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薄冰英语语法 第七章 动词的时态(12-20)

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  三、将来一般时

  7.12将来一般时的形式

  将来一般时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I shall work. Shall I work? I shall not work. Shall I not work?

  He (She,It) will work. Will he (she,it) work? He (She,It) will not work. Will he (she,it) not work?

  We shall work. Shall we work? We shall not work. Shall we not work?

  You will work. Will you work? You will not work. Will you not work?

  They will work. Will they work? They will not work. Will they not work?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’ll /ail/ work. I shan’t /:nt/ work.

  I’ll not work. Shan’t I work?

  He’ll /hi:l/ work. He won’t /wnt/ work.

  He’ ll not work. Won’t he work?

  She’ll /i:l/ work. She won’t work.

  She’ ll not work. Won’t she work?

  It’ll /’itl/ work. It won’t work.

  It’ ll not work. Won’t it work?

  We’ll /w i:l/ work. We shan’t work.

  We’ ll not work. Shan’t we work?

  You’ll /ju:l/ work. You won’t work.

  You’ ll not work. Won’t you work?

  They’ll /eilwork. They won’t work.

  They’ ll not work. Won’t they work?

  7.13 将来一般时的基本用法

  将来一般时用来表示单纯的将来事实。将来一般时常和表将来的时间状语连用,如tomorrow,next week,next month,next year,in a few days等。如:

  (1)He’ll come next week. 他下星期来。

  (2)I’ll have eggs and toast for breakfast tomorrow morning. 明天早饭我吃鸡蛋和烤面包。

  (3)Will we see you again next year? 我们明年会再见到你吗?

  (4)They say that it will be good weather tomorrow. 据说明天是好天气。

  将来一般时也可以与now,today,tonight等时间词连用。如:

  (5)I shall do it now. 我现在就做这件事。

  (6)They’ll go at seven tonight. 他们今晚7点去。

  助动词shall有时表谦逊。如:

  (7)I shall be delighted to see you. 见到你我很高兴。

  (8)—Come again. 请以后再来。

  —I shall. 我会来的。

  当上下文清楚时,时间状语可以省去。如:

  (9)You go ahead. I’ll catch up. 你先走吧,我会赶上来的。

  (10)Will there be anything else, Mr. Smith? 还有什么要我办的事吗,史密斯先生?

  表将来一连串事件时,一般用将来一般时。由于上下文清楚,亦可不用具体的时间状语。如:

  (11)Tynan will be in his office until eight forty-five tonight. He will then leave directly from his office to fly to New York, and then from Kennedy he’ll catch the eleven-o’clock flight to San Francisco. 泰南将在办公室待到今晚8点45分。然后他将离开办公室,直飞纽约,然后他将从肯尼迪机场搭11点的班机飞往旧金山。

  用将来一般时还有以下一些情况。

  1)与状语从句连用。常与表时间的状语连用。如:

  (12)When I have time, I’ll go. 我有时间就去。(与when从句连用)

  (13)I’ll ask him as soon as he comes. 他一来我就问他。(与as soon as从句连用)

  (14)I will tell them after you leave. 你离开后我就告诉他们。(与after从句连用)

  有时时间状语从句暗含在上下文中。如:

  (15)I know you will like it. 我知道你会喜欢它的。(暗含when you see it)

  亦可与条件状语从句连用。如:

  (16)He’ll help you if you ask him. 你提出请求,他会帮助你。(与if从句连用)

  (17)We shall go unless it rains. 除非下雨,我们是要去的。(与unless从句连用)

  (18)Try again and you will succeed. 你再试就会成功。(try again在此表条件)

  有时条件状语状语从句可省去或暗含在上下文中。如:

  (19)Don’t disturb him. He’ll be angry. 不要打扰他。他会生气的。(省去了if you disturb him)

  (20)A chair will not stand on two legs. 只有两条腿的椅子是站不住的。(条件暗含在on two legs)

