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薄冰英语语法 第四章 代词(1-6)

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  第四章 代词

  一、概说

  4.1 代词的定义和特征

  代词是代替名词以及起名词作用的短语、分句和句子的词。英语代词使用得很广泛;汉语代词用得似较英语少些。如:

  (1)Because he had a bad cold, Jack decided to stay in bed the whole day. 杰克由于患重感冒,遂决定整天卧床休息。(代词he代替名词Jack)

  (2)The Browns said they might move to California. 布朗一家说他们也许要搬到加利福尼亚州去。(代词they代替名词短语the Browns)

  (3)Bob always answers his teacher’s questions well; that shows that he works very hard at home. 鲍勃一向对教师的问题回答得很好;这说明他在家很用功。(代词that代替前面的分句)

  (4)I had a chat with our group leader. It was very helpful. 我和组长谈了一次话。这对我帮助很大。(代词It代替前面的整个句子)

  代词和名词在形态上有所不同:第一,许多代词有比名词多的表示人称、数、格与性的屈折变化;第二,代词没有名词特有的派生词尾,如-tion,-ment等。

  代词之间相异之处也很多,如有的可以随便选用,有的则不能;有的可用作替换词,有的则不能;有的有屈折变化,有的则没有;有的可用形容词修饰,有的则不可。但代词之间有两点共同之处:第一,它们本身的词义都很弱,必须从上下文来确定;第二,许多代词都有两种功用:一可单独取代名词的位置,二可起修饰语的作用。

  4.2 代词的种类

  代词可分为八类:

  1) 人称代词(personal pronoun)

  a)主格 I ,you,he, she, it, we, you, they

  b)宾格 me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them

  2)物主代词(possessive pronoun)

  a)形容词性物主代词 my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their

  b)名词性物主代词 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs

  3)反身代词(reflexive pronoun) myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves, oneself

  4)相互代词(reciprocal pronoun) each other, one another

  5)指示代词(demonstrative pronoun) this, that, these, those, it, such, same

  6)疑问代词(interrogative pronoun) who, whom, whose, which, what

  7)关系代词(relative pronoun) who, whom, whose, which, that, as

  8)不定代词(indefinite pronoun) some, something, somebody, someone, any, anything, anybody, anyone, no, nothing, nobody, no one, every, everything, everybody, everyone, each, much, many, little, a little, few, a few, other, another, all, none, one, both, either, neither

  二、人称代词

  4.3 人称代词的形式

  人称代词表示人称范畴以及它们的屈折变化形式,有人称、性、数与格之分:

  数 单数 单数 复数 复数

  格 主格 宾格 主格 宾格

  人称

  第一人称 我 I me 我们 we us

  第二人称 你 you you 你们 you you

  第三人称 阳性 他 he

  阴性 她 she

  中性 它 it him

  her

  it 他们

  她们 they

  它们 them

  4.4 人称代词的指代

  顾名思义,人称代词表示人。然而,人称代词并不全指人,也指物。人称代词有三个人称,每个人称又分单数和复数(第二人称单数与复数同形),第三人称单数还有阳性、阴性和中性之分。人称代词的人称、数和性取决于它所指代的名词,而人称代词的格则取决于它在句中的地位。

  1)第一人称单数I代表说话者,须大写。如:

  (1)I beg your pardon, Is this your handbag? 对不起,这是你的手提袋吗?

  (2)That’s what I mean. 那就是我的意思。

  2)第一人称复数we代表说话者一方(二人或二人以上)。如:

  (3)We walked together up the garden path. 我们一道沿着园中小径漫步。

  (4)We need one more telephone. 我们还需要一部电话机。

  we有时也包括听话者。如:

  (5)Shall we call a taxi? 咱们叫一部出租车好吗?

  (6)Let’s go, shall we? 咱们走吧,行吗?

  we可以代表一个集体。如:

  (7)We should like to duplicate the order we sent you last month. 我们想复制一份上月给你们的订单。( we代表公司或政府)

  (8)We do not necessarily support the views expressed in this column. 我们并不一定赞同这一栏目中所表达的观点。 ( we代表报纸)

  (9)We wish to record our special thanks to R. A. Close for his detailed work revising the manuscripts. 我们特别感谢R. A. 克劳斯对本书手稿所作的详细校定。(we代表著者)

  We也可以用来泛指大家。如:

  (10)We all fear the unknown. 对于未知的事物我们都感动害怕。

  (11)We all get into trouble sometimes. 我们有时都会遇到麻烦。

  3)第三人称单、复数you代表听话者或对方(复数you代表二或二人以上)。如:

