苹果吧。(the不重读,如用this apple, 则须重读)

  定冠词the在元音音素读/ ,在辅音音素读/ 。如:

  (6)The / air was full of butterflies. 空中满都是蝴蝶。

  (7)The / battle started on the /  morning of the /  24th. 战斗是在24日晨打响的。

  在读作 / ju: / 的元音字母u前须读作 / ,因为/ ju: /以辅音元素开头。如:

  (8)They are trying to understand how the / universe has evolved. 他们在努力了解宇宙是如何演变的。

  定冠词the在强调时须读作/ 。如:

  (9)He is the / only person who could do that. 他是惟一能做那事的人。

  不定冠词a(an)来源于数词one,有单一的含义,亦用于特指和类指。如:

  (10)A tiger has escaped. 一只老虎逃跑了。(指确定的某一只老虎)

  (11)A tiger can be dangerous. 老虎可能有危害性。(指任何一只老虎)

  不定冠词a(an)相当于汉语中数目概念较弱的“一”。如:

  (12)He handed Retana a pair of scissors. 他递了把剪刀给雷塔娜。

  不定冠词a和an两种形式。它们在含义上并无不同,只是用于辅音音素前,一般读作/,而an则用于元音音素前,一般读作 /。如:

  (13)Armstrong is a man of few words. 阿姆斯特朗是一个沉默寡言的人。

  (14)He was an outcast. 他是一个流亡者。

  在读作 / ju: / 的元音字母u前须用a,因为以/ ju: /以辅音元素开头。如:

  (15)Jack bought a uniform. 杰克买了一套制服。

  有些单词以h但不发音,后接元音音素亦须用an。如:

  (16)We live about an hour from the city. 我们住的地方离城有一小时的路程。

  在英国英语中,以h开头的多音节词,如第一音节不重读,其前亦可用an。如:

  (17)An hotel chambermaid stood by the fire-place. 一个旅馆女服务员站在壁炉旁。

  不定冠词a或an在强调时则须读作 / ei / 或 /。如:

  (18)A / ei / is used before a consonant sound while an / is used before a vowel sound. a用于辅音音素前,而an则用于元音音素前。

  零冠词是名词之前一种无形的冠词,亦即一般所谓的不用冠词(定冠词或不冠词)的场合。零冠词的历史最为悠久。现在许多专有名词、抽象名词和物质名词都用零冠词。如:

  (19)Beijing is the capital of China. 北京是中国的首都。

  (20)Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量。

  (21)Lead is heavier than iron. 铅比铁重。

  3.2 冠词的基本用法

  冠词总是与名词一起连用的。它的基本用法是:

  1)在单形可数名词前可用定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (1)I had trouble with the car this morning. 今天早上我的车出了毛病。(定冠词表特指)

  (2)No one knows precisely when the wheel was invented. 无人知道轮子是什么时候发明的。(定冠词表类指)

  (3)We lived in a small house. 我们住在一所小房子里。(不定冠词表特指)

  (4)A baby deer can stand as soon as it is born. 小鹿一生下来就能站立。(不定冠词表类指)

  2)在复形可数名词前可用定冠词或零冠词。如:

  (5)The starts were bright in a cloudless sky. 天空无云,群星灿烂。(定冠词表特指)

  (6)Cigarettes are bad for your health. 香烟有害于你的健康。(零冠词表类指)

  3)不可数名词前可用定冠词或零冠词。如:

  (7)The sugar you bought yesterday has got damp. 你昨天买的糖受潮了。(定冠词表特指)

  (8)Hydrogen is lighter than oxygen. 氢轻于氧。(零冠词表类指)

  4)专有名词前用零冠词。如:

  (9)There was a letter from Susan inviting me to a party. 苏珊来信邀我参加聚会。

  然而,由于名词的数形和数念都有不少特殊情况,以及历史、习惯等原因,在英语实践中,三种冠词几乎可用于各类名词。

  3.3 冠词的位置

  冠词与名词连用,总是置于名词之前。如:

  (1)The potato is a vegetable, not a fruit. 土豆是一种蔬菜,不是水果。

  名词如有形容词修饰,冠词通常置于形容词之前。如:

  (2)She had a pair of the most intelligent bright brown eyes Robert had ever seen. 她长着一双罗伯特所见过的最聪慧、明亮的褐色眼睛。

