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薄冰英语语法 第三章 冠词(18-26)

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  四、零冠词

  3.18 零冠词用于类名词

  零冠词可用于单形类名词,表抽象概念。

  1)强调无所指,表一单纯概念。如:

  (1)He has great neatness of person. 他十分整洁。(person指人的外表)

  (2)19:05 Documentary: Dove 19点05分:纪录片:鸽子(电视节目)

  (3)“Triangle”, “animal”, and “motion” are concepts. “三角”、“动物”和“运动”都是些概念。(表单纯概念)

  2)表人所熟知的事物。如:

  (4)There’s no place like home. 任何地方都没有家好。

  (5)I’m going into town. 我要到市区去。

  (6)He made straight for camp. 他直接去野营。

  3)泛指人或人类。如:

  (7)Men is mortal. 人必有死。

  (8)We have done all that modern man can do. 我们已经做了现代人所能做的一切。

  (9)To ensure woman’s complete emancipation and make her the equal of man of is necessary for woman to participate in common productive labour. 为了保证妇女的彻底解放和与男子平等,必须让妇女参加共同的生产劳动。

  4)表身体部分。如:

  (10)He was a sleek, short man with bright bald head, pink face and gold-rimmed glasses. 他身材矮小,穿着时髦,头光秃,面粉红,戴着一副金边眼镜。

  (11)The dog plunged wildly away, with tail between its legs. 那只狗两腿夹着尾巴猛地跑走了。

  5)表品质或职务。如:

  (12)He became king. 他成了国王。

  (13)He was taken prisoner. 他成了俘虏。

  (14)John is captain of the team. 约翰是球队队长。

  (15)That man was more animal than man. 那个人与其说是人,不如说是畜生。

  6)置于介词之后表抽象概念。如:

  (16)I don’t go to school –I’m at university. 我不是在上中学,我是在上大学。(现今也可说go to university)

  (17)Put the baby to bed. 让宝宝睡觉吧。

  (18)Did you come by trolley or by bus? 你是乘电车还是乘公共汽车来的?

  (19)He is still in hospital . 他还在住医院。

  7)用于转化为物质名词或抽象名词的类名词。如:

  (20)How do you like rabbit? 你喜欢免吗?

  (21)She said she cared a lot about face.她说她很爱面子。

  (22)Bed was a place for sleeping. 床是睡觉的地方。

  8)用于“kind,sort等+of ”结构。如:

  (23)What kind of flower is it? 那是一种什么花?

  (24)I like this sort of book. 我喜欢这类书。

  9)用于“形容词+of”结构。如:

  (25)Andrew Powel was a large man, red of face. 安德鲁•鲍威尔身材高大,脸红红的。

  (26)She called to a tall and slender youth, smooth of cheek. 她向一个面颊光滑的瘦高个子青年喊叫。

  10)用于独立结构。如:

  (27)A girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了,手里拿着书。

  (28)She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前,衣领已解掉,头低下来,放好钢笔,准备开始写一封长信。

  零冠词亦可用于复形类名词,无数念或表复念。如:

  (29)Paul is friends with Bill. 保罗与比尔要好。(无数念)

  (30)Percy is great pals with a man called Nicksey. 珀西与一个叫尼克西的人是好友。(无数念)

  (31)Liars must have good memories. 说谎的人必须有好的记忆力。(表复念)

  (32)Children were seen playing in the sports-ground. 可以看到孩子们在运动场上玩。(表复念)

  3.19 零冠词用于集体名词

  零冠词可用于单形集体名词,表复念。如:

  (1)The Nazi war criminals were condemned for crimes against humanity. 纳粹战犯因其灭绝人性的罪行而被判刑。

  (2)Machinery is oiled to keep it running smoothly. 机器要上油,以保持其转动顺滑。

  (3)Farmers are always having trouble with various types of vermin. 农民常为各种害虫所苦。

  零冠词亦可用于复形集体名词,表复念。如:

  (4)He is not big on families, he says. 他说他并不看重家庭。

  (5)Statistics suggest that the population of this country will be doubled in ten year’s time. 统计数字预测该国人口在十年时间内将翻一番。

  3.20 零冠词用于物质名词

  零冠词可用于单形物质名词,一般无数念。如:

  (1)Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水。

  (2)You are drawing water with a sieve. 你是在用竹篮子打水(一场空)。

  (3)Dinner is at six. 6点钟开饭。

  零冠词亦可用于复形物质名词,多表复念或无数念。如:

  (4)The windows are all covered with boards. 窗户全用木板盖上。

  (5)There were little white clouds in the sky. 天空有小片白云。

  (6)Are you short of funds? 你缺钱吗?

  (7)Oats is a crop mainly grown in cool climate. 燕麦是一种主要生长在寒带的作物。(无数念)

  3.21 零冠词用于抽象名词

  零冠词可用于单形抽象名词,常无数念。如:

  (1)Wisdom is better than strength. 智慧胜于力量。

  (2)How time flies! 光阴飞逝!

