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薄冰英语语法 第六章 动词概说

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  第六章 动词概说

  6.1 动词的定义和特征

  动词是表示动作或状态的词。如:

  walk 行走,play 玩,sleep 睡觉,live 生活,like 喜欢,know 知道,consist 包含,resemble 相似。

  动词和名词、代词一样,也有人称和数的变化。谓语动词的人称和数一般必须与主语的人称和数一致。

  英语动词是词类中最复杂的一种。它的主要语法特征是:

  1)时态(tense)

  特殊的动词尾或有关的助动词,用以表示动作的时间和方面。

  2)语态(voice)

  特殊的动词形式,用以表示动词的主语和宾语之间的关系,即主语是施事者或是受事者。

  3)语气(mood)

  特殊的动词形式,用以表示说话人对所说事物的态度。所说的话可能是事实,也可能是命令或请求,也可能是愿望、假设、怀疑、建议、猜测、纯粹的空想等。

  4)体(aspect)

  动词本身内含的动作方面,有动态与静态。静态包括内心活动、各种感觉和感情等。动态有瞬间、有限、无限、重复等方面。

  6.2 动词的种类

  动词的种类比较复杂,大致可以根据其在句中的功用分为及物动词与不及物动词,连系动词介乎二者之间,反身动词则是一种特殊的及物动词。其次,还可以根据其词义和其在谓语中的作用分为实义动词与助动词、情态动词。第三,还可以根据其与主语的关系分为限定动词与非限定动词。最后还有一种由动词与介词、副词组成的短语动词。

  1)及物动词(transitive verb)与不及物动词(intransitive verb)。及物动词要求有直接宾语。如:

  (1)John Ford himself opened to door to me. 约翰•福特亲自给我开门。

  不及物动词则不需要宾语。如:

  (2)The car stopped. 车停了。

  只有及物动词可用在被动语态。如:

  (3)The meeting will be held in the town hall. 会议将在市政大厅举行。

  及物动词可以有一个或两个(直接和间接)宾语或复合宾语。如:

  (4)Mist clothed the hills. 薄雾罩着山丘。

  (5)She gave him the first injection. 她给他打了第一针。(两个宾语,him为间接宾语,the first injection为直接宾语)

  (6)They elected Nixon President. 他们选尼克松当总统。(Nixon和President为复合宾语)

  许多动词既可用作及物动词,又可用作不及物动词。如:

  (7)He turned his horse’s head and rode away. 他掉转马头骑着走了。

  (8)Tom turned towards Maggie. 汤姆转身向着玛吉。

  有些不及物动词有时可用作及物动词。如:

  (9)He walked the horse to and fro. 他来回遛马。

  有些不及物动词用作及物动词时可后接同源宾语。如:

  (10)Morel dreamed an extraordinary dream last night. 莫雷尔昨晚作了一个怪梦。

  有些动词形式相似,但一为及物动词,一为不及物动词,它们有lay(放)与lie(躺),raise(举)与rise(升),set(放)与sit(坐)等。如:

  (11)They’ve raised a statue in memory of Robert Burs. 他们为纪念罗伯特•彭斯建立了一座雕像。

  (12)The kite rises in the sky. 风筝在空中升起。

  有些及物动词常用作不及物动词以表示被动意义,这时主语往往是物而不是人。如:

  (13)The hooks sold out in a week. 这些书一周内就售完了。(等于were sold out)

  2)连系动词(link verb)。连系动词是一个表示谓语关系的动词。它必须后接表语(通常为名词或形容词)

  be是最基本的连系动词。如:

  (14)It is not late. 时间不晚了。(表语为形容词)

  (15)Shelley was an atheist. 雪莱是一个无神论者。(表语为名词)

  (16)He had been in Germany for five years. 他曾在德国待了五年。(表语为介词短语)

  (17)My idea is to go there right today. 我的意见是今天就去那儿。(表语为不定式短语)

  (18)The problem is finding the right house. 问题在于找到合适的房子。(表语为动名词短语)

  (19)That was what she die this morning on reaching the attic. 那就是她今天上午到阁楼后干的事。(表语为从句)

  常用的连系动词还有appear(出现),become(变成),get(成为),look(看上去),remain(仍是),seem(看似)等。如:

  (20)Gradually he become silent. 他逐渐变得沉默寡言。

  (21)Thenny’s face remained expressionless. 坦尼的脸部仍是毫无表情。

  表感觉和知觉的动词也可以是连系动词,有feel(感觉),taste(尝),smell(嗅),sound(听起来)等。如:

  (22)The dish smells good. 这道菜气味好。

  (23)His explanation sounds all right. 他的解释听起来有道理。

  有些可以和形容词连用的动词也属于连系动词,有blow open(吹开),blush red(脸发红),break loose(挣脱出来),grow worse(变得更坏),fall ill(生病),prove wrong(证明错了),stand quiet(静立),turn pale(脸发白)等。

  3)反身动词(reflexive verb)。反身动词相当于及物动词,通常以反身动词为宾语。如:

  (24)She always prides herself on her cooking. 她经常为她的厨艺感到骄傲。

  (25)He availed himself of the opportunity to speak to her. 他利用此机会对她说话。

  有些反身动词不用反身代词作宾语,但也具有反身意义。如:

  (26)Jane hid in the closet. 珍妮藏在壁橱里。

  (27)We dressed like the villagers. 我们的打扮像村民。

  4)实义动词(notional verb)与助动词(auxiliary verb)、情态动词(modal verb)。实义动词意义完全,能独立用作谓语。如:

  (28)The night crept gently into the hollows of the hills. 黑夜轻轻地蔓延到山谷。

  (29)The burglar broke the window. 小偷打破了窗户。

  助动词本身无词汇意义,不能单独用作谓语。它们有do,be,have,shall (should),will (would)等。它们在句中与实义动词一起构成各种时态、语态和语气以及否定和疑问结构。如:

  (30)The child is crying because he’s been stung by a bee. 那小孩在哭,因为他被蜜蜂螫了。(用于现在进行时)

  (31)She had been ill for two days when we learned about it. 她生病两天以后我们才知道。(用过去完成时)

  (32)The idea was given up years ago. 这个念头好几年前就打消了。(用于被动语态)

  (33)I wish he hadn’t gone. 我希望他没走就好了。(用于虚拟语气)

  (34)I don’t care what she thinks. 我不在乎她想什么。(用于否定结构)

  (35)When do we meet again? 什么时候我们再会?(用于疑问结构)

  情态动词词义不完全,在句中不能单独作谓语,只能与实义动词一起构成谓语;它们有shall,should,will,would,can,could,may,might,must,dare,need,ought to等。如:

  (36)You should always wash your hands before you eat. 你应该经常在吃饭前洗手。

  (37)A frightened bear will maul campers. 受惊的熊会把野营者咬伤的。

  (38)George can speak several languages. 乔治能说好几种语言。

  (39)I have bought a ticket for the concert, but I may not go if I am feeling too tired. 我已经买了一张音乐会的票,不过如果我感到太累的话,就可能不去看。

  (40)It must have been Simon—nobody else would call at this time of night. 那一定是西蒙——晚上这个时候不会有别人打电话来。

  (41)You needn’t give me a lift on your scooter—I’m much too heavy anyway. 你不必让我登上你的滑板车——我反正太重了。

  (42)I really ought to go and have my eyes tested. 我的眼睛确实应该去检验了。

  (43)They dare not tell the truth. 他们不敢说真话。

  have to,be going to,be to,happen to,seem to等结构皆有情态意义,亦可认为是情态动词。

  5)限定动词(finite verb)与非限定动词。这些动词的形式由它们在句子中的功用所决定。限定动词在句子中起谓语作用,可与助动词或情态动词连用,亦可不连用。但必须与主语在人称和数上保持一致辞。如

  (44)Mark smokes a lot. 马克抽烟很多。

  (45)I am practising hard on my violin. 我正在努力练习小提琴。

  (46)You should not drink if you intend to drive. 如果你打算开车,就不应该喝酒。

  非限定动词有不定式、动名词和分词三种。它们在句中不起谓语作用,可担任主语、宾语、补语、状语、定语等。它们不受主语的人称和数的制约。如:

  (47)He wanted to tell her of the incident. 他想把这个事件告诉她。(不定式用作宾语)

  (48)He was always the first to enter the dining room and the last to leave it. 他总是第一个进餐厅而最后一个离开。(不定式用作定语)

  (49)Swimming against the current is difficult. 逆水游泳很困难。(动名词用作主语)

  (50)Her aim is mastering English in the shortest time possible. 她的目标就是在尽可能最短的时间内掌握英语。(动名词用作表语)

  (51)Coming near, I found the door slightly ajar. 我走近时,发现门有一点儿开着。(现在分词用作状语)

  (52)It was the 1st o f August — a perfect day, with a burning sun and cloudless sky. 那天是八月一日,一个晴朗的日子,灼日当空,万里无云。(现在分词用作定语)

  (53)Heated, the metal expands. 这金属遇热即会膨胀。(过去分词用作状语)

  (54)The frozen ground was hard as stone. 冰冻的土地像石头一样坚硬。(过去分词用作定语)

  6)短语动词(phrasal verb)。短语动词是一种固定词组,由动词加介词或副词等构成,其作用相当于一个动词。如:

  (55)The plane took off at seven sharp. 飞机七点起飞。(动词+副词)

  (56)Put out your cigarettes. 把你的香烟熄掉。(动词+副词+宾语)

  (57)I don’t care for Helen’s new curtain. 我不喜欢海伦的新窗帘。(动词+介词+介词宾语)

  (58)The gang robbed her of her necklace. 这伙人抢走了她的项链。(动词+直接宾语+介词+介词宾语)

  (59)We are all looking forward to your party on Saturday. 我们大家都在盼着你星期六举办的宴会。(动词+副词+介词+介词宾语)

  (60)I put his bad temper down to his recent illness. 我认为他脾气坏是因为他最近生过病。(动词+直接宾语+副词+介词+介词宾语)

  6.3 动词的基本形式

  英语动词有五种基本形式,即动词原形(verb stem),第三人称单数现在式(third person singular present tense form),过去式(past tense form),过去分词(past participle)和现在分词(present participle)。这五种形式助动词一起构成动词的各种时态、语态和语气。现将五种基本形式举例列表如下:

  原形 第三人称单数现在式 过去式 过去分词 现在分词

  work works worked worked working

  write writes wrote written writing

  have has had had having

  do does did done doing

  1)动词原形,是前面不加to的动词不定式形式,也就是在词典词目中所用的动词形式,如be,have,do,work,study等。

  2)当主语是第三人称单数,时态是现在一般时时,动词形式应是第三人称单数现在式。如:

  (1)He works hard. 他工作努力。

  第三人称单数现在式一般由动词原形加-s构成。它的拼写应根据以下情况作相应变化:

  a) 以发咝擦音的s,z,ch,sh,x等字母结尾的动词,后面加-es。如:pass—passes,buzz—buzzes,catch—catches,push—pushes,mix—mixes。

  b) 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词,先将y变为i,再加-es。如:carry—carries,try—tries。

  3)动词过去式和过去分词的构成有规则的和不规则的两种(不规则动词见下节)。规则

  动词的过去式和过去分词由动词原形加-ed构成。关于动词原形加-ed的方法和读音见下表:

  读音 例词 构成 在动词后加-ed 在以-e结尾的动词后加-d 在以辅音字母+y结尾的动词后,先将y变为i,再加-ed 以重读闭音节或r音节结尾而末尾只有一个辅音字母时,须双写这个辅音字母再加-ed

  在清辅音后读 /t/ worked finished helped fetched hoped liked joked clapped stopped mapped

  在元音和浊辅音后读 /d/ followed stayed called entered agreed believed lived changed carried studied tried copied planed referred preferred nodded

  在辅音/t,d/后读/id/ wanted rested needed admitted omitted permitted

  少数双音节动词,尽管重音节在第一个音节,仍双写末尾的辅音字母,然后再加-ed(现在分词亦如此)。如:‵travel—travelled ‵program—programmed ‵worship—worshipped。

  但美国英语不双写辅音字母。如:‵travel—traveled

  [注]注意panic,traffic,picnic等动词分别为panicked,trafficked和picnicked,其现在分词分别为panicking,trafficking,picnicking. 英、美皆是如此。

  4)现在分词一般由动词原形加-ing构成。如:go—going ask—asking study—studying see—seeing stand—standing answer—answering be—being。

  但在下列情况下,拼写应作相应变化:

  a)以不发音的-e结尾的动词,须去掉e再加-ing。如:come—coming take—taking write—writing become—becoming

  但当将-e去掉会引起发音变化时,最后的-e应保留,如:agree—agreeing singe—singeing

  另外,-e前为元音时,-e也应保留,如:canoe—canoeing。

  b)动词是闭音节的单音节词,或是以重读闭音节结尾的多音节词,末尾只有一个辅音字母时,这个辅音字母须双写,然后再加-ing。如:sit—sitting run—running stop—stopping begin—beginning admit—admitting forget—forgetting。

  c)少数几个以-ie结尾的单音节动词,须变ie为y,再加-ing,如:die—dying lie—lying tie—tying。

  6.4 不规则动词

  大多数动词的过去式和过去分词都由动词原形加-ed构成,这类动词叫规则动词(regular verb)。但有一些动词却不以加-ed的方式构成过去式和过去分词,这类动词叫不规则动词(irregular verb)。现代英语中不规则动词总数不过二百多个。但它们的使用频率却相当高。不规则动词可分为下列三类:

  1) 第一类不规则动词的三个主要形式(即原形、过去式、过去分词)同形。如:

  burst burst burst

  cast cast cast

  cost cost cost

  cut cut cut

  forecast forecast forecast

  hit hit hit

  hurt hurt hurt

  let let let

  put put put

  set set set

  shed shed shed

  shit shit shit

  shut shut shut

  slit slit slit

  split split split

  spread spread spread

  thrust thrust thrust

  注意下列动词的过去式与过去分词有两种形式:

  bet bet/betted bet/betted

  bid bid/bade bid/bade,bidden

  knit knit/knitted knit/knitted

  rid rid/ridded rid/ridded

  wed wed/wedded wed/wedded

  wet wet/wetted wet/wetted

  2)第二类不规则动词的过去式与过去分词同形。如:

  bent bent bent

  bind bound bound

  bleed bled bled

  breed bred bred

  bring brought brought

  build built built

  buy bought bought

  catch caught caught

  cling clung clung

  creep crept crept

  deal dealt dealt

  dig dug dug

  feed fed fed

  fight fought fought

  find found found

  flee fled fled

  fling flung flung

  get got got/gotted

  grind ground ground

  hang hung/hanged hung/hanged

  have had had

  hear heard heard

  hide hid hid/hidden

  hold held held

  keep kept kept

  kneel knelt knelt

  lay laid laid

  lead led led

  lean leant/leaned leant/leaned

  leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped

  learn learnt/learned learnt/learned

  leave left left

  light lit/lighted lit/lighted

  make made made

  mean meant meant

  pay paid paid

  rend rent rent

  say said said

  seek sought sought

  sell sold sold

  send sent sent

  shine shone/shined shone/shined

  shoot shot shot

  sit sat sat

  sleep slept slept

  slide slid slid

  smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled

  speed sped/speeded sped/speeded

  spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled

  spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled

  stand stood stood

  stick stuck stuck

  strike struck struck

  sweep swept swept

  teach taught taught

  think thought thought

  weep wept wept

  win won won

  wind wound wound

  wring wrung wrung

  3)第三类不规则动词的原形、过去式与过去分词都不相同。如:

  arise arose arisen

  awake awoke/awaked awoken/awaked

  bear bore born/borne

  begin began begun

  blow blew blown

  break broke broken

  choose chose chosen

  drink drank drunk/drunken

  do did done

  eat ate eaten

  fly flew flown

  forbid forbade/forbad forbidden/forbid

  forget forgot forgotten/forgot

  give gave given

  go went gone

  grow grew grown

  hew hewed hewn/hewed

  know knew known

  mow mowed mown/mowed

  overthrow overthrew overthrown

  ring rang rung

  rise rose risen

  see saw seen

  shake shook shaken

  show showed shown/showed

  shrive shrove/shrived shriven/shrived

  sow sowed sown/sowed

  speak spoke spoken

  spring sprang sprung

  steal stole stolen

  strive strove/strived striven/strived

  swear swore sworn

  swim swam swum

  take took taken

  tear tore torn

  throw threw thrown

  wake woke/waked woken/waked

  weave wove woven

  write wrote written

  此外还有少数不规则动词的过去分词与原形相同。如:

  come came come

  become became become

  run ran run

  从上面列举的三类不规则动词中,可以看出一些规则动词与不规则动词的交叉现象,这种现象说明了英语由不规则向规则转化的进程。

  6.5 动词的体

  动词根据其词义可分为动态动词(dynamic verb)与静态动词(stative verb)。

  1)动态动词,大致可分为四类:

  a) 无限动词,即动作历时无限的动词,如drink,eat,read,write,play,talk,live,work,study,walk,run,rain,snow,fly等。

  b) 有限动词,即表示动作历时有限的动词,如bind,produce,build,make,create,mend等。

  c) 瞬间动词,即表示动作极为短暂的动词,如hit,jump,tap,knock等。

  d) 重复动词,即表示动作不断重复的动词,如giggle,struggle,pooh-pooh等。

  2)静态动词,亦大致可分为四类:

  a) 表示内心活动的动词,如want,know,think,believe,forget,understand,expect,consider,hope,imagine,mean,mind,notice,prefer,remember,suggest,suppose,wish等。

  b) 表示情感的动词,如care,detest,envy,fear,hate,like,love,regret等。

  c) 表示感觉或知觉的动词,如feel,ache,hurt,see,hear,smell,taste等。

  d) 表示各种关系的动词,如be,belong,compare,concern,contain,cost,deserve,differ,equal,exist,have,hold,interest,involve,fit,lack,matter,measure,owe,own,possess,resemble,weigh等。

  静态动词与动态动词之间有时是相通的。有些静态动词亦可用作动态动词。如:

  (1)He is having dinner. 他正在吃晚饭。

  (2)He felt in his pocket for some money. 他在口袋里摸找钱。

  动态动词之间亦相通,如无限动词sit,stand在下列句子中即变成有限动词:

  (3)Stand up. 起立。

  (4)Sit down. 坐下。


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