  2)用于状语从句中。表时间和条件的状语从句一般用现在一般时表将来,但有时亦可用将来一般时。连词before引导的时间状语从句可用将来一般时。如:

  (21)It will be long before he will come back. 他要过很久才回来。(此句重点是before从句)

  (22)You must fill out the application form and be interviewed before you will be considered for the job. 你必须先填好申请书,经过面谈,然后才会被考虑雇用的问题。(before在此相当于and then)

  表条件的if从句亦可用将来一般时,这种从句的主语多用it。如:

  (23)I will come tomorrow if it will suit you. 如果对你方便的话,我明天来。

  这种内含将来一般时的条件从句要比内含现在一般时的条件从句委婉客气。再如:

  (24)If it will help at all, I will go. 如果于事有补,我就去。

  (25)I’ll buy the book if it won’t cost too much. 这本书如不太贵,我就买下。

  3)用于一般疑问句。内含助动词shall的将来一般时常用在由Shall I 或Shall we引导的一般疑问句中,询问对方的意图或愿望。

  回答Shall I…问句时不可用Yes,you shall或No,you shall not,而应该说Yes,please(或Please do)或No,please don’t(或Please don’t)

  回答Shall we…问句时应该说Yes,let’s或No,I don’t think we shall。如:

  (26)—Shall I help you? 你要我帮忙吗?

  —Yes, please. 好,请。

  (27)—Shall I carry your bag? 我来给你拿手提袋好吗?

  —No, thanks. 不,谢谢。

  (28)—Shall we call a taxi? 我们叫辆出租汽车好吗?

  —Yes, let’s. 好,叫吧。

  shall we可用作附加疑问句。如:

  (29)—Let’s go swimming, shall we? 我们去游泳好吗?

  —No, I don’t think we shall. 不,我看我们别去。

  内含助动词shall的将来一般时还可用于hope,expect,want等动词,其语气要比现在一般时委婉。如:

  (30)I shall hope to see you soon. 我希望不久能见到你。

  (31)I shall expect you to come. 我将等你来。

  (32)We shall want to go. 我们想去。

  四、过去将来一般时

  7.14过去将来一般时的形式

  过去将来一般时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 否定式

  I should work. I should not work.

  He (She,It) would work. He (She,It) would not work.

  We should work. We should not work.

  You would work. You would not work.

  They would work. They would not work.

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式

  I’d /aid/ work. I shouldn’t /’udnt/ work.

  I’d not work.

  He’d /hi:d/ work. He wouldn’t /’wudnt/ work.

  He’ d not work.

  She’d /i:d/ work. She wouldn’t work.

  She’ d not work.

  It’d /’it d/ work. It wouldn’t work.

  It’ d not work.

  We’d /w i:d/ work. We shouldn’t work.

  We’ d not work.

  You’d /ju:d/ work. You wouldn’t work.

  You’ d not work.

  They’d /eidwork. They wouldn’t work.

  They’ d not work.

  [注]在当代英语中,尤其在美国,第一人称也多用would。

  7.15过去将来一般时的基本用法

  过去将来一般时表示在过去将来的某一时间发生的动作或存在的状态。过去将来一般时常用在间接引语中,主句谓语动词为过去时态。如:

  (1)You know I would come. 你知道我会来的。

  (2)We never imagined that John would become a doctor. 我们从未想过约翰会成为一名医生。

  (3)I thought you would take the chance. 我还以为你会去试一试呢?

  过去将来一般时有时可带时间状语。如:

  (4)Late at night on November 28,1938, Dr. Bethune got word that a battle would soon begin. 1938年11月28日深夜,白求恩大夫接到通知说,一场战斗不久将打响。(带时间状语soon)

  (5)He said he would come back the next day. 他说他第二天回来。(带时间状语the next day)

  如the next day确是说话时刻的第二天,也可改用tomorrow。如:

  (6)He said he would come back tomorrow. 他说他明天回来。

  五、现在完成时

  7.16现在完成时的形式

  现在完成时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I have worked. Have I worked? I have not worked. Have I not worked?

