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薄冰英语语法 第四章 代词(27-40)

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七、疑问代词

4.27疑问代词的形式和含义

疑问代词有who(谁,主格),whom(谁,宾格),whose(谁的,属格),what(什么),which(哪个,哪些)等。其中who,whom,whose,只能指人,what和which可指人或物。它们可具有单数概念或复数概念。

疑问代词引导的疑问句为特殊疑问句。它们一般都在该疑问句句首,并在其中作为某一句子成分(如主语、宾语、表语等)。

疑问代词还可以引导间接疑问句。如:

(1)Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。

(2)Do you know what his mane is? 你知道他叫什么名字?

疑问代词who,what,which后可加ever以加强语气。如:

(3)Who ever are you looking for? 你到底找谁?

(4)What ever do you mean? 你究竟是什么意思?

(5)Which ever do you want? 你究竟要哪个?

4.28 who的用法

who是主格,只有名词性质。它的用法有:

1)用于疑问句。如:

(1)Who put that light out? 谁把灯灭了?

(2)Who told you so? 谁给你说的?

2)用于修辞性疑问句。如:

(3)Who could blame you? 谁能怪你呢?

(4)Who would have thought of that? 谁会想到这个呢?

4.29 whom的用法

whom是宾格,只有名词性质,常用于书面语中。如:

(1)Whom are you talking about? 你们在谈论谁?

(2)By whom is the letter signed? 这封信是谁签署的?

(3)Whom’ re you playing this week? 这一周你们将和谁比赛?(偶尔也用在口语中)

在口语中一般皆用who。如:

(4)Who did you meet there? 你在那儿遇见谁了?

(5)Who did you ask about it? 关于那件事你们问过谁了?

在介词之后一般用whom,但在在口语中也可用who。如:

(6)—I gave it away. 我把它给人了。

—To who? 给谁了?

(7)—This book is very well written. 这本书写得很好。

—By who? 谁写的?

4.30 whose的用法

whose是属格,和物主代词一样,亦有名词和形容词性质,但形式相同。如:

(1)Whose umbrella is this? 这是谁的伞?(形容词性,作定语)

(2)Whose is this umbrella? 这伞是谁的?(名词性,作表语)

4.31 what的用法

what亦有名词和形容词性质,它的用法有:

1)用于疑问句。如:

(1)What makes you think that? 什么使你这样想的?(作主语)

(2)What is he? 他是干什么的?(作表语)

(3)What are you doing? 你在做什么?(作动词宾语)

(4)What was he speaking to you about? 他(刚才)跟你说什么?(作介词宾语)

(5)What question did he ask? 他问了什么问题?(作定语)

what除指人和物外,还可表时间、数量等。如:

(6)What’s the time? 现在几点啦?

(7)What is your current crop yield? 你们这次庄稼收成怎样?

2)用于修辞性疑问句及感叹句。如:

(8)What does it matter? 这有什么关系?

(9)What more do you want? 你还需要什么呢?(其含意是“你应该知足了”)

(10)What a fine day! 多好的天呀!

(11)If only she were here! What thousands of things there would be to say! 如果她在这里多好呀!有万千心事要向她诉说啊!

3)用于省略句。如:

(12)Something is the matter, but I don’t know what. 总有点不对劲,但我不知道是什么。(=what it is )

(13)I’ll tell you what. 让我告诉你怎么办。(=what to do )

4.32 which的用法

which可指人或物,亦有名词和形容词性质,它的用法有:

(1)This my copy, which is yours? 这是我的书,哪一本是你的?(单数,作定语)

(2)Which of the stories do you like best? 你最喜欢哪个故事?(单数,作宾语)

(3)Which of you will go with me? 你们哪一位愿和我去?(单数,作主语)

4.33 疑问代词的用法比较

1)who与what的区别:who多指姓名、关系等;what多指职业、地位等。如:

(1)—Who is he? 他是谁?

—He is Tom Black. 他是汤姆•布莱克。

(2)—What is he? 他是干什么的?