  (3)In the train, we found an empty third-class carriage. 在列车里,我们找到了一个空的三等车厢。

  但在下列几种情况下,冠词的位置有些不同。

  1)形容词前有so,as,too,how修饰时,不定冠词a须置于形容词之后、名词之前。如:

  (4)It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the sea. 天气这样和暧,我们决定到海边去玩。

  (5)They are as happy a couple as live ever seen. 他们是我见到过最幸福的两口子。

  (6)It was too good a chance to be missed. 这是个好机会,不能错过。

  (7)I know how great a labour he had undertaken. 我知道他从事的是多么艰巨的劳动。

  2)指示代词such和感叹词what总是置于不定冠词a之前。如:

  (8)However did you make such a mistake? 你怎么会犯这种错误。

  (9)I never saw such a beautiful colour on my mother’s face before. 我在妈妈的脸上从未曾见过这样漂亮的气色。

  (10)What a pity! 多可惜!

  3)many可置于不定冠词之前,后跟单形名词。如:

  (12)I’ ve been there many a time. 我到过那儿多次了。

  (13)I have heard many a young girl say that. 我听过许多姑娘就这种话。

  4)副词quite和rather可置于不定冠词a之前,亦可置于其后。置于其前时语气较强。如:

  (14)You are quite a woman , little Fan. 你真是个不一般的女人,小范。

  (15)He seems quite a decent fellow. 他看起来像个相当正经的人。

  (16)It is rather a pity. 这是相当令人遗憾的。

  (17)He lived in rather a lonely part of the country. 他住在乡村一个相当僻静的地方。

  quite和rather置于不定冠词之后,其语气则较弱。如:

  (18)That’s a quite surprising result. 这种结果有些令人吃惊。

  (19)He’s a rather hard man. 他是个颇为严厉的人。

  5)不定冠词all、both和副词double须置于定冠词the之前。如:

  (20)All the birds were asleep. 所有的鸟儿都睡了。

  (21)Both the boys were late for dinner. 两个孩子晚饭来晚了。

  (22)I offered him double the amount, but he still refused. 我给他两倍的钱,但他还是不接受。

  both后的定冠词常可省去。如:

  (23)Both (the) men were talking in low voices. 两个人在低声交谈。

  (24)He signed both(the ) papers. 他签了两份文件。

  all后是否要用定冠词,由冠词的一般规则决定。如:

  (25)All children have to go to school one day. 所有的孩子有一天都得去上学。(类指)

  (26)All the children of the boarding school were in bed. 寄宿学校的全体孩子都睡了。(特指)

  6)half 和twice均置于不定冠词a 和定冠词the 之前。如:

  (27)You’ve only heard half the story. 你只听了故事的一半。

  (28)It took us half an hour to settle it. 我们花半个小时才将它安放好。(美语则可说a half hour)

  (29)He paid twice the price for it. 他为它付了双倍的价钱。

  二、定冠词

  3.4 定冠词用于类名词

  定冠词可用于单形名词,表单念。如:

  (1)He fell and hit his head on the corner of the box. 他摔倒了,在箱角上碰头。

  (2)My company waited for me at the end of the street. 我的同伴在街尾等我。

  (3)Stars were sparkling out there over the river. 星星远在河的上空闪烁。

  定冠词亦可用于复形类名词,表复念。如:

  (4)This was July, and the fields were green. 这是七月,田野上绿油油的。

  (5)Give me a list of the students. 给我一份学生名单。

  (6)Lake Baikal is the deepest of all the Lakes in the world. 贝加尔湖在世界所有湖泊中是最深的。

  定冠词还可用于一些常用复形的类名词,表单念。如:

  (7)In two days I was again back on the outskirts of London. 不到两天,我又回到了伦敦郊区。

  (8)He wants to go to the movies. 我想去看电影。

  3.5定冠词用于集体名词

  定冠词用于集体名词,不论单形或复形,皆表复念。如:

  (1)Members of the press weren’t allowed into the meeting. 新闻记者不允许进入会场。

  (2)The museum is open to the public. 博物馆对公众开放。

  (3)He identified himself with the lower classes of society. 他认同于下层社会。

  3.6定冠词用于物质名词

  定冠词用于单形物质名词,一般无数念。如:

  (1)Fragrance diffuses through the air. 空气中迷漫着芳香。(the air无数念)

