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薄冰英语语法 第五章 数词

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  第五章 数词

  5.1 数词的定义和种类

  表示数目多少或顺序先后的词叫做数词(numeral)。数词与不定式代词很相似,其用法相当于名词与形容词。

  数词有两种。表示数目多少的数词叫做基数词(cardinal numeral),如 one,ten,fifty-two等。表示顺序先后的数词叫做序数词(ordinal numeral),如 first,tenth,fiftieth等。

  5.2 基数词

  1)1-12的基数词是:

  one 1, two 2, three 3, four 4, five 5, six 6, seven 7, eight 8, nine 9, ten 10, eleven 11, twelve 12.

  13-19,皆由3-9加后缀-teen构成,即:

  thirteen 13, fourteen 14, fifteen 15, sixteen 16, seventeen 17, eighteen 18, nineteen 19. (注意thirteen,fifteen,eighteen的拼法)

  20-90等十位数均由2-9加加后缀-ty构成,即:

  twenty 20, thirty 30, forty 40, fifty 50, sixty 60, seventy 70, eighty 80, ninety 90.

  21-29由十位数20加个位数1-9构成,中间须有连字符“-”,即:

  twenty-one 21, twenty-two 22, twenty-three 23, twenty-four 24, twenty-five 25, twenty-six 26, twenty-seven 27, twenty-eight 28, twenty-nine 29.

  其它的十位数照些类推,如:

  thirty-one 31, forty- two 42, fifty-three 53, sixty- four 64, seventy-five 75, eighty-six 86, ninety-seven 97.

  2)百位数由1-9加hundred构成,如包含十位数及个位数,中间用and连接,也可以不用;如只包含个位数,即十位数为零时,则and不可省。如:

  a (one) hundred 100

  two hundred 200

  three hundred 300

  seven hundred and six 706

  a (one) hundred (and) twenty-five 125

  three hundred (and) forty-one 341

  nine hundred (and) eighty-seven 987

  twelve hundred 1200 (英语中从1100-1900之间的整数常用hundred表示)

  3)千位数由1-9加thousand构成,其后的百、十、个位数构成方法同前。如:

  a (one) thousand 1000

  two thousand 2000

  three thousand 3000

  five thousand six hundred 5600

  six thousand eight hundred 6800

  a (one) thousand one hundred (and) forty-nine 1149 (此处hundred之前不可用a )

  three thousand five hundred (and) thirty-seven 3537

  英语里没有“万”这一单位,万也用thousand表示。如:

  ten thousand 10 000

  twenty thousand 20 000

  thirty thousand 30 000

  ten thousand one hundred 10 100

  twenty thousand two hundred (and) thirty 20 230

  forty thousand seven hundred (and) eighty-five 40 785

  fifty-five thousand four hundred (and) ninety-three 55 493

  十万的说法是:

  a (one) hundred thousand 100 000

  two hundred thousand 200 000

  three hundred thousand 300 000

  one hundred and one thousand 101 000 (此处thousand之前不可用a )

  two hundred twenty thousand 220 000

  three hundred forty thousand five hundred 340 500

  four hundred sixty-two thousand seven hundred (and) eighty-nine 462 789

  4)百万的说法是:

  a (one) million 1 000 000

  two million 2 000 000

  three million 3 000 000

  two million three hundred thousand 2 300 000

  three million four hundred twenty-one thousand five hundred 3 421 500

  four million five hundred thirty-five thousand six hundred (and) fifty-nine 4 535 659

  千万及千万以上的说法是:

  sixty million 6千万

  five hundred million 5亿

  eight thousand million 80亿(等于美国英语eight billion)

  thirty thousand million 3百亿(等于美国英语thirty billion)

  a (one) hundred thousand million 1千亿(等于美国英语a (one) hundred billion)

  [注]英国英语的billion=1 000 000 000 000,即10的12次方,等于美国英语的trillion。现在英国也有人采用美国用法,故英国计量局认为最好避免使用billion,trillion(美制10的12次方,英制10的15次方)和quadrillion((美制10的15次方,英制10的18次方)。

  5)基数词相当于名词,可有复数形式,其构成方法及读音与名词相同。hundred,thousand,million的复数形式常后接of短语,表示不确定数目。如:

  two threes 两个三

  a man in his forties 40多岁的人

  hundreds (thousands,millions) of dollars 成百(千,百万)美元

  tens of thousands of people 成万的人

  hundreds and hundreds of times 成百倍

  thousands upon thousands people 成千上万的人

  [注] million的名词性较强,故亦可说a million of times(百万倍),two millions of people (2百万人)等。

  如hundreds,thousands,millions的意义清楚,其后的of短语可省去。如:

  (1)Hundreds of thousands are homeless. 几十万人无家可归。

  (2)Millions are starving. 成百万人在挨饿。

  (3)The dollar revenues each year were undoubtedly in the tens of thousands. 每年美元岁收肯定以万计。

  表示数量的dozens与scores的用法和hundreds,thousands相似。如:

  (4)I have told you dozens of times. 我跟你说过几十次了。

  (5)They received scores of letters about their TV programs. 关于他们的电视节目,他们收到了大批来信。

  5.3基数词的功用

  基数词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语和状语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)It is said that thirteen is an unlucky number. 据说13是一个不吉利的数目。

  (2)Three of them joined the school team. 他们中有三人参加了校队。(如说the three of team 意谓“他们三人”)

  (3)Two twos are four. 二二得四。

  [注]There were eight of us in my family. 的意思是“我们家以前有八口人”,表示数人数的结果。of在此表同位关系。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (4)The boy is ten. 这男孩十岁了。(等于ten years old)

  (5)Five times five is twenty-five. 5乘5等于25。

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (6)The shop-assistant wears a nine on her uniform. 那个女售货员的制服上戴着9号徽章。

  (7)It is worth four hundred. 这件东西值400。(等于400 pounds或dollars)

  (8)A fair used to be held here every day that had a seven in it. 过去这里每月逢七有集市。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (9)I have invited ten people to the party. 我邀请了10个人参加晚会。

  (10)I have told you a hundred and one times. 我跟你说过多少次了。

  [注]在the(a,that)100 metre race(那(一)项百米赛跑)中的100须读作one hundred。

  5)用作同位语。如:

  (11)Are you two reading? 你们二人在看书吗?

  (12)They three joining the school team. 他们三人参加了校队

  6)用作状语。如:

  (13)I hate riding two on a bike. 我不喜欢骑自行车带人。

  (14)People were three or four deep in the streets. 街上的人多达三或四层。

  (15)Sitting down thirteen at dinner is deemed unlucky in the Western world. 在四方,坐在13号用餐,被认为是不吉利的。

  5.4 序数词

  英语序数词第1-19除first,second与third有特殊形式外,其余均由基数词加后缀-th构成。现将第1-19序数词(包括其缩写式)列出如下:

  first 1st,second 2nd,third 3rd,fourth 4th,fifth 5th (fif加th),sixth 6th,seventh 7th,eighth 8th(后只加h),ninth 9th(nin加th),tenth 10th,eleventh 11th,twelfth 12th (twelf加th),thirteenth 13th,fourteenth 14th,fifteenth 15th,sixteenth 16th,seventeenth 17th,eighteenth 18th, nineteenth 19th。

  十位数的序数词的构成方法是:先将十位数的基数词的词尾ty中的y变为i,然后加后缀-eth。如:twentieth 20th,thirtieth 30th,fortieth 40th。

  十位数的序数词如包含1-9的个位数时,十位数用基数词,个位数用序数词,中间须有连字符“-”。如:twenty-first 21st,thirty-second 32nd,forty-fourth 44th,eighty-seventh 87th。

  百、千、万等的序数词由hundred,thousand等加-th,前面加有关的基数词构成。如:

  (one) hundredth 100th

  (one) thousandth 100th

  ten thousandth 10 000th

  (one) hundred thousandth 100 000th

  (one) millionth 1 000 000th

  ten millionth 10 000 000th

  (one) hundred millionth 100 000 000th

  (one) billionth 1 000 000 000th

  注意序数词hundredth,thousandth, millionth, billionth之前的“一”只可用one,不可用a。

  这些多位数序数词的后位数如包含1-9时,后位数用序数词,前位数用基数词,中间出现零时,须用and连接。如:

  two hundred and first 201st

  three thousand two hundred (and) twenty-first 3221th

  序数词亦可有复数形式,其构成方法及读音与名词相同。

  5.5 序数词的功用

  序数词在句中可用作主语、表语、宾语、定语、同位语和状语等。

  1)用作主语。如:

  (1)The first is better than the second. 第一个比第二个要好。

  (2)The first of October is our National Day. 10月1日是我们的国庆节。

  2)用作表语。如:

  (3)She was (the) fourth in the exam. 她考试得第四名。

  (4)She was the third to arrive. 她是第三个到达的。

  3)用作宾语。如:

  (5)He was among the first to arrive. 他是首批到达的。

  (6)He held up a piece of paper folded into fourths. 他拿起一张摺成四摺的纸。

  4)用作定语。如:

  (7)A third man entered the room. 又有第三个人进入房间。

  (8)January is the first month of the year. 正月是一年中的第一个月。

  [注]试比较:the first two chapters 最前的两章;the two first prizes 两个第一奖。

  5)用作同位语。如:

  (9)On Friday , the 10th instant, Mr. and Mrs. Cole celebrated their silver wedding-day. 科尔夫妇于本月10日星期五庆祝他们的银婚。

  (10)Who is that man, the first in the front row? 前排第一个人是谁?

