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薄冰英语语法 第七章 动词的时态(1-11)

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  第七章 动词的时态

  7.1 概说

  时态是一种语法范畴,是用以表示各种时间和动作方面的动词形式。

  时间有四个主要部分,即现在、过去、将来和过去将来。动作方面也有四种,即一般、完成、进行和完成进行。将这些时间与动作方面组合在一起,即构成16种时态(以下简称为“时”)如下表:

  时间 动作方面 一般 完成 进行 完成进行

  现在 现在一般时

  I work. 现在完成时

  I have worked. 现在进行时

  I am working. 现在完成进行时

  I have been working.

  过去 过去一般时

  I worked. 过去完成时

  I had worked. 过去进行时

  I was working. 过去完成进行时

  I had been working.

  将来 将来一般时

  I shall work. 将来完成时

  I shall have worked. 将来进行时

  I shall be working. 将来完成进行时

  I shall have been working.

  过去将来 过去将来一般时

  I should work. 过去将来完成时

  I should have worked. 过去将来进行时

  I should be working. 过去将来完成进行时

  I should have been working.

  四个动作方面各有特点,现分述如下:

  1)一般方面

  ——用以叙述一单纯事实,时间可以不具体。

  ——动态动词的一般方面常表动作已完成。

  2)完成方面

  ——用以表述一个动作已完成。

  ——身跨两个时间。动作发生于前一个时间,但说话人的兴趣一般在于后一个时间。

  3)进行方面

  ——表示动作在一时段中进行,说话人的兴趣一般不在动作何时开始,何时结束,而在于他所关心的时点上。

  ——往往呈现出一种情景,故描写性强,比较生动。

  4)完成进行方面

  ——兼有完成与进行两个方面的特点。

  ——也有跨两个时间,但二者往往相距不远。

  一、现在一般时

  7.2 现在一般时的形式

  现在一般时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I work. Do I work? I do not work. Do I not work?

  He (She,It) works. Does he (She,It) work? He (She,It) does not work. Does he (She,It) not work?

  We work. Do we work? We do not work. Do we not work?

  You work. Do you work? You do not work. Do you not work?

  They work. Do they work? They do not work. Do they not work?

  口语中否定式常用缩略式:

  否定式 疑问否定式

  I don’t /dunt/ work. Don’t I work?

  He (She,It) doesn’t /dznt/ work. Doesn’t he (She,It) work?

  We don’t work. Don’t we work?

  You don’t work. Don’t you work?

  They don’t work. Don’t they work?

  7.3 现在一般时的基本用法

  现在一般时常表经常发生的动作或经常存在的状态。如:

  (1)I go to school every day. 我每天上学。

  (2)He is always like that. 他总是那样。

  现在一般时表经常发生的动作或存在的状态时,常和always,often,usually,every day,sometime等表时间的状语连用(见上例),有时时间状语可以不表达出来。如:

  (3)Where do you live? 你住在哪里?

  (4)What do you do here? 你在这里干什么工作?

  由when,while,before,after,until,as soon as等引导的时间状语从句亦可用现在一般时表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态,如:

  (5)When I come across a new word I consult the English dictionary. 我遇到生词,就查英语字典。

  (6)Before I go to bed I take a turn in the open air. 我在就寝之前要在露天里转一转。

  (7)Make hay while the sun shines. 要趁热打铁。

  (8)One is not guilty until he is proved. 在没有证明有罪之前,人都是无罪的。

  连词if引导的条件从句有时亦可用现在一般时表经常发生的动作或存在的状态,如:

  (9)If you speak slowly, I understand. If you speak quickly, I don’t understand. 你说慢了我听得懂。你说快了我就听不懂了。

  (10)If you don’t like it you may lump it. 不喜欢就忍着呗。

  现在一般时常用于以下情况:

  1)表日常行为。如:

  (11)The boys wake up at seven o’clock, wash, dress quickly and run into the dining-room for breakfast. They wait until they hear the bell and then go to school. 这些男孩7时醒来,盥洗完毕,很快地穿好衣服,就到食堂用早餐。然后等上课铃一响就去上课。

  (12)At the zoo, Fang Fang wakes up early in the morning. At about 8, she saunters outside to her playground. At about 10, she comes back into her room and stands by the door to the kitchen, waiting for her breakfast. 在动物园,熊猫方方一大早就醒来。约8点时,她漫步到外面的游戏场上。约10时,她回到屋里,站在厨房门旁,等待她的早餐。

