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薄冰英语语法 第四章 代词(46-50)

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  4.46 other或another的用法

  个体代词 other具有名词和形容词性质。既可指人,亦可指物。other不确指,因此常用定冠词组成the other。不定冠词an与other连用则组成another。another亦具有名词和形容词性质。

  1)other相当于名词时,意谓“另一个”,在句中作主语、宾语。如:

  (1)One of my brothers is named Richard, the other named Frederick. 我的兄弟一个叫理查德,另一个叫弗雷德里克。

  (2)He held a sword in one hand and a pistol in the other. 他一手握着剑,一手拿着手枪。

  other可用其它代词修饰。如:

  (3)If you want that other, call me. 如果你要那另一个,就给我打电话。

  (4)It’s none other than Tom! 这正是汤姆!

  other有复数形式others。如:

  (5)We should not think only of our own children, there are others to be cared for also. 我们不应该只想到我们自己的孩子,还有别的孩子需要照顾。

  (6)The search party was divided into two groups. Some went to the right, (the) others went to the left. 搜寻小组一分为二,一部分人向右去,另一部分人向左去。

  other有时可有属格形式。如:

  (7)Each looked after the other’s bag. 二人相互照料对方的包。(二人)

  (8)She thinks only of others’ good. 她只想到别人的美德。(几个人)

  有时可后跟of短语。如:

  (9)Some members of our expedition wanted to climb to the summit, but others of us thought it dangerous. 我们探险队中,一些人想爬上顶峰,但另一些人认为这太危险了。

  2)other用作形容词,修饰复形名词,意谓“另外的”、“其他的”,在句中作定语。如:

  (10)Some children like milk chocolate, other children prefer plain chocolate. 一些小孩喜欢奶油巧克力,另外一些小孩却喜欢纯巧克力。

  (11)I have no other friends but you. 除你以外我没有其他朋友。

  (12)“We can do as well as other people, ” my aunt said. “我们能够干得像别人一样好,”我姑妈说。

  the other后跟单形名词,意谓“另一个”。如:

  (13)The insurance offices were on the other side of the street. 保险公司在街的另一侧。

  (14)This seat is free; the other seat is taken. 这个座位空着,另一个座位有人。

  (15)I spent half my time teaching law and the other half in London as a consultant to a big firm. 我一半时间教授法律,另一半时间是在伦敦给一家大公司当顾问。

  the other亦可后跟复形名词,意谓“另外的”、“其它的”。如:

  (16)Jones is here, but where are the other boys? 琼斯在这儿,但其它男孩在哪儿?

  (17)When I returned home I found my wife talking to our neighbour. The other guests had gone. 当我回家时,发现我妻子在跟邻居说话。其他客人都走了。

  用作形容词的other亦可为其它代词所修饰。如:

  (18)Any other person than husband would have lost patience with her. 除了她丈夫外,别人都不会容忍她的。

  (19)There must be some other reason for him to help. 他给予帮助一定另有原因。

  (20)We have no other business before us. 我们手头没有别的事。

  3)another用作名词,意谓“另一个”,在句中作主语、宾语。如:

  (21)One is blind, another is deaf, and a third is lame. 一个是瞎子,另一个是聋子,又一个是瘸子。(主语)

  (22)Ah, where can we find another like her? 啊,我们哪里还能找到像她这样的姑娘?(宾语)

  有时可后跟of短语。如:

  (23)It was only another of her many disappointments. 这只是她许多失望外的又一个失望。

  4)another用作形容词,意谓“另一个”, 在句中作定语,通常修饰单形名词或代词one。如:

  (24)We went into another room. 我们进入另一个房间。

  (25)Tell them I am not very well. I will go and see them another day. 告诉他们我不太舒服。过几天我会去看他们的。(another day指未来,the other day则指过去)

  (26)This pen doesn’t work. I must buy another one. 这支钢笔坏了。我该另买一支了。

  有是意谓“不同的”。如:

  (27)This route to Boston takes too long. There must be another route that is shorter. 这条到波士顿的路线费时太多了。一定会有一条较短的路线。

  有时会出现歧义。如:

  (28)Would you like another drink? 你再来一杯好吗?(指另一杯同样的饮料,亦可指一杯不同的饮料)

  有时可修饰数词和复形名词。如:

  (29)He went back to work too soon, and was laid up for another three months. 他回去上班过早,结果又病倒三个月。

  (30)Another fifty yards farther on you can see Marcello’s boat. 你再走五十码,就可以看到马塞洛的船。

  3)other,another可与one组合。 one‥‥the other指两个人或物构成的一组中的个体。如:

  (31)He held a book in one hand and his notes in the other. 他一手拿着书,一手拿着笔记。

  (32)Here are two books. One is for Mary, the other is for Jack. 这里有两本书,一本给玛丽,一本给杰克。

  one‥‥another指同一组内的两个个体。如:

  (33)One person may like to spend his vacation at the seashore, while another may prefer the mountains. 一个人会喜欢在海滨度假,而另一个人会喜欢在山里度假。

  还可用still another引进第三者。如:

  One person may like to spend his vacation at the seashore, while another may prefer the mountains, while still another may choose a large metropolis. 一个人也许喜欢在海滨度假,而另一个人也许喜欢在山里度假,还有人也许喜欢在大都市度假。

  4.47 either和neither的用法

  either和neither是对意义相反的代词,具有名词和形容词性质。

  1)either相当于名词时,意谓“(二者之中)任何一个”,在句中作主语、宾语,表示单数概念,作主语时谓语动词须用单数形式。常后跟of短语。其后用复形名词或复数代词,但意义明确时可省略。如:

  (1)Either of the plans is equally dangerous. 这两个计划中,不论哪一个都同样有危险。

  (2)—Which of the two rooms would you like, sir? 先生,这两个房间你喜欢哪一个?

  —Oh, either, I don’t care. 啊,哪个都行,我不在乎。

  (3)The news did not shock either of them. 这消息没有使他俩任何一人感到震惊。

  (4)Have you seen either of your parents today? 今天你看见你父亲或母亲了吗?

  2)用作形容词,修饰单形名词,在句中作定语。如:

  (5)He could write with either hand. 他左右手都能写字。

  (6)Take either half; they’re exactly the same. 随便拿哪一半,它们完全一样。

  (7)There is a train at 11:30 and one at 12:05. Either train will get you to Oxford in time for the meeting. 有一趟火车是11:30,还有一趟火车是12:05,你乘哪一趟车都可以准时赶到牛津开会。

  3)neither同either用法相同,意义相反,意谓“(二者之中)哪个也不”。如:

  (8)I try on two dresses, but neither fits me. 我试了两套衣服,没一套合适。(主语)

  (9)For a long time neither spoke again. 很长一段时间,他俩谁也没再说话,(主语)

  (10)Neither of my friends has come yet. 我的(两个)朋友一个也没来。(后跟of短语)

  (11)Neither of them was any good. 它们(两个)一个也不适用。(后跟of短语)

  (12)If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. 你如在追两只兔子,一个也追不着。(宾语)

  (13)—Which will you have? 你要哪一个?

  —Neither, thank you. 哪个也不要,谢谢。(宾语)

  (14)I have traveled by both trains and neither train had a restaurant car. 我乘了两趟车,哪一趟车也没有餐车。(定语)

  (15)Neither brother has been abroad. 两兄弟一个也没有到国外去过。(定语)

  4.48 both的用法

  个体代词both意谓“两个(都)”,具有名词和形容词性质,在句中可用作主语、宾语、定语等,既可指人,亦可指物。它表示复数,但只能指“二个”。

  1)相当于名词,在句中可用作主语和宾语。如:

  (1)Two men were injured in the accident. Both are now recovering in hospital. 事故中有两个人受伤。这两个人现在都在医院里康复。(主语)

  (2)Both should make concessions. 双方都应该作出让步。(主语)

  (3)I don’t know which book is the better; I shall read both. 我不知道哪一本书好,我将两本都读。(宾语)

  (4)Why not use both? 为什么不二者都用?(宾语)

  both常后跟of短语,其后用复形名词或复数代词;后接复形名词时of常省略,后接复数代词时of则不能省略。如:

  (5)Both (of) the films were very good. 两个电影都很好。

  (6)Do both (of) your parents like dancing? 你父母都喜欢跳舞吗?

  (7)She invited both of us to the party. 她邀请我们二人都参加聚会。

  (8)Both of them were men of the highest position in England. 他们二人都是英国地位最高的人。

  2)相当于名词时,在句中还用作同位语,与复形名词或复形代词同位。在句中的位置取决于谓语动词的形式。作主语同位语时,如谓语为完全动词(包括用作完全动词的have),both位于主语之后、谓语动词之前。如:

  (9)The girls both left early. 两个女孩都是走得很早。

  (10)They both accepted the invitation. 他们都接受了邀请。

  (11)We both had a haircut. 我俩都理了发。

  如谓语部分为系表结构,both则位于连系动词和表语之间。如:

  (12)These children are both mine. 这两个孩子都是我的。

  (13)Cyril’s father and mother were both dead. 西里尔的父母都去世了。

  如谓语为含有助动词或情态动词的动词短语,both则位于助动词或情态动词之后。如:

  (14)The friends have both been invited. 两个朋友都受到了邀请。

  (15)You must both come over some evening. 你俩必须在哪天晚上都过来。

  但在作简短回答时,both须位于助动词或情态动词之前。如:

  (16)—Have you finished? 你们做完了吗?