  He (She,It) has worked. Has he (she,it) worked?

  He (She,It) has not worked. Has he (she,it) not worked?

  We have worked. Have we worked? We have not worked. Have we not worked?

  You have worked. Have you worked? You have not worked. Have you not worked?

  They have worked. Have they worked? They have not worked. Have they not worked?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’ve /aiv/ worked. I haven’t /’h vnt/ worked.

  I’ve not worked. Haven’t I worked?

  He’s /hi:z/ worked. He hasn’t / hznt/ worked.

  He’ s not worked. Hasn’t he worked?

  She’s /i:z/ worked. She hasn’t worked.

  She’ s not worked. Hasn’t she worked

  It’s /’its/ worked. It hasn’t worked.

  It’ s not worked. Hasn’t it worked?

  We’ve /w i:v/ worked We haven’t worked.

  We’ ve not worked Haven’t we worked?

  You’ve /ju:v/ worked. You haven’t worked.

  You’ ve not worked Haven’t you worked?

  They’ve /eivworked. They haven’t worked.

  They’ ve not worked Haven’t they worked?

  7.17现在完成时的基本用法

  现在完成时跨在两个时间之上,一是过去,一是现在。它的动作发生在过去,但对现在有影响(或结果),而时这种影响(或结果)却往往是说话人的兴趣所在,所以常常后面不用时间状语。现在完成时所表的动作离说话人的说话时刻可近可远,表近距离的如:

  (1)The car has arrived. 车子来了。(结果:车子已在门口)

  (2)Someone has broken the window. 有人把窗户打破了。(结果:窗户仍破着)

  (3)He’s been ill. 他刚生过病。(结果:现在脸色还不好)

  [注]美国英语常用过去一般时代替表近距离的现在完成时,如:

  ①What happened? 发生什么事了?(等于What’s happened?)

  ②Who took my dictionary? 谁把我的词典拿走了?(等于Who’s taken my dictionary?)

  表远距离的如:

  (4)He has traveled over many lands. 他到过许多国家。(结果:他见识很广)

  (5)Have you ever seen the sea? 你看见过大海吗?(结果:如见过就告诉我海是什么样吧)

  (6)She has had a good education. 她受过良好教育。(结果:她的文化水平比较高)

  有时可以连用现在完成时去完成一个以上相互紧接的动作。如:

  (7)They have gone to the moon and come back to earth again. 他们踏上了月球,后又返回了地球。

  (8)The river has been the scourge to Chins. But we have tamed it at last. 这条河是中国的灾难。但我们终于把它驯服了。

  注意have been与have gone的意思不同。试比较:

  (9)I have been to the library. 我刚从图书馆回来。(have been意谓“去而复归”)

  (10)He has gone to the library. 我到图书馆去了。(have gone意谓“去而未归”)

  have been还可和不定式连用。如:

  (11)I have been to see John. 我去看过约翰了。

  (12)This is one of the few times he has been to shed tears. 这是他难得的一次流泪。

  [注]在口语中,have got除具有本义“得到”外,往往等于have。如:

  ①Have you got a light? 你有火吗?

  但在美国口语中,got如具有本义,则用have gotten。如:

  ②Tom, I have gotten some very good news for you. 汤姆,我得到一些对你非常好的消息。

  和现在一般时一样,现在完成时亦可用于死者。也有两种情况:

  一种是死者刚死不久,生者觉得他还似在人间。如:

  (13)It’s a beautiful place. Your papa has told me about it. He loved it very much. 那可是个好地方。你爸爸生前和我说过,他非常喜欢那个地方。

  另一种情况是说名人。他们虽已死去,但其言行对现在仍有影响。如:

  (14)Shakespeare has written most of the best plays we know. 在我们熟悉的最佳剧作中,大部分都是莎士比亚写的。

  (15)Newton has explained the movements of the moon from the attractions of the earth. 牛顿阐明了月球受到地球引力而运行的规律。

  现在完成时有时带有感情色彩。如:

  (16)What have you done! 你干了些什么!