  2)表习惯、能力。如:

  (13)He never wears a hat in winter. 他在冬天从不戴帽子。(表习惯)

  (14)Do you drive, John? 你会开车吗,约翰?(表能力)

  (15)Miss Smith teaches English. 史密斯小姐是教英语的。(表职业)

  (16)This machine runs smoothly. 这台机器运转很灵。(表特征)

  3)表客观存在。如:

  (17)Fire burns. 火会燃烧。(表客观事实)

  (18)The earth moves round the sun. 地球绕太阳旋转。(表客观规律)

  (19)Knowledge is power. 知识就是力量。(表客观真理)

  (20)Time and tide wait for no man. 岁月不待人。(表客观真理)

  报章、杂志、书籍不强调过去时间、单纯表客观事实(即所载文字依然存在)时,亦用现在一般时,如:

  (21)What does the newspaper say? 今天报纸说些什么?

  (22)The story describes how a young intellectual become a fine Communist. 这个故事是描述一个知识青年如何变成一个优秀共产党员的。

  7.4 现在一般时表现在

  现在一般时亦可表现在时刻发生动作或存在的状态和完成的动作。

  1)表说话时刻,这一时刻往往是很短暂的。如:

  (1)What time is it now? 现在几点钟?

  (2)My watch says ten to five. 我的表是5点差10分。

  有时所表时间并不短暂。如:

  (3)The patient is much better now. 病人现在好多了。

  (4)What is Nanjing like now? 南京现在的情况如何?

  现在一般时表现在时可与现在进行时交替使用。如:

  (5)He is wearing a tall hat and carries an umbrella. 他戴着一顶高帽子,拿着一把伞。

  (6)The boy is looking at him in astonishment and says nothing. 这男孩惊奇地望着他,什么也没说。

  2)表完成的动作,常表示范性动作。如:

  (7)Now, look, I open the door. 你瞧,我现在开门。

  (8)Now I put the sugar in the cup. 我现在把糖放在茶杯里。

  亦可表宣布或声明什么事。如:

  (9)Now Radio Beijing presents Music from China. 现在北京电台开始播送“中国音乐”。

  (10)Today we begin to study Lesson 8. 今天我们开始学第8课。

  亦可用来报道一件事。如:

  (11)The affair becomes serious. 事态严重。

  (12)She refuses to make up her mind. 她拒绝做出决定。

  (13)Johnson passes to Roberts, Roberts to Brown, Brown takes it forward, oh, he slips past the centre beautifully, he shoots. 约翰把球传给罗佰茨,罗佰茨又传给布朗,布朗往前带,噢,他巧妙过了中锋,射门。

  有时现在一般时所表的动作虽然实际上尚未完成,但在说话人的心理上已经完成。如:

  (14)I repeat, this is important. 我再说一遍,这是很重要的。

  (15)I say, it is unusual. 我说呀,这是不寻常的。

  这种现在一般时还用在下列感叹句中:

  (16)There goes the bell! 铃响了!

  (17)Here he comes! 喏,他来了!

  3)用于无限动词和静态动词。如:

  (18)The little boy stands on the chair. 小男孩站在椅子上。(无限动词。用现在一般时强调事实,用现在进行时则较生动)

  (19)He continues in good condition. 他的健康情况仍然良好。(无限动词)

  (20)I wish you every success. 预祝你成功。(静态动词,表内心活动)

  (21)Mr. Osborne loves nature. 奥斯本先生热爱自然。(静态动词,表感情)

  (22)This material feels soft. 这种料了摸上去柔软。(静态动词,表感觉)

  (23)Speak out! I can’t hear you. 大声讲。我听不见你的话。(静态动词,表感觉与can连用)

  (24)What alls you? 你哪儿不舒服?(静态动词,表内心感觉)

  (25)I don’t owe anything to anybody. 我不欠任何人任何东西。(静态动词,表关系)

  7.5 现在一般时表过去

  现在一般时有时可以用来表过去发生的动作或存在的状态。

  1)表离现在较近的过去。如:

  (1)I come to apologize. 我是来致歉意的。(现在一般时come在此表“我现在已在此”这一事实)

  (2)Don’t say this. You frighten me. 不要说这个了。你把我吓了一跳。

  (3)What wind blows you here? 是什么风把你吹来的?(强调“你现在已在此”这一结果)

  (4)Bill says he is a good doctor. 比尔说他是个好大夫。(says在此有“主张”的含义)

  (5)He is gone. 他走了。(等于He has gone,强调现在的状态,往往不“不见了”的含义)

  (6)President Resigns. 总统已辞职。(这是报纸标题,用现在一般时表最近的过去,以求生动)

  [注]这种过去的现在一般时可以和why,how,where,what等疑问词连用,但不可与when连用。

  2)表离现在较远的过去。如:

  (7)That’s long, long ago. 那是很久很久以前的事了

  (8)He is long dead. 他早已去世了。

  (9)How do you come to know Tom? 你是怎样认识汤姆的?