  (12)“Whatever you want you shall have,” said the Fairy. “你要什么就会有什么,”仙女说。

  (13)I choose you three; the rest of you can stay here. 我选你们三个,其佘的可以留在这里。

  you究竟是表示单数或复数,往往要根据句意和语境来确定。如:

  (14)Are you ready, David? 戴维,你准备好了吗?(you表单数)

  (15)You must both come over some evening. 你们俩必须找个晚上过来一趟。(you表复数

  you也可以用来泛指大家。如:

  (16)You never know what may happen. 谁也不知道会发生什么事。

  (17)World trade is improving, but you cannot expect miracles. 世界贸易正在改善,但谁也不能期望出现奇迹。

  (18)You should do your best at all times. 你无论何时都应尽你的最大努力。

  4)第三人称单数阳性he代表已提到过的男人。如:

  (19)He is a powerful man. 他是个有权势的人物。

  (20)Where’s John? ——He’s gone to the cinema. 约翰在哪里?——他看电影去了。

  在一些谚语中he可以泛指大家。如:

  (21)He who hesitates is lost. 当断不断,必受其患。

  (22)He who laughs last laughs best. 谁笑到最后,谁笑到最好。

  5)第三人称单数阴性she代表已提到过的女人。如:

  (23)Where is Charlotte? ——She’s outside sunbathing. 夏洛特在哪里?——她在外边晒太阳。

  (24)She had a lively sense of humour. 她有一种很强的幽默感。

  6)第三人称单数中性it代表已提到过的一件事物。如:

  (25)That vase is valuable. It’s more than 200 years old. 那个花瓶很珍贵,它有200多年的历史。

  (26)I love swimming . It’s keeps me fit. 我喜欢游泳,它能使我保持健康。

  (27)You have saved my life; I shall never forget it. 你救了我的命,我将永生不忘。

  当说话者不清楚或无必须知道说话对象的性别时,也可以用it来表示。如:

  (28)It’s a lovely baby. Is it a boy or girl? 宝宝真可爱,是男孩还是女孩?

  it用来指代团体。如:

  (29)The committee has met and it has rejected the proposal. 委员会已开过会,拒绝了这项建议。

  it常用来指代时间、距离、自然现象等。如:

  (30)It is half past three now. 现在是三点钟。

  (31)It is six miles to the nearest hospital from here. 这里离最近的医院也有六英里。

  (32)It was very cold in the room. 房间里很冷。

  it有时非确指。如:

  (33)How’s it going with you? 你近况如何?

  (34)Take it easy. 不要紧张

  it还常用于固定习语,it所指为对方所熟知,故无必要明确指出。如: cab it 乘车 come it 尽自己分内 walk it 步行 come it strong 做得过分 make it 办成 take it out of somebody 拿某人出气

  7)第三人称复数they(不分性别)代表已提到过的一些人或事物。如:

  (35)John and Susan phoned. They’re coming round this evening. 约翰和苏珊来了电话,他们今晚要来。

  (36)Where are the plates? ——They are in the cupboard. 盘碟在哪儿?——在碗橱里。

  (37)Our curtains look dirty. They need a good wash. 我们的窗帘看来很脏了,需要好好洗一洗。

  they也可以用于一般陈述,泛指“人们”。如:

  (38)They say that honesty is the best policy. 人们说诚实是上策。(they泛指人们)

  (39)One of the best ways of seeing London, they used to say, is from the top of a bus. 过去人们常说,从公共汽车顶上看伦敦,是最好方法之一。(they泛指人们)

  they常用来指“当局”等。如:

  (40)They ‘re putting up oil prices again soon. 当局即将再次提高油价。

  8)人称代词一般出现在它所指代的名词之后,但有时也出现在它所指代的名词之前。如:

  (41)Though he did not know it, Jerome was now close to the sea and was padding in a new kind of river. 杰罗姆还不知道,其实他这时已接近大海,正在一条新河中划着船。

  (42)They tremble — the sustaining crags. 它们颤动了,这些支撑着的岩石。

  9)第三人称代词在句中一般指代离它最近的名词或代词。如:

  (43)He reminded his friend that he must come back before five clocks. 他提醒他的朋友务必五时前回来。

  (44)The butler knew and welcomed him. He was subjected to no stage of delay. 管家认得并欢迎了他;他是不容有一点怠慢的。

  但有时不明确,需要从上下文去判断。如:

  (45)Tom wasn’t going to tell George the truth as he was supposed to do. 汤姆决定不告诉乔治实情,虽然他应该这样做。(这里的he显然代表Tom,不代表George)