  (17)Now you’ve done it! 这你可闯下祸了!

  在口语中,往往用“have gone(或been)and+过去分词“的形式。如:

  (18)You’ve gone and broken my fan. 你把我的扇子弄断了。

  (19)You have been and moved my papers! 你乱动我的文件啦!

  7.18 现在完成时表持续和重复

  现在完成时常用来表持续的动作或状态,亦可用来表过去重复的动作。

  1)无限动词表持续。表持续的动作或状态的动词多是无限动词,如live,study,teach,be,wait等,常和since(自从)或for(经历)引导的词语连用。如:

  (1)I have lived here for more than thirty years. 我已在此住了30多年。

  (2)I have been here since last October. 从去年十月起,我一直在这里。(since是介词)

  (3)She has taught us since I came to this school. 自从我来到这所学校,她一直教我们。(since是连词)

  在一般情况下,这种现在完成时今后还会延续下去。但也有可能不再延续。如:

  (4)Have you waited long? 你等了很久了吗?(动作不再延续,如果说话人是对方所等待的人的话。long前省去了for)

  (5)These shoes are worn out. They have lasted a long time. 这些鞋子已穿破了。已穿了很长时间了。(have lasted也不再延续。a long time前省去了for)

  非无限动词一般不可用现在完成时表持续性,但非无限动词在否定结构中则可用现在完成时,因为“否定”本身是可以延续的。如:

  (6)I haven’t bought anything for three months. 我有3个月没有买过任何东西。

  (7)I haven’t touched beer for a whole week. 我有整整一个星期没沾啤酒。

  2)亦可用有限动词表持续。在当代英语里,有些有限动词已冲破了上述规则,在某种情况下也可以与since(自从)或for(经历)引导的词语连用表“持续性”。如:

  (8)The two leaders have met for two hours. 这两位领导人会晤了两个小时。

  (9)He has visited China for three days. 他在中国进行了三天访问。

  (10)Since when have you become active? 你什么时候开始变得积极了的?

  但要注意介词for有时并不表“经历”,而是表“目的”。如:

  (11)I’ve come only for a few moments. 我来只能待几分钟。

  (12)Charlie has gone off to Canada for six months. 查理去加拿大,要去六个月。

  3)表过去重复的动作。这种现在完成时常与always,often,many times,every day等时间状语连用。如:

  (13)My father has always gone to work by bike. 我父亲一向是骑车上班。

  (14)It’s rained every day this week. 这个星期天天下雨。

  (15)Six times he has tried and six times he has failed. 他试了六次,六次都失败了。

  还常与含有另一现在完成时的when从句连用,表过去了的经验。如:

  (16)I have often met him when I have been in London. 我在伦敦时经常见到他。

  (17)Sometimes when I have been alone I have remembered that folly. 有时我独自一人,就会想起那桩荒唐事。

  [注] when从句中的现在完成时往往被过去一般时所代替,如:Here men have been killed when they fired at a grizzly. (这里人们开枪打灰熊时,是有过牺牲的。)

  7.19 现在完成时表将来

  同现在一般时一样,现在完成时也可以在时间状语从句里表将来。如:

  (1)We are going after we’ve had breakfast. 我们吃过早餐走。

  (2)How can you go before the rain has stopped? 雨还没有停,你怎么能走呢?

  (3)I’ll wait until he has written his letter. 我愿等到他把信写完。

  有时现在完成时从属于将来一般时,用在宾语从句中表将来。如:

  (4)The test question will be spoken just one time, you must listen very carefully in order to understand what the speaker has said. 试题只念一遍,考生必须仔细听,以理解试题的内容。(从属于must listen…)

  (5)If he asks for me, tell him I have left for Paris. 他如问到我,你就告诉他我去巴黎了。(从属于tell him)

  有时可以代替将来完成时,以强调一种自然的或必然的结果。如:

  (6)There is but one more question: then I have done. 只再提一个问题,我就问完了。(I have done等于I’ll have done,但强调其自然结果)

  (7)If I blow the conch and they don’t come back, then we’ve had it. 如果我吹了海螺而他们还不回来,那我们就苦了。

  7.20 现在完成时与其它词语连用

  现在完成时可与其它词语连用

  1)与宾语从句连用。后接的宾语从句可用任何时态。如:

  (1)Have you found out how wide the ditch was? 你了解到那条沟有多宽吗?(指量沟时的宽度)

  (2)Have you found out how wide the ditch is? 你了解到这条沟有多宽吗?(指现在沟仍有的宽度)

  (3)Have you found out how wide the ditch will be? 你了解到这条沟将来有多宽吗?

  2)与时间状语连用。现在完成时是一个现在时态,所以它可以和包括“现在时刻”在内的时间状语连用,如now,today,this week,this month,this year,always,often等。如:

  (4)The rain has stopped now. 雨终于停了。(now在此等于at last)

  (5)I have lived here for five years now. 我到现在已经在这里住了五年了。(now在此等于up to now)

  (6)Have you seen John today? 你今天见过约翰吗?

  (7)I have got up very early this morning. 我今天早上起得很早。

  (8)It’s rained every day this week. 这个星期天天下雨。

  (9)I have been there only once this year. 我今年只去过那儿一次。

  现在完成时一般不可和具体地表过去的时间状语如just now,a minute ago,yesterday,last year连用,但可和just,recently,of late,before,never,always,often,already,in the past等笼统地表过去的时间状语连用。如:

  (10)He’s just gone. 他刚走。

  (11)Have you been here before? 你以前来过这里吗?

  (12)I have always liked him. 我一向喜欢他。

  (13)I have seen his name in the papers rather often of late. 我近来常在报上看到他的名字。

  (14)I’ve already read that book. 我已经读过那本书了。

  3)与since连用。前面讲过,现在完成时表持续时可与since(自从)作为介词与连词引导的词语(即短语与从句)连用。

  since作副词用时可与现在完成时连用。如:

  (15)Nothing has happened since. 从那以后未发生什么事。

  (16)Nothing has been quite the same ever since. 从那以后情况就完全不一样了。(ever为了加强语气用)

  另外,since从句虽常用过去一般时,但有时也可以用现在完成时。since从句用现在完成时时,since的意思是“在‥‥期间”或“自‥‥期间”的开头,但其后的动词必须是无限动词,有持续性。如:

  (17)I have met him often since I have lived here. 自从我在这里住下之后,这常看见他。

  (18)I have learned a lot from him since I have known him. 自从我认识了他,我向他学到许多东西。

  但since从句的现在完成时亦可与一些非无限动词连用,这时它与过去一般时即无多大区别。如:

  (19)It’s a long time since I’ve seen you. 好久不见你了。(since I’ve seen you等于since I last saw you)

  (20)It’s a long time since I’ve spoken to you. 我有好久没有和你谈谈了。(since I’ve spoken to you等于since I last spoke to you)

  4)与介词短语连用。现在完成时除可和介词for(经历)与since(自从)引导的介词短语连用外,还可和before,after,during,from,in等介词引导的介词短语连用。如:

  (21)He has usually finished all his correspondence before bed time. 他通常在就寝前将所有信件处理完毕。

  (22)After six years, a quite different Smith has emerged. 六年之后,史密斯变得判若两人。

  (23)I have learned a lot during the year. 这一年来我学到很多东西。

  (24)The State has not existed from all eternity. 国家并非从来就有。

  (25)I have read quite a bit in the past few days. 近日我读了不少书。

  (26)Until recently he has hidden the book in a secret place. 直至近日,他将此书藏在一个秘密的地方。

  现在完成时亦可后接内含过去一般时的when(或while)从句。如:

  (27)I haven’t studied English when I was at school. 我上学时没有学过英语。

  (28)Have you been here while I was out? 你在我出去时来过这里吗?

