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薄冰英语语法 第四章 代词(41-45)

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  4.41 one的用法

  不定代词one指代可数名词,既可指人,亦可指物。one具有名词和形容词性质,在句中可用作主语、宾语、定语等。用作名词时,它有复数形式ones和属格形式one’s,而且还有相应的反身代词oneself。用作形容词时形式无变化。

  1)相当于名词,泛指“人们”、“一个人”、“任何人”,无修饰词语。如:

  (1)One can’t be too careful in matters like this. 在这种问题上一个人多小心都不为过。

  (2)He was very young, not more than twenty-three or four, as indeed one could see at a glance. 他非常年轻,不会超过二十三四岁,任何人一眼就会看出来。

  (3)One would think I had agreed to her going. 人们会认为我同意她走的。

  one可以和one’s或oneself一起使用。如:

  (4)One should do one’s best at all times. 一个人无论何时都应尽自己的最大努力。

  (5)One shouldn’t be too hard on oneself. 一个人不应该太难为自己。

  1)相当于名词,意指“一个人” 。如:

  (6)He is not one to be easily frightened. 他不是一个轻易被吓倒的人。

  (7)One who paints ought to know a lot about perspective. 画画的人应当了解许多透视的知识。

  (8)There was a look in his eyes of one used to risking his life. 从他的目光中可以看出,他是个惯于冒生命危险的人。

  one还可后跟of短语,短语中用复形可数名词或代词。如:

  (9)I’ve made some cakes. Would you like one of them? 我做了几块蛋糕,你吃一块好吗?

  (10)Roy is one of the finest jazz pianists I have ever heard.罗伊是我听过的最好的爵士钢琴手之一。

  3)用于与the other,another表示对比,在这种情况下有数的含义。如:

  (11)The brothers are so alike that I sometimes cannot tell one from the other. 这两兄弟相貌太相似,有时我都不能分辨出来。

  (12)By the way, here are the two duplicate keys to the gate—I’ll take one, the other key you’d better keep yourself. 顺便说起,这儿是两把完全相同的大门钥匙—我拿一把,另一把你最好自己拿着。

  (13)One man’s meat is another’s poison. 对甲有利未必对乙也有利。(谚语)

  4)用作“支撑词”(prop word),即代替前面刚提到过的名词 ,以免重复。仅用于可数名词,复数用ones,指人指物均可。如:

  (14)I haven’t a pen. Can you lent me one? 我没带笔,你借给我一支行吗?

  (15)Trams were passing us, but my father was not inclined to take one. 电车从我们身边驶过,但我父亲一辆也不想上。

  (16)A hateful person is one that arouses feelings of hatred in you. 可憎之人就是会使你产生憎恨之情的人。

  支撑词可用复数形式ones。如:

  (17)I prefer red roses to white ones. 我喜欢红玫瑰,胜过白玫瑰。

  (18)—Have you met our German neighbors? 你见过我们的德国邻居吗?

  —Are they the ones who moved here recently? 他们是最近搬到这儿来的吗?

  支撑词如有修饰词语,则须加冠词。如:

  (19)No, that’s not their car. Theirs is a blue one. 不,那不是他们的车,他们的是辆蓝色的。

  (20)The new vicar was less cultivated than the old one. 新来的牧师没有原来的牧师有教养。

  (21)My shoes are similar to the ones you had on yesterday. 我这鞋跟你昨天穿的那双差不多。

  支撑词可用其它代词或序数词修饰。如:

  (22)If you will take this chair, I’ll take that one. 如果你坐这把椅子,我就坐那把。

  (23)I’ve never seen such big tulips as these ones. 我从来未见过这样大的郁金香。

  (24)Here are some books for you to read. Which one would you choose? 这里有几本你可读的书,你挑哪一本?

  (25)If you don’t like this magazine, take another one. 如果你不喜欢这本杂志,那就要另一本吧。

  (26)My house is the first one on the left. 我的房子是左边第一家。

  the one有“惟一”的含义。如:

  (27)She is the one who grumbles. 就是她常发牢骚。

  在某些情况下可不用支撑词。如:

  (28)I won’t go by your car. I’ll use my own. 我不搭你的车。我用我自己的。(own之后)

  (29)Of all the runners my brother was the swiftest. 在所有赛跑选手中我弟弟是跑得最快的。(形容词最高级之后)

  (30)I have only one bike but you have two. 我只有一辆自行车,可你有两辆。(基数词之后)

  另外,正式文件和学术文章应避免用支撑词。

  5)相当于形容词时和相当于名词时一样,也可意谓“惟一”。如:

  (31)Your father is the one man who can help you now. 你父亲是现在惟一能帮助你的人。

  (32)Her one object in life, as she told everybody, was her daughter Ruth. 她生活的惟一目标,正像她给大家说的,就是她的女儿露丝。

  (33)It was her one great sorrow. 那是她惟一的大憾事。

  6)与时间名词连用,表示某种不确定的时间。如:

  (34)One day he’ll understand his mistake. 总有一天他会明白他的错误。(表将来)