—He is an engineer. 他是个工程师。

2)who与which的区别:

(3)Who come from the Northeast? 谁是东北人?(对人数未加限制)

(4)Which of you from the Northeast? 你们当中哪些是东北人?(对人数有限制)

3)what与which的区别:

(5)What sport do you like best? 你最喜欢什么运动?(不限制范围)

(6)Which sport do you like the best? 你最喜欢哪一项运动?(限制在一定范围内)

[注]但人们也常说What will you have, beer or wine? (你喝什么,啤酒还是葡萄酒?)这是因为人们在一开始提问时并未想到有选择性。

八、关系代词

4.34关系代词的形式和功用

关系代词有who,whose,whom,that,which,as等,可用作引导从句的关联词。它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词)。如:

(1)The girl who answered the phone was polite enough. 接电话的那个姑娘满有礼貌。(关系代词who在从句中是主语,它的先行词是girl)

(2)He is the man whom you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。(关系代词whom在从句中作宾语,它的先行词是man,whom在口语中一般可略去)

(3)You are the only one whose advice he might listen to. 你是惟一可能使他听从劝告的人。(关系代词whose在从句中作定语,先行词为one)

(4)The film which I saw last night is about a young teacher. 我昨晚看的那部电影是关于一个年轻教师的事。(关系代词which在从句中作定语,先行词为film)

(5)This is the plane that will fly to Tokyo in the afternoon. 这是下午要飞往东京的那架飞机。(关系代词that在从句中作主语,先行词为plane)

(6)He never hesitates to make such criticisms as are considered helpful to others. 他从不对提出对别人有益的批评而犹豫。(关系代词as在从句中作主语,先行词为criticisms)

4.35 缩合连接代词的形式和功用

缩合连接代词(condensed conjunctive pronoun)由于其形式和功用与关系代词相似,所以归入关系代词的范畴。缩合连接代词主要有先行词与关系代词缩合而成,多用以引导名词性从句。这种代词主要有what(=that which),who(=anyone or the person who),that(=he or the man who),whatever(=anything that),whoever(=any person who),whichever(anyone who or which)等。带-ever的词往往有any的含义,语气较强。

现将上述缩合连接代词的用法举例说明如下:

what

(1)What I want is water. 我所要的是水。(what I want用作主语,后接单形动词is)

(2)What I want are apples. 我所要的是苹果。(what I want用作主语,后接单形动词are)

(3)I eat what I like. 我吃我所喜爱的东西。(what I like用作宾语)

(4)That is what I have to say. 这就是我所要说的话。(what I have to say用作表语)

(5)I gave him what help I could. 我尽我所能帮助了他。(what help I could用作直接宾语,what在此=any)

who

(6)Who breaks pays. 损害须赔偿。(who breaks用作主语,who的这种用法现已不多见)

(7)Tom may marry who(whom)he likes. 汤姆可以与任何他所喜欢的人结婚。(who(whom)he likes用作宾语,注意这种从句只可用like,choose,please,want,wish等动词)

(8)You are not who I thought you were. 你已不是我过去所想像的人。(who引导一表语从句)

that

(9)Handsome is that handsome does. 做的漂亮才是真的漂亮。(that引导表语从句)

(10)It was you that said so. 是你这样说的。(that引导主语从句,it是一引词)

which

(11)You can take which you like. 你喜欢拿哪一个就可以拿哪一个。(which引导一宾语从句)

whatever

(12)I’ll do whatever I can do. 我将做我所能做的事。(whatever引导一宾语从句)

whoever

(13)Whoever is top form wins the game when two matched players meet. 两强相争勇者胜。(whoever引导一主语从句)

whichever

(14)You can take whichever you like. 你爱拿哪个就拿哪个吧。(whichever引导一宾语从句,其语气较which强)

带-ever的缩合连接代词有时有“不论”的含义,可引导让步状语从句。如:

(15)I’ll stand by you whatever happens. 不论发生什么事,我都和你站在一起。(whatever=no matter what)

(16)The final between the teams, whatever the result, is splendid. 两队之间的决赛,不论结果如何,总是精彩的。(注意whatever the result后省去it is)

(17)Whoever says so, it’s not true. 不管是谁说的,这话不真实。(whoever=no matter who)

(18)Her sister—or her friend—whichever it was—was an uncommonly pretty girl. 她的妹妹,或者是她的朋友,不管是哪一个,真是美丽出众。(whichever=no matter which)