  (46)Wu Da could not help seeing that Zhang treated his wife as though she belonged to him, but he was not in a position to object. 武大眼看张某待其妻就像他的一样,但却无可奈何。(him自然指张某,但却指he武大)

  10)人称代词有时有拟人化的作用,即用it指代的事物改用he或she以及相应的物主代词或反身代词指代。如:

  (47)The emigrants embarked in a little ship. She probably leaked copiously. 移民们上了一只小船,那船可能漏得厉害。

  (48)The aircraft moved slowly forward‥‥she became airborne‥‥and she rose clean as a swallow. 飞机慢慢向前移动‥‥它起飞了,它完全像一只燕子起飞了。

  (49)A fox sneaked along the side of the hedge. “There he goes,” said Mr. Long. 一只狐狸沿着篱笆潜行。“他跑了,”朗先生说。

  11)人称代词有时亦可用作名词。如:

  (50)It’s not a she, it’s a he. 那不是个女孩,是个男孩。

  (51)This me you look at is my whited sepulcher. 你看到的这个我是假的我。

  (52)The other him is the person she loves. 她爱的是另一个他。

  4.5 人称代词的功用

  人称代词在句中用作主语、宾语、表语等。

  1)人称代词主格在句中主要用作主语。如:

  (1)I lost my wallet in the park. 我在公园把钱包丢了。

  (2)She hesitated a moment, and then sat down beside me. 她犹豫了一会儿,然后在我身边坐下来。

  (3)We both started as we saw each other. 我们两人一见面,都吃了一惊。

  2)人称代词宾格在句中主要用作宾语,包括直接宾语、间接宾语与介词宾语。如:

  (4)I saw you in the street. 我在大街上看见了你。

  (5)There was nobody to tell him, to hint him, to give him at least a word of advice. 没有人告诉他,或暗示他,或起码给他一句忠言。

  (6)The stew tastes fiat; you’d better salt it. 这炖肉味淡,你最好给它加点盐。(直接宾语)

  (7)If you see Jim, give him my regards. 如果你见到吉姆,请代我问候他。(间接宾语)

  (8)This pen is bad. I cannot write with it. 这支钢笔不好,我没法用它写字。(介词宾语)

  两个人称代词分别用作间接宾语和直接宾语时,间接宾语前应加to,并置于直接宾语之后。如:

  (9)I gave it to him. 我把这个给了他。(而不说I gave him it.)

  如其中一个为其它代词,则可采用间接宾语在前、直接宾语在后的形式。如:

  (10)I gave him some. 我给了他一些。

  3)人称代词在句中作表语时一般用宾格。如:

  (11)Oh, it’s you. 啊,是你。

  (12)“This is us,” said Thomas. “是我们,”托马斯说道。

  如跟有who或that引导的从句,则常用主格。如:

  (13)It’s I who did it. 是我的。

  4)人称代词单独使用时,一般不用主格而用宾格。如:

  (14)—I’d like to go back in here. 我想回到这里来。

  —Me too. 我也想。

  (15)—Will anyone go with him? 有人愿和他一同去吗?

  —Not me. 那不会是我。

  5)人称代词用于as和than之后,如果as和than用作介词,也往往用宾格。如:

  (16)He’s younger than me. 他比我年轻。

  (17)Edward is as good a student as him. 爱德华和他一样都是个好学生。

  如果as和than用作连词,则须用主格。如:

  (18)She’s as old as I am. 她与我同岁。

  (19)You’re taller than she is. 你比她高。

  6)在感叹疑问句中,人称代词宾格可用作主语,起强调作用。如:

  (20)Me get caught? 我全被逮住?

  (21)Him go to the States! 他怎会去美国!

  7)we和you可用作同位语结构的第一部分。如:

  (22)We girls often go to the movies together. 我们女孩子经常一起去看电影。

  (23)He asked you boys to be quiet. 他要你们男孩子安静些。

  4.6 引词it的用法

  it除用作代词,还可用作引词(anticipatory)。引词本身无实义,只起一种先行引导的作用,引词不重读。

  1)用作形式主语。如:

  (1)It is difficult to translate this article. 翻译这编文章很难。(真实主语是不定式短语)

  (2)It is stupid to fall asleep like that. 像这样睡觉真愚笨。(真实主语是不定式短语)

  (3)It is getting harder every day for a lazy man t get a living. 懒汉谋生是日益困难了。(真实主语是不定式复合结构for a lazy man t get a living)

  (4)What time would it be most convenient for me to call again? 什么时候我再给你打电话最合适?(真实主语是不定式复合结构for me to call again)

  (5)It is no use going there so early. 这么早去那里没有用。(真实主语是动名词短语)