  介绍书籍和电影等情节时常用现在一般时。如:

  (10)The story is set in the spring of 1934. 这个故事发生在1934年春天。

  在叙事文中,为了描述生动,也可常用现在一般时,即所谓“历史现在时”。如:

  (11)‥‥Then the man in the mask pulls a revolver out of his pocket and raises it. I put up my hands. Then suddenly the man raises the mask and I see my best friend! It all was a joke. ‥‥随后那个戴假面具的人从口袋里掏出左轮手枪,举了起来。我举起了双手。这时那个人突然掀开了假面具,他原来是我最好的朋友。他是在跟我开玩笑哩。

  这种历史现在时可以用于一段或数段,但也可以只用于一个句子。如:

  (12)I waited about fifteen minutes and out he comes. 我等了大约15分钟,他出来了。

  一个人在某种情绪时,可以用现在一般时道一串过去的事情。如:

  (13)I happen to drop in on her once and you make such an issue of it. 我只是偶尔去看了她一次,而你却如此大闹起来。(这是贾宝玉对林黛玉说的一句话,句中her指薛宝钗)

  在舞台说明中,也都用现在时态表动作。如:

  (14)Gordon: I t’s always the way! [Tears off apron, throws it on the floor, and exit right, slamming the door. ] 戈登:老是这样![扯下围裙,扔到地上,从右门出,把门砰地关上。](注意句中exit是祈使句,表示剧作家对演员的指示)

  3)表死者言行,如果死者的理论、著作仍旧存在并仍有影响的话。如:

  (15)Darwin thinks that natural selection is the chief factor in the development of species. 达尔文认为自然淘汰是物种发展中的主要因素。

  当死者(多指死后不久者)的动作与现在直接有关时,亦可用现在一般时。如:

  (16)He leaves a wife and two children. 他留下了一个妻子和两个孩子。(he刚死去)

  人虽死但物犹在时,亦可用现在一般时。如:

  (17)In that letter she tells why she was up there. 在那封信里,她告诉我为什么她要上那儿去。(she已死,但信犹在)

  4)用间接引语或独立句。主句的谓语动词如果是过去时态,而间接引语是客观事实或说话人认为是事实时,间接引语的谓语动词应用现在一般时。如:

  (18)The doctor said that I’m a little overweight. 大夫说我太胖了一点。

  (19)I heard that your children like music. 我听说你的孩子喜欢音乐。

  有时在独立句中,谓语动词虽指过去,但已没有什么时间概念,亦常用现在一般时。如:

  (20)No one is born an actor. 没有天生的演员。

  (21)We bring nothing into the world. 我们赤条条来到这个世界上。

  7.6 现在一般时表将来

  现在一般时有时可用来表将来发生的动作或存在的状态。

  1)表最近的将来,说话人说话时动作尚未开始,但即将开始。如:

  (1)I’m off. 我要走啦。

  (2)Now I go. 现在我走啦。

  (3)Here I give you some more examples. 这里我再给大家举几个例子

  表最近将来的现在一般时常和why don’t you连用,表示请求或劝告。如:

  (4)Why don’t you try the baker’s shop on Wells Street? 你到威尔斯街面包店去看看吧!

  (5)Why don’t you get the hoe and loosen the soil in that flower bed for me? 那就请你拿锄把那花坛上的土给我松一松吧!

  2)表预定的行动,即将来的但已事先安排好的动作,这种安排很固定,不容轻易改变,好像变成了事实一般。这种现在一般时多用于转移动词,如go,come,leave,start,sail,arrive等,往往后接时间状语。如:

  (6)The train leaves at nine pm. 火车于晚上9时开出。

  (7)When do you start? 你何时动身?

