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薄冰英语语法 第七章 动词的时态(21-31)

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  六、过去完成时

  7.21过去完成时的形式

  过去完成时构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I had worked. Had I worked? I had not worked. Had I not worked?

  He (She,It) had worked. Had he (she,it) worked? He (She,It) had not worked. Had he (she,it) not worked?

  We had worked. Had we worked? We had not worked. Had we not worked?

  You had worked. Had you worked? You had not worked. Had you not worked?

  They had worked. Had they worked? They had not worked. Had they not worked?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’d /aid/ worked. I hadn’t /’h dnt/ worked.

  I’d not worked. Hadn’t I worked?

  He’d /hi:d/ worked. He hadn’t worked.

  He’ d not worked. Hadn’t he worked?

  She’d /i:d/ worked. She hadn’t worked.

  She’ d not worked. Hadn’t she worked

  It’d /’itd/ worked. It hadn’t worked.

  It’ d not worked. Hadn’t it worked?

  We’d /w i:d/ worked We hadn’t worked.

  We’ d not worked Hadn’t we worked?

  You’d /ju:d/ worked. You hadn’t worked.

  You’ d not worked Hadn’t you worked?

  They’d /eid/worked. They hadn’t worked.

  They’ d not worked Hadn’t they worked?

  7.21过去完成时的基本用法

  过去完成时的基本用法与现在完成时相似,所不同的是:现在完成时的动作须在现在以前完成,过去完成时的动作须在过去某一时间以前完成,也就是说发生在“过去的过去”。既然过去完成时的动作发生在过去某一时间之前,那么,使用过去完成时就非先有这样一个过去某一时间不可。如:

  (1)I had finished my homework before supper. 我在晚饭前把作业做完了。

  句中的supper即是过去某一时间,而过去完成时had finished这一动作就是在supper之前完成的。如果只说I had finished my homework. 听者就会觉得难以理解。由此可见,过去完成时可以说是一个相对时态,它不能离开过去时间而独立存在。再如:

  (2)By the end of that year Henry had collected more than a thousand foreign stamps. 到那年年底,亨利已收集了一千多张外国邮票。(过去时间是the end of that year)

  (3)When we got there the basketball match had already started. 我们到那里时,篮球赛已经开始了。(过去时间是when从句)

  但过去某一时间也可以暗含在上下文中而不表示出来。比如说,我本是来和对方谈正事的,但一见面却谈起家常而把正事忘了。这时我就可以说:

  (4)Oh, I had forgotten. 噢,我忘了。(“谈家常”就是过去某一时间)

  再如:

  (5)The roads were full of people. We hadn’t foreseen that. 路上都是人。这是我们事先未料到的。(过去时间显然暗含在前一句中)

  (6)A small boy and his smaller sister had got an apple each. The boy had eaten his apple. The girl had still hers. 一个小男孩和他的小妹妹都得到一个苹果。男孩已把苹果吃掉,女孩还没有吃。(这是一个故事的开头。过去时间暗含在第三句中。过去完成时作铺垫用)

  过去完成时表过去的过去时还有以下一些情况。

  1)后跟when,than,before等引导的内含过去一般时的从句,有时从句是全句的重点。如:

  (7)He had only just reached home when a man called to see him. 他刚到家就有人找他。(when在此有“突然”的含义)

  (8)No sooner had we left the house than it began to rain. 我们刚离开家就开始下雨了。

  (9)I had not gone much farther before I caught them up. 我没有走多远就赶上他们了。(如说Before I had gone much farther, I caught them up. 重点则在主句)

  2)常用在过去一般时之后的间接引语中。如:

  (10)He told me that he had seen the film the day before. 他跟我说他前一天看过那个电影了。

  但有时也可以说:

  (11)He said he had seen the film yesterday. 他说他昨天看过那个电影了。

  例(10)中的the day before是合乎语法规则的。例(11)中的yesterday似乎不甚合乎语法,但在实际生活中并不罕见。对yesterday解释有二:一是yesterday等于the day before,指主句谓语动词动作发生的前一天,这是一种不够严谨的说法。另一种解释是yesterday等于说话人说话时刻的“昨天”。应作哪一种解释,须视上下文而定。与yesterday类似的还有ago一词。如:

  (12)Five minutes ago they’d tried to run away. 五分钟前,他们试图逃跑。(根据上下文,five minutes ago是以说话人说话时刻为准的。但如孤立地看,它就会有歧义了)

  当然,间接引语如有具体年月日,就不会有任何歧义,如:

  (13)He believed that he had been born in 1944 or 1945. 他认为他出生于1944或1945年。(由于有具体的过去时间,可用was代替had been。二者无甚区别,只是前者较为简便,后者较为正规而已)

  3)与其它时态连用。与过去一般时连用,在时间先后方面,共有三种情况。如:

  (14)The rain had stopped and the air was clean. 雨停了,空气清新。(过去完成时先于过去一般时)

  (15)As they talked, they had reached a house in a dark street. 他们说着话就走到了黑暗街道上的一所房屋前。(过去完成时与过去一般时同时)

  (16)When the book was published, he had become the most popular writer of the time. 此书出版以后,他就成为当时最受欢迎的作家了。(过去完成时后于过去一般时)

  过去完成时也可与过去进行时连用。如:

  (17)The opera troupe had come, they were preparing for the night show. 歌剧团已到,他们正在准备晚上的演出。

  过去完成时也常与另一过去完成时连用。如:

  (18)She had nursed her father in that room when she had been but a baby. 她在那个房间护理她的父亲,那时她还是只是个孩子。

  过去完成时与现在时态连用的情况亦值得注意。用这种过去完成时时,其所依附的“过去某一时间”常为读者所知,故省去不表。如:

  (19)Chekhov is well know to Chinese readers, and had exerted a positive influence on many Chinese writers. 契诃夫对中国读者来说是非常熟悉的,他曾经对许多中国作家产生过积极影响。(过去完成时had exerted与现在一般时is连用。二者有一时隔)

  过去完成时亦可与现在完成时连用。如:

  (20)Many high-wire walkers have died on their last step, thinking they had made it. 许多走绳索者死在最后一走上,这时他们认为已经表演成功了。(“过去某一时间”表现在thinking)

  4)表愿望。过去完成时有时表一种未实现的愿望或想法,过去时间往往由过去一般时所表达。如:

  (21)I had meant to come, but something happened. 我本想来,但有事就没有来。

  (22)I had intended to speak, but time did not permit. 我本想发言,可是时间不允许。

  5)表倒叙。过去完成时常用来倒叙过去某一时间之前所发生的一系列事件。如:

  (23)The Reds also knew about Shih Ta-kai and that the main cause of his defeat had been a costly delay. Arriving at the banks of the Tatu, Prince Shih had paused for three days to honour the birth of his son—an imperial prince. Those days of rest had given his enemy the chance to concentrate against him, and to make the swift marches in his rear that blocked his line of retreat. Realizing his mistake too late, Prince Shih had tried to break the enemy encirclement, but it was impossible to manoeuvre in the narrow terrain of the defiles, and he was erased from the map. 红军也是知道石达开的,知道他失败的主要原因是坐失良机。石达开到达大渡河河岸以后,因为得子——小王爷——而庆祝了三日,这就使敌人有时机集中兵力,迅速开到他的后方,切断他的退路。石达开发觉自己的错误时,已经晚了。他企图突围,但终因在狭隘的峡谷中无法用兵而被消灭。

  6)表强调动作的完成。过去完成时有时并不用于倒叙表“过去的过去”,而只是强调一过去时间的动作的完成,并往往有“突然”、“快速”等含义。这种过去完成时往往有时间状语。一种状语是now,by now,then,by then等,但这些时间状语常可由上下文看出,故可省去不用。如:

  (24)We had then been without sleep for twenty-four hours. 这时我们已有24小时没有合眼了。

  (25)In the outer office a door slammed. Nelson Chase had come to work. 只听得外面办公室砰的一声,纳尔逊•蔡斯来上班了。