九、不定代词

4.36不定代词的含义和种类

不指明代替任何特定名词或形容词的代词叫不定代词。不定代词表示各种程度和各种类型的不定意义。它们在逻辑意义上是数量词,具有整体或局部的意义。

不定代词可分为:

1)普通不定代词:

a) some, any, no

b) somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one(不连写), something, anything, nothing

c) one, none

2)个体代词

a) all, every, each, other, another, either, neither, both, half

b) everybody, everyone, everything

3)数量代词

many, much, few, little, a few, a little, a lot of, lots of, a great deal, a great many

4.37 some的用法

不定代词some具有名词和形容词的性质,既可指人,亦可指物。

1)通常用于表示不定数或不定量,修饰复形可数名词或不可数名词,意谓“几个”、“一些”。如:

(1)He asked me some questions. 他问了我几个问题。(修饰复形可数名词)

(2)There are some children outside. 外面有几个孩子。(修饰复形可数名词)

(3)Give me some water, please. 请给我一些水。(修饰不可数名词)

(4)There is some milk in the fridge. 冰箱里有一些牛奶。(修饰不可数名词)

2)用于修饰单形可数名词,意谓“某个”。如:

(5)Some boy had written a Latin word on the blackboard. 某个男孩在黑板上写了一个拉丁词。(修饰单形可数名词)

(6)He’s living at some place in East Asia. 他住在东亚的某个地方。(修饰单形可数名词)

3)用于表示对比,须重读。如:

(7)I enjoy some music, but not much of it. 我喜欢一些音乐,但不多。

(8)Some of us agree with the statement, some disagree. 对这项声明,我们有些人同意,有些人不同意。

4)相当于形容词时,在句中作定语(例句见前);用作名词时,在句中作主语和宾语。如:

(9)Some are wise and some are otherwise. 有些人聪明,有些人愚笨。

(10)Some (of the bread) had been eaten. (面包)已经吃了一些。

(11)I hadn’ t any cigarettes, so I went out to buy some. 我没有香烟了,所以出去买了一些。

(12)If you have no money I will lend you some. 如果你没有钱,我愿借给你一些。

相当于名词时,还可后跟of短语。of的宾语用复形可数名词,表示复数;of的宾语用不可数名词,表示单数。如:

(13)Some of his opinions were hard to accept. 他的一些观点难于接受。(of的宾语为复形可数名词)

(14)Some of the food was packed in water proof bags. 一些食品包在防水袋中。(of的宾语为不可数名词)

of的宾语如用单形可数名词,则表示“部分”。如:

(15)Some of the loaf has been eaten. 一条面包已吃了一些。(=part of the loaf)

5)一般用于肯定句。如:

(16)Some people are early risers. 有些人起得很早。

(17)The mother is doing some washing now. 妈妈正在洗衣服。

如果句中包含some的部分具有肯定意义,那么也可用于否定句或疑问句。在否定句中,some表示“一些”、“部分”。如:

(18)I could not answer some of his questions. 我不能回答他的某问题。

(19)I haven’t yet spoken about it to some of the first-year students. 我还没有给某些一年级学生讲这件事。

含有some的疑问句大多表示“请求”或“建议”,希望回答yes(同意)。如:

(20)Will you get me some matches? 给我几根火柴好吗?

(21)Did you see some of his poems published in the magazine? 你见过他发表在杂志的一些诗吗?

有时表示反问。如:

(22)Didn’t he give you some money? 难道他没有给你一些钱?

6)用于修饰数词,表示“大约”。如:

(23)It happened some twenty years ago. 这事发生在大约20年前。

(24)The population numbers some thirty million. 人口约计三千万。

4.38 any的用法

不定代词any具有名词和形容词的性质,既可指人,亦可指物。

1)与some 一样,any也表示不定数或不定量,修饰复形可数名词或不可数名词,意谓“一些”、“什么”。常用于疑问句。如:

(1)Are there any stamps in the drawer? 抽屉里有邮票吗?(修饰复形可数名词)

(2)Haven’t you any work to do? 你没有工作做吗?(修饰不可数名词)

有时可修饰单形可数名词。如:

(3)Do you know any gook doctor? 你认识什么好的大夫吗?