  (8)The film show begins in a minute. 电影一会儿就开始放映。

  这种现在一般时常与将来一般时连用。如:

  (9)Tomorrow morning I leave England. You will never see me again. This is the last time I shall ever look on you. 明天上午我就要离开英语了。你再也见不到我了。这是我最后一次见你了。

  现今有不少非转移动词的现在一般时也可表计划中的未来动作。如:

  (10)I read m paper tomorrow. 我明天将宣读我的论文。

  (11)He gets his reward on Tuesday. 他将于下星期二邻奖。

  这种非转移动词的现在一般时也常和将来一般时连用。如:

  (12)Today, China faces Cuba for the title while the Russians will play the Japanese for third place. 今天中国将和古巴争夺冠军,俄国和日本争夺第三名。

  be和have虽非转移动词,但其现在一般时亦可表将来时间,强调未来的事实或早已规定的事。如:

  (13)Tomorrow is Sunday. 明天是星期天。(已被日历所规定)

  (14)When’s dinner? 正餐是什么时候开?(问每天规定的开饭时间)

  当我们抽象地谈未来时,由于时间概念很弱,也可用现在一般时。如:

  (15)Final victory is ours. 最后胜利是我们的。

  (16)The future is bright. 未来是光明的。

  3)用于表将来的从句。如:

  (17)I’ll wait till he comes. 我要等到他来。(用于时间状语从句)

  (18)Next time I’ll do as he says. 下次我将按他所说的去做。(用于方式状语从句)

  (19)Next time I hope you’ll go where I tell you to. 下次我希望你去我告诉你去的地方。(用于地点状语从句)

  (20)I’ll thank you if you give me a lift. 如果你能让我搭你的车,那我就谢谢你了。(用于条件状语从句)

  (21)Tomorrow at this time we’ll know who is elected. 明天这时候我们就会知道谁当选了。(用于宾语从句)

  (22)See that the windows are closed before you leave. 在你离开房间之前注意把窗关好。(用于宾语从句)

  (23)Let’s see who gets there first. 让我们看看谁先到达那里。(用于宾语从句,这里亦可用将来一般时will get)

  (24)The state government will give $10 000 to any one who brings him to justice. 对能将此犯捉拿归案者,州政府愿赏一万美元。(用于定语从句)

  (25)I’ll give you anything you ask for. 你要什么我都给你。(用于定语从句)

  二、过去一般时

  7.7过去一般时的形式

  过去一般时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I worked. Did I work? I did not work. Did I not work?

  He (She,It) worked. Did he (She,It) work? He (She,It) did not work. Did he (She,It) not work?

  We worked. Did we work? We did not work. Did we not work?

  You worked. Did you work? You did not work. Did you not work?

  They worked. Did they work? They did not work. Did they not work?

  口语中否定式常用缩略式:

  否定式 疑问否定式

  I didn’t /didnt/ work. Didn’t I work?

  He (She,It) didn’t work. Didn’t he (She,It) work?

  We didn’t work. Didn’t we work?

  You didn’t work. Didn’t you work?

  They didn’t work. Didn’t they work?

  7.8 过去一般时的基本用法

  过去一般时常表过去某一时间所发生的动作或存在的状态。过去一般时常和表过去的状语连用,如a minute ago,yesterday,last week,in 1900,during the night,in those days等。用过去一般时时,要说“过多少时间之后”,一般用after,不用in。如:

  (1)Tom suddenly fell ill yesterday. 汤姆昨天突然病了。

  (2)They got married last year. 他们是去年结婚的。

  (3)They had a baby last month. 他们上个月生了个小孩儿。

  (4)It happened after three days. 事情发生在3天以后。

  (5)She didn’t look well when I last saw her. 我上次看到她时,她脸色不好。

  过去一般时亦可与today,this week,this month,this year等时间状语连用。但这些时间状语须指过去,决不包括“现在”在内。如:

  (6)Did you see him today? 今天你看见他了吗?(today实际上指今天的过去某一时刻)

  过去一般时虽不可与now连用,但却可与just now(刚才)连用。如:

  (7)He went out just now. 他刚出去。

  过去一般时表过去时还有以下一些情况。

  1)用于since从句。主句的谓语动词如用现在完成时,其后面的since引导的从句一般须用过去一般时。如:

  (8)You haven’t changed much since we last met. 自从上次我们见面以来,你变化不大。

  (9)It’s been over a year since I came back from the countryside. 我从乡下回来已经一年多了。(主句的谓语动词has been亦可改为is,但美国英语多用现在完成时)