  (2)Milk from which the cream has been taken is called skim-milk. 被提取出奶油的牛奶叫脱脂乳。(the cream无数念)

  定冠词亦可用于一些有复形的物质名词,表复念或无数念。如:

  (3)Suddenly all the lights went out. 突然间,所有的灯全灭了。(the lights表复念)

  (4)The air is very clear after the rains. 雨过天晴。(the rains表复念)

  (5)How do you like the sheep’s brains? 你喜欢吃羊脑?(the sheep’s brains无数念)

  3.7定冠词用于抽象名词

  定冠词可用于单形抽象名词,无数念或表单念。如:

  (1)They avoided me like the plague. 他们像瘟疫一样躲着我。(the plague无数念)

  (2)This type of drama appeals more strongly to the intellect than to the emotions. 此类戏剧激发智能胜过激发情绪。(the intellect无数念)

  (3)The idea of the game is to hit the ball over the net. 此游戏的玩法就是要将球打过网去。(the idea表单念)

  定冠词亦可用于复形抽象名词,表各种数念。如:

  (4)Despite the rigours of the 18-hour flight from Washington, he was in fine spirits. 尽管从华盛顿起飞后经过了18个小时的旅途劳累,但他的精神还很好。(the rigours无数念,与the rigour同义)

  (5)During the election, his house was used as the campaign headquarters. 选举期间,他的家被用来作为竞选总部。(the campaign headquarters表单念)

  (6)He laid the foundations of his success by hard work. 他成功的基础是勤奋。(the foundations表复念)

  3.8定冠词用于名词化的词

  定冠词可用于名词化的动名词、形容词、过去分词、序数词等。

  1) 用于名词化的动名词。如:

  (1)How about the living there? Is it cheap? 那里的生活怎么样?便宜吗?(单形无数念)

  (2)Hang the washing out to dry. 把洗好的衣物挂出去晾干。(单形表复念)

  (3)Where’s the doings to open this with? 开这个东西的那玩意儿在哪儿?(复形表单念)

  (4)The bindings of these books are torn. 这些书的装帧撕裂了。(复形表单念)

  2)用于名词化的形容词。如:

  (5)The beautiful can never die. 美是永恒的。(单形无数念)

  (6)The older took the younger by the hand. 老的用手携着幼的。(单形表单念)

  (7)The old are apt to catch cold. 老人容易患感冒。(单形表复念)

  (8)What’s the news? 有什么新闻吗?(复形无数念)

  (9)I asked one of the locals which way to go. 我向一个当地人问路。(复形表复念)

  3)用于名词化的过去分词。如:

  (10)She said she was just afraid of the unknown. 她说她就是怕未知之事态。(单形无数念)

  (11)The accused was acquitted. 被告被宣判无罪。(单形表单念)

  (12)The handicapped need our help. 残疾人需要我们的帮助。(单形表复念)

  (13)The broadcasts will he heard in most parts of the world. 全世界大部分地方都将收听到这些广播。(复形表复念)

  4)用于名词化的序数词。如:

  (14)He was the second to he chosen. 他是第二个候选人。(单形表单念)

  (15)He was one of the first to collect Picasso paintings. 他是最早收藏毕加索绘画的人之一。(单形表复念)

  3.9定冠词用于专有名词

  定冠词可用于单形与复形专有名词。如:

  (1)The Baltic Sea is stormy in winter. 波罗的海冬天多暴风雨。

  (2)The United Nations Organisation was founded in 1945. 联合国组织成立于1945年。

  (3)Have you visited the exhibition of some masterpieces of the great painters of the Renaissance? 你参观过文艺复兴时期伟大画家的佳作选展吗?

  (4)Cairo lies on the east bank of the Nile. 开罗位于尼罗河东岸。(Nile后省去river)

  (5)The Macdonalds lived in the next-door house. 麦克唐纳一家住在隔壁。

  定冠词用于专有名词可以:

  1)表人名。如: the Emperor Napoleon 拿破仑皇帝 the Reverend Peter Israels 彼得 •伊斯雷尔斯牧师 the Judge Harries 哈里斯法官 the young Shakespeare 小莎士比亚(与the old Shakespeare相对) the late Premier Zhou 已故周总理(late与still living相对) the Browns 布朗一家 the Misses Shaw 肖家姐妹 the Germans 德国人