2)常用于否定句或从名中,常与never,without,seldom,hardly等连用。如:

(4)There are not any books. 没有书。

(5)There isn’t any water. 没有一点水。

(6)He never had any luck. 他从来都不幸运。

(7)He went away without saying good-bye to any of us. 他不有跟我们任何人告别就离开了。

(8)Now that he llived in the country he seldom had any visitors. 现在他住在乡下,很少有客人。

(9)The Dutch man spoke French with hardly any accent. 这个荷兰人说法语几乎不带任何口音。

(10)No one is under any obligation to you. 没有一个人受惠于你。

(11)I don’t think any of us ought to wish the results to be different. 我不认为我们中有人会希望有不同的结果。

3)用于由if或whether引导的宾语从句。如:

(12)Let me know if you hear any news. 我想知道你听到什么消息没有。

(13)I wonder if you have met any of these people before. 我不知道你以前是否见过这些人。

用于条件从句。如:

(14)If you have any news, call me up right away. 你如有什么消息,立刻打电话给我。

(15)If there any new magazines in the library, take some for me. 图书馆如果来了新杂志,替我借几本。

4)亦用于肯定句,意谓“任何”。通常重读,修饰单形可数名词和不可数名词。如:

(16)Come any day you like. 你哪一天来都行。

(17)Any time you want me, just send for me. 什么时候需要我,就给我个信儿。

(18)She kissed and welcomed her brother, but was afraid to ask any question. 她吻她兄弟欢迎他,但是不敢提任何问题。

有时修饰复形可数名词。如:

(19)We had no idea that any serious losses had been inflicted on the company. 我们不知道公司受到什么严重损失。

5)用作形容词,在句中作定语(例句见前)。用作名词时,在句中作主语和宾语,可表示单数或复数。如:

(20)Is (Are) there any? 没有一个(些)?

(21)—Which newspaper do you want me to buy? 你要我买哪种报纸?

—Any will do. 哪种都行。

(22)Did she give you any? 她给了你一些没有?

(23)Get me some if you find any. 如果你找到,就给我一些。

6)用作名词时,还可后跟of短语,of之后用复形可数名词或代词。如:

(24)I don’t think that any of my friends have seen them. 我认为我的朋友中没有一个人见过他们。

(25)I don’t expect to see any of them at the concert. 我不期望在音乐会见到他们中的任何人。

7)用于表示“程度”,意谓“些微”,用作状语。如:

(26)Is the sick man any better? 病人好些了吗?

(27)He was too tired to walk any further. 他太累了,不能再往前走了。

8)用于固定习语。如:

(28)I have any number of plants in my garden. 我的花园里有许多植物。

(29)At any rate, we decided to follow Brum’s suggestion. 不管怎样,我们决定照布伦的意见去做。

4.39 no的用法

不定代词no只有形容词性质,在句中作定语。no表示否定,意谓“没有”、“不是”,可修饰单形、复形可数名词和不可数名词。

1)用于there is(are),have,have got之后,等于not any。如:

(1)There are no letters for you today. 今天没有你的信。

(2)He has no dignity; he is always behaving foolishly. 他没有尊严,经常表现愚蠢。

(3)I’ve got no home. 我没有家。

2)用于连系动词之后,等于not a,但语气很强。如:

(4)The girl was no beauty. 这姑娘才不漂亮哩。

(5)He is no friend of mine. 他才不是我的朋友哩。

(6)Between you and me, it’s no bad thing. 就你我知道,这并不是件坏事。

3)用于其它动词之后。如:

(7)The boat made no headway against the tide. 这条船在逆潮中行进不了了。

(8)He could expect no sympathy from Lester. 他不指望能得到莱斯斯特的同情。

(9)I took no part in these negotiations. 我没有参加这些谈判。

4)用于修饰其它句子成分。如:

(10)No boy at the school had ever seen the sea. 在学校没有一个孩子曾见过大海。

(11)I am in no mood for jokes. 我没有情绪开玩笑。

5)用于警告、命令等标识。如:

(12)No smoking! 不许吸烟!

(13)No parking! 禁止停车!