  6)用作状语。如:

  (11)When did you first meet him? 你什么时候和他首次见面的?

  (12)He came second in the race. 他赛跑获第二名。

  5.6 倍数、分数、小数和百分数的表示方法

  1)表示倍数的方法有多种。如:

  (1)Three threes are nine. 三三得九。

  (2)Three times three is nine. 3乘3得9。

  (3)How much (What) is three times three? 3乘3得多少?

  (4)This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间有那个房间三个大。

  (5)This room is three times larger than that one. 这个房间比那个房间大两倍。

  表示三以上的倍数用times,但表示两倍(汉语中的一倍实际上也指两倍)时则用twice,如:

  (6)Twice three is six. 二三得六。

  (7)This room is twice as large as that one. 这个房间有那个房间两个大。

  (8)This room is twice large than that one. 这个房间比那个房间大一倍。

  表示倍数也可以用again,double,triple,quadruple,fold等词。如:

  (9)My uncle is as old again as I am. 我叔叔的年龄比我大一倍。

  (10)The top-brand cigarettes are often sold at double the normal price here. 这里名牌香烟售价经常比正常价高一倍。

  (11)Hunan, China’s leading live pig-exporting province, expects to export 42000 lean-meat pigs, quadruple the figure for 1985. 中国主要生猪出口省份湖南可望出口42万只瘦肉猪,为1985年的四倍。

  (12)The value of the house has increased fourfold since 1939. 房价自1939年以来增加了三倍。

  表示增加多少倍可用百分比。如:

  (13)Population has increased by 200% in the past 25 years. 人口在过去25年内增加了200%。

  (14)This shows a 300% increase over the previous year. 这说明比去年增加300%。

  如表“增加”用times与fold,则须注意英语要多说一倍,如说“增加了三倍”,则须用four times或fourfold。如:

  (15)Output of coal increased four times(或fourfold). 煤产量增加了三倍。

  (16)Output of coal was four times as great as that of last year. 煤产量比去年增加了三倍。

  2)表示分数时,分子须用基数词,分母用序数词。分子如是1以上,分母须用复数形式。如:1/3 读作 a (one) third;2/3读作 two thirds;1/4读作a (one) quarter(或fourth);3/4 读作 three quarters(或fourths;2/5读作 two fifths;但是1/2须读作a (one) half(不读作one second)。

  数学中可都用基数词读,如:1/2读作one over two;2/3读作 two over three;3/4 读作 three over four;11/20 读作 eleven over twenty。尤其是较复杂的分数多用此读法,如:27/283应读作twenty-seven over two hundred (and) eighty-three。

  整数与分数之间须用and连接。如:5 1/2 读作 five and a half;7 2/5 读作 seven and two fifths。

  分数用作前置定语时,注意下列写法与读法:

  a one-third mile 三分之一英里(用one,后有连字符)

  a three-quarter majority 四分之三的多数(用单形quarter)

  a two-thirds majority 三分之二的多数期工程(用复形thirds)

  分数相当于名词时,用不用连字符皆可。如:

  three-quarters (three quarters) of a mile 四分之三英里

  3)小数的读法是:小数点前的基数词与前面所讲的基数词读法相同,小数点后则须将数字一一读出。如:

  1.25 读作 one point two five

  3.728 读作 three point seven two eight

  0.56 读作 (naught) (美国用zero) point five six

  0.009 读作(naught) point naught naught nine (美国用zero代替naught)

  4)百分数中的百分号%读作per cent。如:

  5% 读作 five per cent

  0.5% 读作 (naught) point five per cent

  300% 读作 three hundred per cent

  5.7 算式表示法

  关于加、减、乘、除算式的读法:

  2+2=4 读作 Two plus two equal(s) four.

  10-3=7 读作Ten minus three is seven.

  9×6=54 读作 Nine multiplied by six is fifty-four.

  20÷4=5 读作 Twenty divided by four is five.