  如果since从句的谓语动词是无限动词或静态动词,则一般仍表动作或状态的结束,并无持续性。如:

  (10)It’s a long time since I lived here. 我不住在这里已有好久了。(lived here已结束,说话人说话时已不住在这里)

  (11)It has been ten years since I was a teacher. 我不当教师已有十年了。(was a teacher的状态已结束)

  2)时间状语可省略。前面说过,过去一般时通常要与表过去的时间状语连用。但在下面一些情况下,时间状语可以省去不用。

  从上下文可以清楚地看出时间状语时。如:

  (12)Did you sleep well? 你睡得好吗?(显然指“昨晚”)

  (13)Who was that? 那人是谁?(who指刚才在这里的那个人)

  前文如有现在完成时所引导时。如:

  (14)Have you measured how wide the window was? 你量过那窗户有多宽吗?

  (15)I have been within an inch of life, and didn’t know it! 我差点丧了命,而我当时我还不知道哩。

  和现在时态对比时。如:

  (16)He is no longer the man he was. 他已不是过去的他了。(和现在一般时is相对比)

  有表过去习惯的used to时。如:

  (17)I used to play football in the street. 我过去常在街上踢足球。

  3)所表的动作多已完成。如:

  (18)I wrote a composition yesterday. 昨天我写了一篇作文。

  (19)I read a book last week. 上星期我读了一本书。

  但静态动词的过去一般时所表的状态当然一般未完成。如:

  (20)Why were you absent from school yesterday? 昨天你为什么没有上学?

  (21)I am sorry I forgot to post the letter. 对不起,我忘了寄那封信。

  但在一般情况下,无限动词仍表持续的动作。如:

  (22)I sat I the chair and my cat sat sat in the rug. 我坐在椅子上,我的猫坐在地毯上。

  4)可表死者的动作和状态。在英语中,说到死去的人时,一般皆用过去时态。如:

  (23)—Who is the man in the picture. 相片上这人男人是谁?(问者不知其人已死,故用is)

  —He was my father. 他是我父亲。(答者用was表明其父已死)

  5)有时感情色彩。如:

  (24)You asked for it ! 你这是自找!

  (25)I heard you! 我早听见了!(即你不用再喊叫了)

  (26)Did you ever hear of such a thing? 你听见过这种事吗?(含义是:你当然没有)

  (27)I told you so. 我早就告诉过你。(有“而你就是不信”的含义)

  7.9 过去一般时表现在、将来和过去的将来

  过去一般时有时形式上为过去,实际上指现在。用过去形式乃是根据时态一致的原则。如:

  (1)I didn’t know you were here. 我不知道你在这里。(were实际上指现在)

  (2)They told me that the rats were a real problem around here. 他们告诉我说这里老鼠成灾了。(were实际上指现在)

  过去一般时还可以用来表示委婉客气,亦指现在。如:

  (3)Did you wish to see me? 你是找我吗?

  (4)Did you want anything else? 你还要别的吗?

  (5)I wondered if you could help me. 我不知道你能否帮我一下。

  过去一般时有时可以表将来发生的事。如:

  (6)In the years to come it will be a great thing for a man to say that I died here like a hero. 在未来的岁月里,当人们说到我在这里英勇牺牲时,那会是多好啊。(died在此表未来)

  (7)As soon as you get it, mail it to me here. I’ll be on the lookout, so Tom will never know it came. 你一拿到它就寄到我这里。我一定留神不让汤姆知道这件事。(came在此表未来)

  过去一般时也可以表过去的将来发生的事。如:

  (8)They had to leave early as they started work the next day. 他们第二天要开始工作,所以不得不早走。(started表过去的将来)

  (9)He told me that school opened the following morning. 他告诉我第二天上午开学。(opened表过去的将来)

  7.10 过去一般时表过去的过去

  表“过去的过去”时,如不是强调先后、因果关系,常可用过去一般时。这种过去一般时多用于从句中。如:

  (1)The boy said he was sorry for what he said. 那男孩说他对他说的话感到懊悔。(said表过去的过去,用在宾语从句中)

  (2)Did you find the pen you lost? 你的钢笔找到了吗?(lost表过去的过去,用在定语从句中)

  (3)When the clock struck ten, we all went to bed. 钟敲十点时,我们即都就寝。(struck表过去的过去,用在时间状语从句中)

  (4)The firewood was all wet from the rain, because the store keeper did not cover it up. 柴火都给雨打湿了,因为店老板没有给遮盖。(did not cover表过去的过去,用在原因状语从句中)