  —Yes, we both have. 是的,我们都做完了。

  作宾语同位语时,位于宾语之后。如:

  (17)They told us both to wait. 他们告诉我俩都等一等。

  (18)I’ve met them both before. 我以前见过他俩。

  3)相当于形容词,在句中作定语。如:

  (19)Both men were interested in the job. 两个人都对这项工作感兴趣。

  (20)The club is open to people of both sexes. 这个俱乐部对男女都开放。

  4)each与both的比较:each表“一分为几”, both表“合二为一”。如:

  (21)Each of us won a prize. 我们每人都得了一个奖。

  (22)Both of us won a prize. 我们俩都得了奖。

  both相当于名词时,为复数。如:

  (23)Both are good. 两者均好。

  each相当于名词用作主语时,一般表单数概念。如:

  (24)Two boys entered. Each was carrying a suitcase. 两个孩子进来,每人都提着手提箱。

  但用作复数名词(代词)的同位语时,谓语须与主语一致,用复形动词。如:

  (25)They each have beautiful daughters. 他们每个人的女儿都漂亮。

  4.49 many和much的用法

  表数量的不定代词many和much具有名词和形容词性质,在句中可用作主语、宾语、定语等,都意谓“许多”、“大量”;它们的不同在于:many只能指代或修饰复形可数名词,much一般只能指代或修饰不可数名词。

  1)常用于疑问句、否定句,或if或whether引导的宾语从句。如:

  (1)Do you know many people in London? 你在伦敦认识很多人吗?

  (2)Did you have much rain of your holidays? 你休假时遇上很多雨吗?

  (3)I did not meet many English people who could speak foreign languages. 我遇见能讲外语的英国人不多。

  (4)I had not very much advice to give him. 我对他提不出很多忠告。

  (5)I wonder if many people will come to the party. 我怀疑会有很多人来参加聚会。

  (6)I doubt whether there’ll be much time for seeing the sights. The train leaves at six o’clock. 我怀疑会有很多时间去观光。火车六点就开。

  2)用于肯定句,仅限于正式英语。如:

  (7)I know many who would not agree with you. 我知道有很多人不会同意你的意见。

  (8)Much research has been done on this subject and much has been discovered. 关于这个题目,已经进行了大量的研究,并有大量的发现。

  在日常英语中,则用a lot of,lots of,plenty of,a great deal of,a large number of,a good many和a great many等来代替。

  (9)There’s still a lot of work to do before we leave. 在我们走之前还有很多工作要做。

  (10)She knows lots of girls who go out dancing every Saturday. 她认识很多女孩,她们每星期六外出跳舞。

  (11)I know plenty of boys in other schools had achieved the same results as I had. 我知道其它学校有很多男孩已取得与我同样的成绩。

  (12)He has done a great deal of research on the subject. 关于这个题目,他已经做了很多研究工作。

  (13)A large number of people were gathered at the café. 咖啡馆里聚集着很多人。

  (14)My mother’s family had been different in a good many ways from my father’s. 我的母系家庭与我的父系家庭有很多不同。

  (15)A great many mistakes have been made by nearly everybody. 几乎人人都做错了很多。

  3)当many和much用作主语或用以修饰主语时,有时也可用于肯定句。如:

  (16)Many think that the situation will improve. 很多人认为形势会好转。

  (17)Much of what he says is true. 他说的话很多是真的。

  (18)Many people like to spend their spare time working in their gardens. 很多人喜欢在空闲时间到自己花园里干活儿。

  (19)Much time would be saved if you planned your work properly. 如果你把工作安排适当,就会省下很多时间。

  当many和much有程度副词so,too,as,how等修饰时,亦可用于肯定句。如:

  (20)There are too many mistakes in your exercises. 你的练习中错误太多。

  (21)No, I won’t do it. It’s too much trouble. 不,我不会干这种事,麻烦太多。

  (22)I’ve got so many jobs to do today. 今天我有这么多活要干。

  (23)Take as much milk as you want. 牛奶你要多少就拿多少。

  much在句中用作宾语时,亦可用于肯定句。如:

  (24)My mother meant much to me. 我的母亲对我说来是至关重要的。

  (25)I would give much to know what he is thinking now. 我非常想弄明白他现在在想什么。

  4)many和much相当于名词时,常后跟of短语。如:

  (26)Many of the delegates vetoed the plan. 许多代表否决了这项计划。

  (27)There were lots of people on the beach. Many of them were holiday-makers. 海滩上有很多人,他们中不少是度假者。

  (28)Much of the time was wasted. 很多时间浪费掉了。

  (29)He had traveled far, had seen much of the world. 他曾经远游,见过许多世面。

  5)many和much有共同的比较级形式more和最高级形式most。如:

  (30)I found more letters lying on his table today. 今天我发现他桌上有更多的信。

  (31)He made more progress than I expected. 他取得的进步超出我的预料。

  (32)He knew more about me than I thought. 他对我的了解比我想像的多。

  (33)I shall write and tell you if I want any more. 如果我还要,就写信告诉你。

  (34)You must go right off and get some more. 你必须马上去,再弄一些来。

  (35)Most people hold the same opinion as you do. 大多数人持与你相同的观点。

  (36)Most work was done in my father’s offices. 大多数工作是在我父亲办公室干的。

  (37)The most I can do for you is to give you a letter of recommendation. 我能为你做的最多是给你一封推荐信。

  (38)Most of the delegates voted against the proposal. 大多数代表投票反对这项提议。

  (39)Most of his relatives lived in the country. 他的大多数亲属住在乡下。

  (40)Most of his money came from selling his landscapes. 他的大多数钱来源于出卖他的风景画。

  4.50 (a) few和(a) little的用法

  a few和a little是一对用作表数量的不定代词的固定词组。它们具有名词和形容词性质,在句中可用作主语、宾语、定语等,它们意谓“少数”、“少量”,其意义是肯定的。a few指代或修饰复形可数名词,a little指代或修饰不可数名词。

  表数量的不定代词few和little与a few和a little的用法基本相同,但具有否定意义,意谓“几乎一点没有”,等于“not‥‥many”或“hardly‥‥any”。

  1) a few和a little相当于名词时,在句中作主语和宾语。如:

  (1)There are only a few left. 只留下几个。

  (2)—How many do you want? 你想要多少?

  —Just a few please. 请给几个就行了。

  (3)Many a little makes a mickle. 积少成多。(谚语)

  (4)Just put a little on each plate. 每只盘里放一点儿。

  常后跟of短语。如:

  (5)Only a few of the children can read. 只有少数孩子能认得字。

  (6)I met a few of my friends there. 我在那儿遇到几个朋友。

  (7)Give me a little of that wine. 给我一点儿那种酒。

  (8)I have eaten a little (of the food). 我吃一点儿(食物)。

  2)a few和a little相当于形容词时,在句中作定语。如:

  (9)A few birds can be seen in that place. 在那个地方可见到一些鸟。

  (10)He has a few friends who call to see him quite frequently. 他有几个朋友,经常来看他。

  (11)There was a chill in the air and a little fresh wind. 寒气袭人,清风几许。

  (12)She had a little conversation with Amy. 她同埃米谈了一会儿话。

  3) few和little相当于名词时,在句中作主语和宾语。如:

  (13)A lot of guests were invited, but few came. 邀请了许多客人,但是来者不多。

  (14)I have very few left. 我所剩无几了。

  (15)There’s little to be done about it. 关于这件事,没什么可办的了。

  (16)You have done very little for us. 你为我们做的很少。

  有时可后跟of短语。如:

  (17)Few of my acquaintances like Sheila. 我的熟人中没有多少人喜欢希拉。

  (18)I see very little of him. 我不大看见他。

  4)few和little相当于形容词时,在句中作定语。如:

  (19)Few words are best. 少说为佳。

  (20)He has few friends and lives a lonely life. 他没有什么朋友,过着一种孤独的生活。

  (21)There is little changes in his appearance. 他的外貌没什么变化。

  (22)Arthur was reading hard and had little spare time. 阿瑟正在用功读书,几乎没有空闲时间。

  5)few可有比较级fewer,最高级fewest,little可有比较级less,最高级least。如:

  (23)Fewer people study Latin today than fifty years ago, and still fewer people study Greek. 同50年前相比,现在学拉丁文的人少多了,而学希腊文的人就更少了。

  (24)Who made the fewest mistakes? 谁的错误最少?

  (25)The more haste, the less speed. 欲速则不达。

  (26)Least talk, most work. 少说多干。

  在非正式英语中,few的比较级和最高级,亦可用less和least。如:

  (27)There used to be more women than men in the country, but now there are less. 这个国家过去女多男少,但现在则是女少男多。

  (28)That’s the least of my anxieties. 那是我最不焦急的事。


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