  (6)It won’t be easy finding our way home. 寻找回家的路不容易。(真实主语是动名词短语)

  (7)It has been a great honour your coming to visit me. 你的来访是我很大的荣幸。(真实主语是动名词复合结构your coming to visit me)

  (8)It’s waste of time your talking to him. 你和他谈话是白浪费时间。(真实主语是动名词复合结构your talking to him)

  (9)It is strange that he did not come at all. 真奇怪,他竟还没来。(真实主语是that引导的从句)

  (10)It doesn’t matter what you do. 你干什么都没关系。(真实主语是what引导的从句)

  2)用作形式宾语。如:

  (11)I found it difficult to explain to him what had happened. 我觉得向他解释清发生了什么事很困难。(真实宾语是不定式短语to explain to him what had happened.)

  (12)He thought it best to be on his guard. 他认为他最好还是要警惕。(真实宾语是不定式短语to be on his guard)

  (13)He thought it no use going over the subject again. 他认为再讨论这个问题没有用了。(真实宾语是动名词短语going over the subject again)

  (14)You must find it exciting working here. 你一定会发现在此工作是激动人心的。(真实宾语是动名词短语working here)

  (15)They kept it quiet that he was dead. 他们对他的死保密。(真实宾语是that引导的从句)

  (16)I take it you have been out. 我想你出去过了。(真实宾语是省去that的从句you have been out)

  3)用于强调结构。英语常用的强调结构是:It is (was) + 被强调部分(主语、宾语或状语)+ who (that)‥‥。一般来说,被强调部分指人时用who,指物时用that(但that亦可指人)。如原句为:

  (17)John wore his best suit to the dance last night. 约翰昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会。

  我们即可用强调结构来强调句中的主语、宾语和状语:

  (18)It was John who (that) wore his best suit to the dance last night. 是约翰昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会。(强调主语)

  (19)It was best suit (that) John wore to the dance last night. 约翰昨晚是穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会的。(强调宾语)

  (20)It was last night (that) John wore his best suit to the dance. 约翰是昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服去参加舞会的。(强调状语last night)

  (21)It was to the dance that John wore his best suit last night. 约翰昨晚穿着他最好的一套衣服是去参加舞会的。(强调状语to the dance)

  [注] 强调结构强调状语时只可用that从句。

  强调结构亦可强调某些状语从句,如:

  (22)It was because I wanted to buy a dictionary that I went to town yesterday. 我昨晚是由于想买一本字典而进城的。(强调because从句)

  (23)It is only when you nearly lose someone that you because fully conscious of how much you value them. 只有当你差点失掉一个人时,你才会充分意识到你是多么珍视他。(强调only when引导的从句)

  在强调结构的who从句中,who也常用作宾语。如:

  (24)It must be your mother who you are thinking of. 你在想的一定是你的母亲。(who常代之以that,在正式文体中亦可用whom)

  表语与宾语补语偶尔亦可为被强调部分。如:

  (25)It was a doctor that he eventually became. 他最后成了一名医生。(表语一般不可用作被强调部分)

  (26)It’s dark green that we’ve painted the kitchen. 我们把厨房漆成了深绿色。

  强调结构中的时态一般应一致,即主句与从句的时态应皆用现在时,或皆用过去时,或皆用将来时。如:

  (27)It is not I who am angry. 发怒的不是我。(皆用现在时)

  (28)It was my two sisters who knew her best. 是我的两个姐妹最了解她。(皆用过去时)

  (29)It will not be you who will have to take the blame for this. 对此须受责难的将不是你。(皆用将来时)

  但有时主句与从句所用的时态并不一致。如:

  (30)It is Miss Williams that enjoyed reading novels as a pastime. 是威廉斯小姐以读小说来消遣。

  (31)It is these very novels that Miss Williams enjoyed reading as a pastime. 威廉斯小姐作为消遣所读的就是这些小说。

  强调结构中的that与who在非正式文体中可以省略。如:

  (32)It was the President himself spoke to me. 是总统亲自和我谈了话。(省去从句的主语who)

  (33)It was the dog I gave the water to. 我是给那条狗水的。(省去从句的宾语that)

  (34)It was yesterday I first noticed it. 我是昨天开始注意到的。(省去连词that)

  有时还可以省去句首的it is,如:

  (35)A good, honest trade you’re learning, Sir Peter! 彼得爵士,你学的是一种很好而诚实的一行啊!

  强调结构中的被强调部分有时可入在句首,如:

  (36)Now was it that his life was done, and the fate which he could not escape was upon him. 就在这时,他的生命完结了,他所逃不脱的命运降临了。


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