  另一种时间状语是表过去将来的,如soon,ten minutes later,in two weeks等。如:

  (26)I had soon told the story. 我很快就讲完了故事。

  (27)Five minutes later, they had left the building. 五分钟后,他们离开了大楼。

  正如现在完成时可表“将来”一样,过去完成时亦可表“过去的将来”。如:

  (28)He said he would come as soon as he had finished his work. 他说他一干完活就来。(had finished表“过去的将来”)

  注意英语表“过去的过去”以前的时间,仍用过去完成时。如:

  (29)She told me she’d been happier than she’d ever been before. 她告诉我这一段时间她比以往都要愉快。(第一个had been表“过去的过去”,第二个had been表“过去的过去的过去”)

  七、将来完成时

  7.23将来完成时的形式

  将来完成时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I shall have worked. Shall I have worked? I shall not have worked. Shall I not have worked?

  He (She,It) will have worked. Will he (she,it) have worked? He (She,It) will not have worked. Will he (she,it) not have worked?

  We shall have worked. Shall we have worked? We shall not have worked. Shall we not have worked?

  You will have worked. Will you have worked? You will not have worked. Will you not have worked?

  They will have worked. Will they have worked? They will not have worked. Will they not have worked?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’ll have worked. I shan’t have worked.

  I’ll not have worked. Shan’t I have worked?

  He (She,It) ’ll have worked. He (She,It) won’t have worked.

  He (She,It)’ll not have worked. Won’t he (she,it) have worked?

  We’ll have worked. We shan’t have worked.

  We’ ll not have worked. Shan’t we have worked?

  You’ll have worked. You won’t have worked.

  You’ ll not have worked. Won’t you have worked?

  They’ll have worked. They won’t have worked.

  They’ ll not have worked. Won’t they have worked?

  [注]在当代英语中,一律用will(或缩略式’ll)。

  7.24将来完成时的基本用法

  将来完成时表示在将来某一时间之前完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。它常与表将来时间状语连用。如:

  (1)I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week. 我将在本周未前读完这本书。

  (2)Before long, he will have forgotten all about the matter. 过不久,他很快就会把这件事全然忘记的。

  有时可与ever,never,soon等时间状语连用。如:

  (3)Will you soon have finished laying the table? 你会快点把餐具摆好吗?

  (4)Will they ever have done with their talking? 他们谈话还有完没有?

  将来完成时往往可和时间或条件状语从句连用。如:

  (5)When I have done that, I shall have done all I was supposed to do. 我做完这件事,就做了我全部应做的事了。

  (6)If you come at seven o’clock, I shall not yet have finished dinner. 你如七点钟来,我还没有吃完晚饭哩。

  [注]在下面的句子中,will是情态动词,有“大概”或“料想是”等含义,并无“将要”的意思:

  ①You will have heard the news, so I need not repeat it. 你们一定已经听到消息了,所以我就没有必要重复了。

  ②They will have received our letter now. 他们这时一定收到我们的信了。

  八、过去将来完成时

  7.25过去将来完成时的形式

  过去将来完成时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 否定式

  I should have worked. I should not have worked.

  He (She,It) would have worked. He (She,It) would not have worked.

  We should have worked. We should not have worked.

  You would have worked. You would not have worked.

  They would have worked. They would not have worked.

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式

  I’d have worked. I shouldn’t have worked.

  I’d not have worked.

  He (She,It) ’d have worked. He (She,It) wouldn’t have worked.

  He (She,It)’ d not have worked.

  We’d have worked. We shouldn’t have worked.

  We’ d not have worked.

  You’d have worked. You wouldn’t have worked.

  You’ d not have worked.

  They’d have worked. They wouldn’t have worked.

  They’ d not have worked.