  (35)I’ll speak to him one of these days. 有一天我会对他说的(表将来)

  (36)One summer evening I went for a stroll in the park. 一个夏天的夜晚,我去公园散步。(表过去)

  7)用于固定习语。如:

  (37)He can go or he can stay; it’s all one to me. 他去还是留,对我都一样。

  (38)The sky was gently turning dark and the men began to depart one after the other. 天渐渐黑了,男人们开始一一离去。

  (39)The little ones always know a good man from a bad one. 孩子们总是分得出好人和坏人。

  4.42 none 的用法

  不定代词none通常只有名词性质,在句中作主语、宾语等。none与no性质不同,no只有形容词性质。二者意义相同,皆意谓“没有(人或物)”,既可指人,亦可指物。

  1)用于指代单形、复形可数名词和不可数名词。如:

  (1)None have arrived yet. 还没有人来。

  (2)I bought a lot of books in London, but he bought none. 我在伦敦买了许多书,可他一本也没买。

  (3)I wanted some more coffee but none was left. 我想再要些咖啡,可一点也没有了。

  none常后跟of短语,其后用复形可数名词或不可数名词。作主语时谓语动词可用单数或复数形式。如:

  (4)None of his friends has ever been to Paris. 他的朋友没有一个到过巴黎。

  (5)None of the passengers were aware of the danger. 没有一个旅客意识到有危险。

  (6)None of the dogs was (were) there. 没有一条狗在那儿。

  (7)None of the money was ever recovered. 钱一点也没寻找回来。

  2)用作主语、宾语、表语、同位语等。如:

  (8)None of them spoke English except Tallit. 除了塔利特,他们中没有人会说英语。(主语)

  (9)Apart from the dizziness, I had none of the true signs of the disease. 除了头晕,我没有此病的任何真实症状。(宾语)

  (10)That’s none of you business! 那与你不相干。(表语)

  (11)We none of us said anything. 我们中没有人说什么。(同位语)

  3)用于固定习语。如:

  (12)None but a strong man could have lifted it. 只有身强力壮的人能举得起它。

  (13)It’s none other than Tom! 这正是汤姆!

  4)no one与none的比较:no one仅指人,none可指人或物。如:

  (14)No one failed the examination. 没有一个人考试不及格。(强调没有一个人不及格)

  (15)None of the students failed the examination. 没有学生考试不及格。(强调都及格了)

  4.43 all的用法

  个体代词all具有名词和形容词性质,在句中可用作主语、宾语、定语等。指二以上的人或物(指二个用both)。

  1)相当于名词,指人,意谓“大家”,等于everybody,在句作主语和宾语。它有复数概念,作主语时谓语动词须用复数形式。如:

  (1)All are welcome. 大家都受欢迎。

  (2)All agree that he has behaved splendidly. 大家都同意他的表现非常之好。

  (3)It is hard to please all. 众口难调。

  2)相当于名词,指物,意谓“一切”,等于everything,在句中作主语和宾语。它表单数概念,作主语时谓语动词须用单数形式。如:

  (4)I don’t find any change here, all looks as it always did. 在这里我没有发现任何变化,一切看起来都和以往一样。

  (5)Some day his pictures will be worth more than all you have in your shop. 有一天,他的画会比你店里所有的一切还值钱。

  (6)All is not lost. 一切都没丢。

  注意all‥‥not‥‥有时=not all‥‥。如:

  (7)All is not gold that glitters. 发光的并不总是金子。

  有时可用物主代词修饰。如:

  (8)He gave his all. 他奉献了他的一切。

  3)相当于名词,在美国英语中常与of 连用(在英国英语中一般皆不用of)。all of的意思与all相同。如:

  (9)All of the boys want to become football players. 所有孩子都想当足球运动员。

  (10)All of these books are expensive. 所有这些书都很贵。

  亦可后跟不可数名词,表示单数。如:

  (11)All of that money you gave them has been spent. 你给他们的那些钱全花完了。

  (12)All of the bread was stale. 所有的面包都不新鲜了。

  有时亦可后跟单形可数名词。如:

  (13)His action was condemned by all of the civilized world. 他的行动受到整个文明世界的谴责。

  但只有all of 之后才可跟人称代词宾格。如:

  (14)All of us were disappointed by him. 他使我们大家都失望了。

  (15)He has written three novels and all of them were best sellers. 他写了三部小说,三部都是畅销书。

  4)用作主语同位语时有不同的位置。如:

  (16)They all found the lectures helpful. 他们大家都觉得讲这些课有帮助。(谓语动词之前)

  (17)We are all extremely fond of her. 我们大家都非常喜欢她。(谓语动词之后)

  (18)The villages have all been destroyed. 这些村庄全部被摧毁了。(谓语动词短语之中)

  5)相当于形容词,在句中作定语,可修饰单形、复形可数名词以及专有名词。如:

  (19)We worked hard all year. 我们辛勤工作了整一年。

  (20)All roads lead to Rome. 条条大路通罗马。

  (21)All hope has gone. 整个希望都破灭了。

  (22)A general strike paralyzed all Paris. 一次总罢工使整个巴黎瘫痪了。

  6)用作定语从句的先行词。如:

  (23)All I can say is that we are extremely sorry. 我能说的只是我们感到非常遗憾。

  (24)All I desired was leisure for study. 我的全部希望就是有空学习。

  (25) She listened to all that he said with a quiet smile on her lips. 她嘴上挂着安详的微笑,听着他说的一切。

  7)用于固定习语。如:

  (26)All in all, there were twenty present. 总共有20人出席。

  (27)First of all you must be frank. 首先你必须坦诚。

  4.44 every的用法

  个体代词every只有形容词性质,在句中用作定语。常用于修饰单形可数名词,述说对象至少有三个以上(如为二个则用each)。every还可构成复合代词everyone,everybody,everything。

  1)用于单形可数名词,意谓“各个”。如:

  (1)After the gale every flower in the garden was broken. 大风过后,花园里的每一朵花都损坏了。

  (2)He knew by heart every word in her letter. 他牢记她信中的每一个词。

  (3)Every time I ring you up, I find you engaged. 每次我给你挂电话,我发现你都忙着有事。

  有时意谓“一切”。如:

  (4)He had every reason to believe that he was right. 他有一切理由相信他是对的。

  (5)I shall do my best to help you I every way. 我将尽最大努力用一切方法帮助你。

  2)用于固定习语。如:

  (6)We go to Europe practically every other year. 我们几乎每隔一年去一次欧洲。

  (7)John comes to visit me every once in a while. 约翰时常来看望我。

  (8)When the police arrived, the crowd started running every which way. 警察到达时,人群开始四处逃散。

  3)everyone和everybody只有名词性质,用于指人,二者同义,意谓“每人”,表示单数。但可用复形物主代词they,them,their指代。作主语时谓语动词须用单数形式。如:

  (9)He told everyone that he was a lord. 他告诉大家他是位勋爵。

  (10)In a small village everybody knows everybody else. 在小村庄里,大家彼此都认识。

  (11)Everybody had some weak spot. 人人都有某种弱点。

  (12)“Everybody’s afraid, aren’t they?” he said looking at the people around. “大家都害怕,不是吗?”他望着周围的人说。(they指代everybody)

  可有属格形式。如:

  (13)He’s sure of everyone’s consent. 他确信大家都会同意。

  注意everyone与词组every one的区别:前者的重音模式是`everyone,后者是every `one或`every `one;前者只能指人,后者既可指人,也可指物。关于every one的实例如:

  (14)Every one of us will be present. 我们大家都将出席。

  (15)We played several matches against the visitors, but unfortunately lost every one. 我们同客队赛了几场,不幸全输了。

  4)everything只有名词性质,用于指物,意谓“每件事”、“一切”,表示单数,没有属格。如:

  (16)Everything goes well with me. 我一切均好。

  (17)Money isn’t everything. 金钱不是一切。

  (18)One can’t have everything. 一个人不能什么都有。

  4.45 each的用法

  个体代词each具有名词和形容词性质,在句中作主语、宾语、定语等。既可指人,亦可指物。描述对象至少有两个。

  1)相当于名词,意谓“每个”,在句中作主语、宾语和同位语。如:

  (1)Each went his way. 各走各自的路。(主语)

  (2)He gave two to each. 他给了每人两个。(宾语)

  (3)They were each sentenced to thirty days. 他们每人被判30日的徒刑。(同位语)

  (4)I told them what each was to do in case of an emergency. 我告诉他们在紧急情况下各自要做的事。(指物)

  (5)“Toasts, “cried George, in furious cheerfulness, and at the end of each threw his glass into the fireplace. “干杯,”乔治欣喜若狂地叫道,而且每干一次就把玻璃杯扔进壁炉。(指事)

  有时可后跟of短语,其后须用复形可数名词或复数人称代词。如:

  (6)Each of the men signed his name as he came in. 每个男人进门时都签了名。

  (7)I’ll send each of them some seeds in the autumn. 秋天我将送给他们每人一些种子。

  5)相当于形容词,修饰单形可数名词,在句中作定语。如:

  (8)I have met him each time he has come to London. 他每次来伦敦我都见到他。

  (9)He gave each boy a present. 他给了每个男孩一件礼物。

  (10)Each morning they lay abed till the breakfast-bell. 每天早晨他们都躺在床上直到早餐铃响。

  3)each与every的比较:each可用作名词和形容词,every只用作形容词;二者用作形容词时,意义相同,但each着重于个别性,其构成成分各具特性,every则着重于整体性,其构成成分有共性。如:

  (11)Each student contributed to the fund. 每一个学生都为基金会捐了款。(学生至少二人)

  (12)Every student contributed to the fund. 各个学生为基金会捐了款。(学生至少三人)

  each and every 短语则既有个性又有共性。如:

  (13)Each and every contributed to the fund. 各个学生都为基金会捐了款。


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