  [注]通常“加”可用and,如Two and two are four(2+2=4)。说“减”可用from,如 one from four leaves three(4-1=3)。说“乘”4×5=20亦可用Four fives are twenty或Four times five is twenty。说“除”可用into,如 Four into twenty goes five(20÷4=5)。

  关于比例与乘方、开方的读法:

  3:2 读作 the ratio of three to two

  12:3=4 读作 The ratio of twenty to three equals four.

  3的2次方读作 three squared

  33=27读作 Three cubed is twenty seven

  X4=Y读作 The fourth power of x is y.

  9的平方根等于3读作 The square root of nine of three.

  27的3次方根等于3读作 The cubic root of twenty-seven is three.

  (17-9的平方根+65/5)-(4×3)=15 应读作 Seventeen minus the square root of nine, plus sixty-five over five, minus four times three, equals fifteen.

  表示面积常用by,如说一个房间的面积是3′×6′(3英尺×6英尺),应说three feet by six feet;如房间为6英尺见方,则可说six feet by six feet,也可以说six feet square,其总面积为thirty-six square feet。

  5.8 编号表示法

  编号可用序数词或基数词表示,序数词位于名词之前,并加定冠词,基数词位于名词之后。如:the second part=part two 第二部分;the eighth lesson=lesson eight 第八课。

  由于基数词简单,所以用基数词的情况较多。如:

  Number 6 第6号(读作number six,缩写式为No.6)

  line 4 第4行 (读作 line four,缩写式为L.4)

  page 10 第10页 (读作 page ten,缩写式为p.10)

  Room (No.) 101 第101房间 (读作room(number) one oh one)

  No.10 Downing Street 唐宁街10号

  Platform (No.) 5 第5站台

  Bus (No.) 332第332路公共汽车

  Tel. No. 801-4609 电话号码801-4609读作 telephone number eight oh one four six oh nine,在eight,oh,one之后应稍加停顿。

  postcode (或zip code) 100081 邮政编码100081

  [注一]电话与门牌号码中的0多读作oh。

  [注二]帝王称号“第几”用序数词,如Henry Vlll是Henry the Eighth的缩写式,当今英国女王Elizabeth ll是Elizabeth the Second 的缩写式。

  5.9 年、月、是表示法

  请看下列各例:

  1949 1949年(读作nineteen forty-nine或nineteen hundred and forty-nine)

  1900 1900年(读作nineteen hundred)

  1908 1908年(读作nineteen and eight或nineteen hundred and eight)

  1960s (1960’s) 20世纪60年代(读作nineteen sixties)

  450 B.C. 公元前450年(读作four fifty B.C. 或four hundred and fifty B.C.)

  476 A.D. (A.D. 476) 公元476年(读作four seventy-six A.D. 或four hundred and seventy-six A.D.( A.D.在不会误解的情况下常可省略)

  February 7(th) (7(th) February) 2月7日 (读作February the seventh)( 或February seven或February seventh)。7(th) February则读作the seventh of February。

  February 7,1986 1986年2月7日,可缩写成7/2/86(或7,2,86)(英式)或2/7/86 (或2,7,86)(美式)

  下面是各个月份及其缩写式:

  January Jan. February Feb. March Mar. April Apr. May — June Jun. July Jul. August Aug. September Sept. October Oct. November Nov. December Dec.

  5.10 时刻表示法

  请看下列各例:

  (at) six o’clock (或at six) a.m. (或am) (在)上午六时

  half past six p.m. (或pm) 下午六时半

  (a) quarter past six a.m. (或am) 上午六时一刻

  (a) quarter to eight p.m. (或pm) 下午八时差一刻

  five to eight p.m. (或pm) 下午八时差五分

  [注]美国英语可用after代替past ,用of 代替to。

  除用文字外还可用阿拉伯数字表示时刻,如:

  6.00 (英式) 6:00(美式) (读作six)

  6.25 (英式) 6:25(美式) (读作six twenty-five)

  还有一种以24小时时制的表示法,如:

  06.00或06:00 (读作zero six hundred hours)

  21.25或21:25 (读作twenty-one twenty-five)

  5.11 币制表示法

  关于英国币制的说法见下列各例:

  1p 1便士 (读作one penny 或one p)

  5p 5便士 (读作five pence 或five p)

  €5.86 5英镑86便士 (读作five pounds eighty-six pence)

  关于美国币制的说法见下列各例:

  1¢ 1美分 (读作one cent 或one penny)

  $1.25 1美元25美分 (读作one dollar twenty five或one twenty-five)

  美国硬币除penny外,还有nickel(=five cents),dime(=ten cents),quarter(=twenty-five cents),half-dollar(=fifty cents)等。


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