6)用于表示程度,=not any,用作状语,修饰形容词原级、比较级和副词比较级。如:

(14)But this is no unimportant question, my dear Holmes. 不过这可不是个无足轻重的问题,我亲爱的福尔摩斯。

(15)She was no older than Zilla. 她不比齐拉年纪大。

(16)He went no further. 他不再往前走了。

7)用于固定习语。如:

(17)Men are no longer at the mercy of nature. 人类已不再任凭大自然摆布了。

(18)There’s no such thing as ghosts. 没有鬼这样的东西。

8)not与no的比较:not可用于否定动词,no则没有这种功能。no是具有形容词性质的不定代词,只能与名词或相当于名词的词连用,如no time(没有时间),no telephone(没有电话),“No spitting”(不许随地吐痰)。no等于not any,因此不能用于a,the ,all,both,every等词之前;在这些词之前必须用not,如not a chance(毫无机会),not the least(一点都不),not all of us(不是我们全体),not everyone(不是每一个人),not enough(不够)。其次,no也不与姓名、副词、介词等连用。但not可与这些词连用,如me,not George(是我,不是乔治),not wisely(不聪明地),not on Sundays(不在星期天)。

4.40 复合不定代词的用法

不定代词some,any,no与-one,-body,-thing可组成九个复合代词:somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one(不连写或no-one), something, anything, nothing

这些复合代词均只有名词性质。

1)第二部分为-one,-body的复合代词只用于指人。它们形式上是单数,但可用复形代词they或them指代。如:

(1)There is someone in his office. Do you hear them talking? 他办公室里有人,你听见他说话吗?(them指代someone)

(2)Is there anyone at home? 家里有人吗?

(3)No one was kinder to me at that time than Rose Waterford. 那时,没有一个人比罗斯•沃特福德对我更好。

(4)Somebody must have been using my books. They’ve got all misplaced on the shelf. 一定有人用过我的书了。书全都被乱放在书架上。

(5)Did you meet anybody on your way home? 你在回家的路上遇见什么人?

(6)Nobody can help him under the circumstances. 在这种情况下没有人能帮助他。

2)第二部分为-one和-body的复合代词可有’s属格形式。如:

(7)There’s somebody’s glove on the floor. 谁的手套在地板上。

(8)It is anybody’s guess how long the strike will last. 谁想得到这次罢工会延续多久。

(9)Everybody’s business is nobody’s business. 事关大家无人管。

第二部分为-one和-body的复合代词如后跟else,’s属格则移至else之后。如:

(10)My car has broken down. Can I borrow someone else’s? 我的车坏了,我能借哪一个人的吗?

(11)His hair is longer than anyone else’s. 他的头发比谁都长。

3)第二部分为-one和-body的复合代词如有形容词修饰,形容词须后置。如:

(12)Somebody important has arrived, I’m sure. 我确信有一个重要人物到了。

(13)I want someone reliable to do this work. 我需要一个可靠的人来做这件工作。

4)一般认为,第二部分为-one的复合代词与第二部分为-body的复合代词的功能和意义完全相同,可以互换,只是前者较后者文雅些。但也有人认为,前者侧重指个体,后者侧重指集体。如:

(14)Somebody is sure to get interested in the job. 肯定有人对这工作感兴趣。(=some people,one or more persons)

(15)This is a letter from someone interested in the job. 这是一封某个对这工作感兴趣的人的信。(=some person,one person)

(16)Nobody knew about her arrival. 没有人知道她的到来。(=no people)

(17)No one had come to meet her. 没有一个人来接她。(=not a person)

因此,第二部分为-body的复合代词不后接of短语,而第二部分为-one的复合代词则有时可后跟of短语。如:

(18)Does anyone of you correspond with her family? 你们中有谁跟她家通信吗?

5)第二部分为-think的复合代词只用于指物,没有属格。如:

(19)There is something wrong with him. 他出了点问题。

(20)Why don’t you say something? 你为什么不说点什么?

(21)He looked at me and didn’t say something? 他看着我,什么也没说。

(22)I’ll do anything for you. 我愿意为你做任何事。

(23)“Is there anything in the paper?” he said, as we approached the end of our silent meal. 当我们默默地用餐快结束时,他说:“报上有什么新闻吗?”

(24)Mangan has nothing else. 曼根没有别的东西。

(25)Nothing could remove his disappointment. 没有什么能消除他的失望情绪。

6)第二部分为-think的复合代词和第二部分为-one或-body的复合代词一样,其形容词亦须后置。如:

(26)Is it something important? 事情重要吗?

(27)I think I’d come and see if they had anything new. 我想我会来看看他们不没有什么新的东西。


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