  (3)The bird swelled its breast and burst into song. 小鸟挺起胸脯,放声歌唱。

  但有时表复念。如:

  (4)Let not ambition mock their useful toil. 不要让雄心勃勃的人嘲笑他们的有益劳动吧。(ambition指雄心勃勃的人,their指劳动人民的)

  零冠词亦可用于复形抽象名词,多表复念。如:

  (5)Facts are facts. 事实就是事实。

  (6)Misfortunes never come singly. 祸不单行。

  (7)Rescue efforts are under way. 营救工作正在进行中。

  但有时无数念。如:

  (8)Sports is good for health. 运动有益健康。

  (9)Rickets is quite rare now. 佝偻病现在很少见了。

  (10)Defence studies is not a discipline renowned for semantic exactitude. 防御学并不是一门以语义精确而著称的学科。

  3.22 零冠词用于名词化的词

  零冠词可用于名词化的动名词、形容词、过去分词、序数词等。

  1) 零冠词用于名词化的动名词。如:

  (1)The child was told to play within hearing of the house. 吩咐孩子在离房子里的人能听得见的地方玩。(单形无数念)

  (2)His actions are not in keeping with his promises. 他的行动与他的承诺不符。(单形无数念)

  (3)Good beginnings make good endings. 善始方能善终。(复形表复念)

  (4)Guano means droppings from seabirds used as a sort of fertilizer. 鸟粪层就是海鸟的粪便,可以用作肥料。(复形表复念)

  2) 零冠词用于名词化的形容词,无数念或表复念。如:

  (5)The reading materials are arranged from easy to difficult. 阅读材料是由易到难安排的。(单形无数念)

  (6)Old and young marched side by side. 老少并肩前进。(单形表复念)

  (7)Acrobatics is hard to learn but beautiful to watch. 杂技难学但好看。(复形无数念)

  (8)We are taking our finals next week. 我们下星期举行期末考试。(复形表复念)

  3) 零冠词用于名词化的过去分词。如:

  (9)Let him try that game again on me, and I’ll soon put paid to it. 他如果再和我玩这套把戏的话,我将马上叫他收起来。(单形无数念)

  (10)Do you listen to news broadcasts every day? 你每天听新闻广播吗?(复形表复念)

  4) 零冠词用于名词化的序数词。如:

  (11)Fruit should be sorted into best and seconds and in some cases into thirds. 水果应分类为最好和较次,有时还应该分出第三类。(复形表复念)

  3.23 零冠词用于专有名词

  零冠词常用于专有名词。如:

  (1)John Ford came in at last. 约翰•福特终于掌权了。

  (2)I asked him how he liked Paris. 我问他喜不喜欢巴黎。

  (3)July passed into August, August into September. 七月到了八月,八月又到了九月。

  零冠词亦可用于复形专有名词。如:

  (4)He works not only in weekdays but on Sundays. 他不仅平日工作,星期日也工作。

  (5)Shakespeares are rarer than Napoleons. 莎士比亚式的人物要比拿破仑式的人物少。

  零冠词用于专有名词可以:

  1)表人名。如: William Shakespeare 威廉•莎士比亚 Miss Smith史密斯小姐 Queen Elizabeth伊丽莎白女王 Mama妈妈 Papa爸爸 Cook厨师 Nurse保姆

  2)表地名。如: Craford Village 克拉福村 Cape Town 开普敦 New York City 纽约城 London伦敦 Durham County达勒姆郡 France法国 Europe欧洲 Mount Qomolangma 珠穆朗玛峰 Lake Success 成功湖 Pearl Harbour 珍珠港 Hainan Island 海南岛 Lizard Point 利泽德角 Wall Street华尔街 Madison Avenue麦迪逊路 Drury Lane德鲁里巷 Hyde Park海德公园 Trafalgar Square特拉法尔加广场 Westminster Abbey威斯敏斯特教堂 Canterbury Cathedral坎特伯雷大教堂 Holy Mother Church 圣母教堂 Windsor Castle温莎城堡

  3)表机构、院校。如: Congress 国会(美国) Parliament议会(英国) Government政府 Oxford University牛津大学 Harvard University哈佛大学 Beijing University北京大学 Eaton College伊顿公学 Darla Farm达拉农场

  4)表月份、周日、节日。如: January一月 May五月 October十月 December十二月 Sunday星期日 Wednesday星期三 Saturday星期六 New Year’s Day 除夕 Christmas Day圣诞节 Thanksgiving 感恩节 National Day国庆节

  5)表星体及其它。如: Mercury水星 Venus金星 Mars火星 Polaris北极星 Scorpion 天蝎座 Little Bear小熊座 God上帝 Heaven天国 Holy Writ基督教《圣经》 Genesis《创世纪》

  3.24 零冠词用于固定习语

  零冠词可用于固定习语。如:

  (1)The crowd gave way to the ambulance. 人群给救护车让路。

  (2)Preventive measures were taken in time with good results. 及时采取预防措施,效果良好。

  (3)Are you doing to take part in the discussion? 你打算参加讨论吗?