  2)表地名。如: the Hudson River 哈得孙河 the Thames (=the river Thames) 泰晤士河 the Mississippi Valley 密士西比河流域 the Suez Canal 苏伊士运河 the English Channel 英吉利海峡 the Mediterranean Sea 地中海 the Pacific Ocean 太平洋 the Alps 阿尔卑斯山脉 the Hawaiian Islands 夏威夷群岛 the Antarctic Circle 南极圈 the Equator 赤道 the Hague海牙 the Sahara撒哈拉沙漠 the Hannibal Bridge汉尼拔桥 the Netherlands荷兰 the United States美国

  3)表机关、团体等。如:the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国 the National People’s Congress 全国人民代表大会 the Senate 参议院(美国) the House of Representatives 众议院(美国) the House of Lords上议院(英国) the House of Commons下议院(英国) the Democratic Party 美国民主党 the Republican Party 共和党 the Conservative Party 保守党 the Labour Party 工党 the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 联邦调查局 the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) 美国中央情报局 the Associated Press 美联社 the University of London 伦敦大学 the University of Chicago 芝加哥大学 the British Museum 不列颠博物馆 the London Zoo 伦敦动物园 the Louvre (Palace) 罗浮宫

  4)表历史时期、事件等。如: the Iron Age 铁器时代 the Tudor Dynasty 都铎王朝 the Yalta Conference 雅尔塔会议 the Treaty of Versailles 凡尔赛条约

  5)表报刊书籍及其它。如: the Times 《泰晤士报》 the Guardian《卫报》 the New York Times 《纽约时报》 the Washington Post《华盛顿邮报》 the Economist《经济学家》 the Atlantic《大西洋杂志》 the Odyssey 《奥德赛》 the Paradise Lost 《失乐园》 the Yorktown 约克敦号(航空母舰) the Mercury 墨丘利号(宇宙飞船) the Bible 基督教圣经 the Lord 上帝(与用零冠词的God同义) the Devil 魔王(即撒旦) the Koran 古兰经

  3.10 定冠词用于固定习语

  定冠词用于固定习语。如:

  (1)In the middle of the night, we finally reached that city. 夜半时分,我们终于到达了那座城市。

  (2)If you behave so foolishly you must be ready to take the consequences. 如果你这样瞎胡闹,就得准备自食其果。

  It is certainly unreasonable that she should put the blame on you. 她竟归咎于你,这肯定不合理。

  用定冠词的其它习语还有。如: in the morning (afternoon,evening) 上午(下午,晚上) to tell the truth 说实话 with the exception of 除...以外 to go to the theatre 看戏 to break the ice 打破沉默 to keep the peace 维持治安 to pick up the pieces 收拾残局 to burn the midnight oil 开夜车 to pass the buck 推卸责任 to put the cart before the horse 本末倒置 Strike while the iron is hot 趁热打铁 The fat is in the fire. 事情搞糟了

  三、不定冠词

  3.11 不定冠词用于类名词

  不定冠词常用于单形类名词,表单念。如:

  (1)Give me a post-card. 给我一张明信片。

  (2)A girl wants to see you. 一个姑娘要见你。

  (3)When I entered the room. I saw a man standing at the window. 我走进房间时,看见一个男人站在窗前。

  不定冠词亦可用于一些常用复形的类名词,亦表单念。如:

  (4)A crossroads is a place where roads cross. 十字路口就是几条路交叉的地方。

  (5)My father works at a gas works. 我父亲在一家煤气厂工作。

  3.12 不定冠词用于集体名词

  不定冠词可用于单形集体名词。如:

  (1)Holstein was inhabited by a population of abort 600 000 entirely German. 荷尔斯坦曾住有六十万人口,皆为德国人。

  (2)The Shaws were naturally a musical family. 肖氏一家人天生爱好音乐。

  (3)I was put in a large class. 我被编入一个大班。

  3.13 不定冠词用于物质名词

  不定冠词可用于单形物质名词,表单念。如:

  (1)It is a very good cheese. 它是一种很好的奶酪。(表类别)

  (2)A heavy dew fell. 下了一场很大的露水。(表类别)

  (3)George drew out a tin of pineapple from the bottom of the hamper. 乔治从提篮底下取出一罐菠萝。(转化为类名词)

  不定冠词偶尔亦用于复形物质名词,仍表单念。如:

  (4)They are a light victuals. 这是一种清淡食物。

  3.14 不定冠词用于抽象名词

  不定冠词可用于单形抽象名词。如:

  (1)I am quite at a loss. 我真不知道怎么办好。

  (2)You make mistakes if you do things in a hurry. 你如仓卒行事,就会犯错误。

  (3)The horse, feeling the whip, started at a gallop. 马受到鞭打,就开始奔跑起来。

  不定冠词可用于由动词转化来的抽象名词。如:

  (4)Can you give me a lift, please? 对不起,您能让我搭你的车吗?