  (5)I was recovered sooner than expected. 我的健康恢复得比我所预料的快。(expected表过去的过去,用在比较状语从句中)

  英语里的“过去的过去的过去”有时亦可用过去一般时表示。如:

  (6)I was told that she had lived here since her husband died. 我听说她从丈夫死后就住在这里。(died在此表“过去的过去的过去”)

  过去一般时亦可用来倒叙在过去的过去发生的事件。这种过去一般时常与时间状语连用。如:

  (7)Fang Fang came to the Beijing Zoo in 1972 after spending six years in the bamboo forests of Baoxing County, Sichuan Province. One day in spring, she fell into a trap and was dragged to a nearby village. After a few days she was caged and escorted to Beijing by train. 熊猫方方在四川省宝兴县的竹林里度过六年之后于1972年到北京动物园。她是在春季的一天陷入了圈套,被拖到附近一个村庄。过不几天,她就被装入笼内由火车护送到北京。(时间状语是one day in spring)

  在不会引起误会的情况下,过去一般时在无时间状语的情况下亦可用来倒叙。如:

  (8)Bessie died, she had a quarrel with the pimp and she want alone to Hong Kong. What she was looking for I will never know. One day she collapsed in a restaurant and died. It was 1937. 贝西死了。在死之前,她和老鸨吵了一架,后只身到了香港。她到香港去寻求什么,我始终不清楚。一天,在一家饭馆里她倒了下去就死难者。时间是1937年。(had,want皆发生在died之前,但无时间状语)

  过去完成时一般着重倒叙相继发生的动作或事件以及业已结束了的状态,过去一般时则常用来倒叙存在而尚未结束的状态或事实。如:

  (9)It was supposed that the pearl buyers were individuals acting alone, bidding against one another for the pearls the fisherman brought. And once it had been so. But this was a wasteful method, for often, in the excitement of bidding for a fine pearl, too great a price had been paid to the fishermen. This was extravagant and not to be countenanced. Now there was only one pearl buyer with many hands… 人们总以为珍珠收购商是单个人活动,争出高价购买渔人的珍珠。但这已经是过去的事了。而这是一种很费钱的做法,因为在激烈地争购一颗明珠时,渔民往往会得到一笔过高的价钱。这太费钱了,是不能允许的。现在只有一个收购商,他下面有很多人手‥‥(第二、三两句中的was在倒叙事实或状态)

  用过去一般时讲的原话变成间接引语时,时态可以不变为过去完成时,仍用过去一般时。如:

  (10)After that, she told me, the hotel went from Class C to much worse. As the burden of management fell more heavily on her, she had less time for Duna and the bear grew senile and indecent in his habits. Once he bullied a mailman down a marble staircase at such a ferocious pace that the man fell and broke his hip… 从那以后,她告诉我,这家旅馆就从三等降为更次的等级了。她由于管理的担子更重了,所以没有那么多时间照顾杜纳,结果这熊越老越不像话了。有一次,它把一个邮差从大理石楼梯上猛地撞了下去,那邮差的髋骨都给摔断了‥‥

  7.11 过去一般时的从属关系

  有时,过去一般时是由所属关系决定的。它可以属于现在时态、将来时态和过去时态。

  1)从属现在时态。如:

  (1)When the ball goes out of bounds, the referee decides which player touched it last. 球出了界,由裁叛决定是哪一个运动员使球出界的。(touched所表的是现在一般时decides的过去)

  (2)The right to rule derives from those who gave it. 治理权来自授权的人(gave表derives的“过去”)

  2)从属将来时态。如:

  (3)After a good many years you will look back on these early pieces of work and realize that they were sincere and penetrating. 许多年后,你回顾这些早期作品时,就会认识到它们是诚挚的,深刻的。(were表will look back…and realize的“过去”)

  (4)—How is your mother? 你母亲身体怎样?

  —Thank you. She’s pretty well, sir. 谢谢。她很好,先生。

  —Say we sent our remembrances, will you? 代我们致以问候,好吗?(sent表say的“过去”)

  3)从属于另一过去一般时。如:

  (5)What was his name? 你刚才说他叫什么来着?(这句话等于What did you say his name was?之所以用was是因为它从属于前面的did…say)

  (6)“I got the job because I was a woman,” she said. “我得到了这个工作是因为我是女性,”她说。(was从属于前面的got,指当时得到工作的原因)


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