  用零冠词的习语有三类:

  1)“动词+零冠词+名词”,如: cast anchor 抛锚 lose heart 丧失勇气 catch fire 着火 make way 前进 change course 改变方向 mount guard 上岗(执勤) change gear 换档 send word 捎信 delay sentence 推迟判决 set sail 启航

  2)“介词+零冠词+名词(+介词)”,如: by chance 偶然 on hand 在手头 by day 在白天 out of date 过时 from beginning 从头 in charge 主管 in fear 恐惧 on foot 步行 in front of 在...前面 on account of 由于 in spite of 不管 in place of 代替

  3)“动词+零冠词+名词+介词”,如: catch sight of 看到 make use of 利用 do duty for 当...用 take hold of 抓住 find fault with 批评 take exception to 反对

  3.25 零冠词的省略

  有时名词前无冠词,但并非零冠词,而是省去了不定冠词或定冠词。在下列情况下冠词可省略。

  1) 避免重复。如:

  (1)The lightning flashed and thunder crashed. 电闪雷鸣。(thunder前省去the)

  (2)The noun is the name of a person or thing. 名词是人或物的名称。(thing前省去a)

  2)可省去句首的定冠词the,如:

  (3)Class is dismissed. 下课了。

  (4)Fact is, she doesn’t like him. 事实是她不喜欢他。

  3)在the next day(morning, etc.)等短语中,定冠词the常可省略。如:

  (5)Next day they went to London together early. 第二天,他们一起很早就到伦敦去了。

  (6)They stood on the jetty next morning. 第二天早晨,他们站在防波堤上。

  4)日记体常省去定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (7)Nov. 1. Had sausages for breakfast. Fine day. Walk in morning. Riding lesson in afternoon. Chicken for dinner. 11月1日。早餐吃香肠。天气晴和。上午散步。下午练骑马。晚餐吃鸡。(fine day,walk 与riding lesson前省去a,morning 与 afternoon前省去the)

  5)报纸标题、图像说明、文章题目、标志、广告等常定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (8)Worker’s Arm Is Saved 工人的手臂得救了(报纸标题,worker前省去a)

  (9)Daughter-in-law measures up mother-in-law for a new jacket. 儿媳给婆婆量新衣。(像片说明,daughter-in-law与 mother-in-law前省去the)

  (10)River Thames泰晤士河 (地图标志,省去the)

  (11)Note on the Study of Shakespeare 莎士比亚研究札记(文章题目,note前省去a)

  (12)Footpath to beach 此路通海滩 (道路标志,footpath与 beach前皆省去the)

  (13)Boy wanted 招聘男侍者一名(广告,boy前省去a)

  6)在简约文体中,如电报、注释等,常省去定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (14)Your mother in hospital Stop Doctor fears end is near Stop Believe you should return soonest. 你母住院 大夫恐其不久人世 望速归(电报,doctor前省去the)

  (15)See picture at street. 见词目street处的图。(注释,picture前省去the)

  (16)Proposal accepted. 同意(批语,proposal前省去the)

  信函地址常省去定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (17) English Dept.

  Foreign Studies University

  Beijing, China 中国北京外国语大学英语系(English Dept. 前省去the)

  口语中也常用简约体,省去定冠词或不定冠词。如:

  (18)I knocked on door and there was no answer. 我敲了敲门,没有回答。(door前省去the)

  (19)Sorry. Rotten thing to say. 对不起,我这是废话。rotten thing前省去a)

  3.26 冠词的重复

  定冠词指代表不同事物的不同名词时,一般须重复,不可省略。如:

  (1)The teacher and the guardian of the lad were discussing his case. 孩子的教师和监护人正在研究孩子的情况。(guardian前的the不可省)

  (2)The inner and the outer wall were both strongly defended. 里墙和外墙均严密守护着。(inner后省去wall,但outer前的the不可省去)

  不同名词指同一事物时,为了强调,亦可用定冠词the。如:

  (3)He was the actor and the statesman of his age. 他是当时的演员和政治家。(the actor and the statesman指同一人,statesman前用the是为了强调)

  不定冠词表一个以上的事物时,一般应重复。如:

  (4)We have a black cat and a white dog. 我们养了一只黑猫和一只白狗。

  如都是猫,则可共用一个名词,但仍须重复不定冠词。如:

  (5)We have a black and a white cat. 我们养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。(如不重复a,则变成a black and white cat,意谓一只黑白花猫)

  不定冠词在不会引起误会时亦可不重复。如:

  (6)The noun is the name of a person or thing. 名词是人或物的名称。(thing之前省去a)

  不定冠词在指同一人时,一般不重复。如:

  (7)His uncle is a writer and translator. 他的叔父是个作家兼翻译家。(a writer and translator指同一人,如强调这两种身份亦可用a writer and a translator)

  不定冠词在一些表成套事物的词组中不可重复。如: a cup and saucer 一副茶杯与茶托 a knife and fork 一副刀叉 a nut and bolt 一副螺钉


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