  (5)Let’s have a try at it. 让我们试它一下。

  不定冠词可用于已转化为类名词的抽象名词。如:

  (6)She is quite a beauty. 她真是个美人儿。(a beauty由抽象名词beauty转化而来)

  (7)As a youth he was on the school team. 他年轻时曾参加过校队。(a youth由抽象名词youth转化而来)

  不定冠词有时亦用于复形抽象名词,表单念。如:

  (8)The first batsman had a short innings. 第一击球员的一局很短。

  (9)We have just moved in, so we’ er in a bit of a shambles. 我们刚迁入新居,所以现在还有点乱。

  3.15 不定冠词用于名词化的词

  不定冠词用于名词化的动名词、形容词、过去分词、序数词等,多用单形。

  1)用于名词化的动名词。如:

  (1)A knocking at the door was heard. 听到一阵敲门声。

  (2)By 1982 her work was beginning to attract a following. 到1982年,她的作品开始拥有了读者。(a following表复念)

  2)用于名词化的形容词。如:

  (3)He is such a dear. 他是如此可爱的人。(a dear表单念)

  (4)I’ ll take this one for want of a better. 由于没有更好的,我就要这个吧。(a better表单念,better后省去了one)

  但偶尔亦可用于复形名词化的形容词。如:

  He loved the darkness and folded himself into it. It fitted the turgidity of his desire which, in spite of all, was like a riches. 他爱黑暗,将自己包在其中。黑暗正贴合他膨胀起来的欲望,这种欲望简直就像一种财富一样。(a riches表单念)

  3)用于名词化的过去分词。如:

  (6)The onetime star became an outcast. 一时的名星已被社会所抛弃。(an outcast表单念)

  (7)He is busy administering a deceased’ s estate. 他忙于管理一个死者的遗产。(a deceased表单念)

  4)用于名词化的序数词。如:

  (8)He got a first in mathematics. 他的数学得第一名。(a first表单念)

  (9)Hey, we need a fourth in the game. 嘿,我们玩牌正三缺一哩。(a fourth表单念)

  3.16 不定冠词用于专有名词

  不定冠词可用于专有名词。如:

  (1)He is a Chinese now working as a doctor in Japan. 他是个华人,现在日本当医生。

  (2)The museum owns two Rembrandts and a Van Gogh. 这家博物馆藏有两幅伦布兰特的画和一幅梵•高的画。

  (3)I am going to buy a Kodak. 我要买一架柯达照相机。

  (4)They came on a Sunday and went away on the Monday. 他们是一个星期日来的,星期一就走了。

  (5)There wasn’ t a single Jones in the village. 村子里连一个叫琼斯的人也没有。

  (6)The book is entitled The Making of A New Canada. 这本书题名为《新加拿大的历程》。

  不定冠词偶尔亦可用于复形专有名词。如:

  (7)A Mrs. Chambers called this morning. 一个叫钱伯斯太太今天上午来过电话。

  (8)To read Dickens you would never know there would be a British Isles that is not fogbound. 你如读迪更斯的书,就会不知有一无雾笼罩的英伦三岛。

  3.17 不定冠词用于固定习语

  不定冠词可用于固定习语。如:

  (1)Don’t make a fool of me! 别捉弄我了!

  (2)Shall we take a break? 我们休息一会儿好吗?

  (3)When the lad did decide to do his work, he did it with a will. 这小伙子一旦决定干活,就干得十分带劲。

  用不定冠词的其它习语还有。如: to have a gallop 快马加鞭 to make a fuss 大惊小怪 with a vengeance 猛烈地 at a disadvantage 处于不利地位 to wait for an eternity 无期地等待 to make a racket 大声喧哗 to beat a retreat 撤退 to take a bow 答谢 all of a sudden 突然 as a rule 通常 as a matter of fact 事实上 get a grip of 掌握


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