  5)与long ago连用。现在完成时有时可和时间状语long ago连用。如:

  (29)She’s gone long ago. 她早走了。

  (30)Fanny has long ago left me. 范妮早已离开我了。

  (31)I have ceased to believe that long ago. 我早就不信那个了。

  6)与疑问副词连用。现在完成时可以和how,why及where等疑问副词连用。如:

  (32)How have you done it? 你是怎么做的?(强调结果。如用过去一般时则问方式)

  (33)Why has the child run away? 这孩子为什么逃跑啦?

  (34)Where have you been? 你上哪儿去啦?

  现在完成时也可和疑问副词when连用,但往往有反问的口气。如:

  (35)When have I ever been accustomed to be treated like this? 我什么时候吃过这一套?

  (36)When have I been harsh with the children? 我什么时候对孩子粗暴过?

  7)与其它时态连用。现在完成时常和过去一般时连用。从时间先后看,共有三种情况:即现在完成时所表的动作(或状态)发生(或存在)于过去一般时所表的动作(或状态)之后、之前或同时。如:

  (37)My friend gave to me, and I have since kept it in the drawer. 这是我的朋友给我的,我一直把它保存在这个抽屉里。(发生于过去一般时之后)

  (38)Professor Lin left yesterday for America where a lecture-tour has been arranged for him. 美国那边为林教授安排了一次巡回讲学,他昨天已动身去美国了。(发生于过去一般时之前)

  (39)I have climbed that hill many a time when I was young. 我年轻时多次爬过那座山。(于过去一般时同时发生)

  现在完成时常可用来引导过去一般时。如:

  (40)I have seen the film. I saw it last week. 这个电影我看过了,是上星期看的。

  (41)I have lived in China. That was 1940. 我在中国住过,那是1940年。

  有时这两种时态形成一种对照。如:

  (42)She has made several attempts to get away, but we succeeded in persuading her to stay. 她几次三番地要走,可我们还是说服她留下了。

  现在完成时也常和其它现在时态连用。如:

  (43)We’ve tired. It’s been a long day. 我们累了,今天干了好久。(和现在一般时连用)

  (44)Harry has made the tea and is watching TV again. 哈里把茶煮好后,又看起电视来了。(和现在进行时连用)

  现在完成时也常和另一现在完成时连用。如:

  (45)Why! He has only just gone. What has brought him back soon? 嗬!他刚走,怎么不大一会儿又回来啦?

  8)用于时间和原因状语从句。现在完成时和现在一般时一样,也可用在when,before,after,until,as soon as等引导的时间状语从句中。这种从句中的现在完成时较之于现在一般时,常强调下列三种情况。

  a)强调动作的完成或结果。如:

  (46)When he has finished his letters, he usually takes them to the post himself. 他写完信,通常都是他亲自付邮。(强调完成)

  (47)When they have been frightened, dairy cows may refuse to give milk. 奶牛受惊后可能不出奶。(强调结果)

  b)强调从句的动作与主语的动作不紧相连接,二者之前有时隔。如:

  (48)They often play chess after they have had supper. 他们晚饭后经常下棋。

  (49)Almost as soon as we have started we find ourselves at the bottom of the hill. 我们几乎是刚刚动身,就到山腿下了。

  c)强调无限动词的动作已完成。如:

  (50)When I have studied a book I write a report on it. 我研读完一本书之后就写一篇报告。

  现在完成时亦可表原因,所以自然可用在because引导的原因状语从句中。如:

  (51)We cannot cross the river because the water has risen. 我们过不了河了,因为河水涨了。

  (52)She can drive by herself because she has passed her test. 她现在可以独立开车了,因为她已经通过了驾驶考试。

  9)用于间接引语。和现在一般时一样,现在完成时也可以用在过去时态之后的间接引语中,表示说话人相信间接引语的真实性。如:

  (53)I heard you have been ill. 我听说你病了。

  (54)The investigation proved that he has done his best. 调查结果说明他是尽了最大努力的。


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