  [注]在当代英语中,大都用would(缩略式为’d)。

  7.25过去将来完成时的基本用法

  过去将来完成时表示在过去将来某一时间以前发生的动作,并往往会对过去将来某一时间产生影响。它常和表过去将来的时间状语连用。如:

  (1)The party would have arrived by four o’clock. 这一行人将于4时前到达。

  (2)The day was drawing near when we would have completed the reservoir. 我们水库完工的日子不远了。

  (3)He said he would have done with my camera by the end of next month. 他说到下月底就不用我的照相机了。

  [注]在下面的句子中,would是情态动词,有“大概”或“料想是”等含义,并无“将要”的意思:

  ①I want you thinking of food and wine, because these last years would have been miserable for you. 我要你只想吃喝,因为最近几年你的生活想是够苦的。

  ②That would have been rather difficult. 那大概是相当不容易的吧。

  九、现在进行时

  7.27现在进行时的形式

  现在进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I am working. Am I working? I am not working. Am I not working?

  He (She,It) is working. Is he (she,it) working? He (She,It) is not working. Is he (she,it) not working?

  We are working. Are we working? We are not working. Are we not working?

  You are working. Are you working? You are not working. Are you not working?

  They are working. Are they working? They are not working. Are they not working?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’m /aim/ working. I’m not working.

  He’s /hi:z/ working. He isn’t /’iznt/ working.

  He’ s not working. Isn’t he working?

  She’s /i:z/ working. She isn’t working.

  She’ s not working. Isn’t she working?

  It’s /’its/ working. It isn’t working.

  It’ s not working. Isn’t it working?

  We’re /w i / working. We aren’t /nt/ working.

  We’ re not working. Aren’t we working?

  You’re /ju / working. You aren’t working.

  You’ re not working. Aren’t you working?

  They’re /ei working. They aren’t working.

  They’ re not working. Aren’t they working?

  7.28 现在进行时的基本用法

  现在进行时的基本用法是表现在(即说话人的说话时刻)正在进行的动作,可在now,at present,at this moment,these days等时间状语连用,也可不用时间状语。如:

  (1)What are you doing now, John? 你现在正在干什么呢,约翰?

  (2)Where are you going? 你上哪儿去?

  (3)The telephone is ringing, would you answer it. 电话铃响了,请你接一下,好吗?

  有时现在进行时所表的动作并不一定在说话人的说话时刻进行,而是在包括说话时刻在内的一段时间当中进行。如:

  (4)George is translating a book now. 乔治现在在翻译一本书。

  说话人说这句话时,乔治不一定正在翻译,可能在做别的事。但在包括“说话时刻”在内的一段时间当中,乔治确是在从事翻译。再如:

  (5)—What are you doing? 你在干什么?

  —I’m not doing anything at present. 我现在什么也不干。

  现在进行时有时可用来与过去对比。如:

  (6)He is speaking English much more fluently than he used to. 他的英语讲得比过去流利多了。

  现在进行时表现在时还有以下一些情况。

  1)表重复。少数瞬间动词表不断重复的动作。如:

  (7)The boy is jumping with joy. 那男孩高兴得在跳呢。

  (8)Someone is knocking. 有人敲门。

  除jump,knock外,瞬间动词还有kick,hit,nod,tap,wink,cough,shoot,drop等。主语如为复形名词,某些动词的现在进行时往往有“不断”或“一个接一个”的含义。如:

  (9)Men are dropping with malaria, dysentery and simple starvation. 士兵们由于疟疾、疾病或仅仅因为饥饿一个接一个地倒下了去。

  (10)Ours is an epoch in which heroes are coming forward in multitudes. 我们的时代是一个英雄辈出的时代。

  但有些表示短暂动作的动词的现在进行时则是表动作的开始。如:

  (11)The ambulance is arriving. 救护车就来。

  (12)The sun is setting. 太阳开始落山了。

  有些动词的现在进行时则表动作即将结束。如:

  (13)He is dying. 他奄奄一息了。

  (14)The fruit is ripening. 这果子快熟了。

  2)表目前情况。现在进行时可用来表示一种临时或目前的情况或措施,这是因为现在进行时所延续的时间一般都比较有限的缘故。如:

  (15)We usually have breakfast at 7, but during the holidays we’ve having it at 8. 平常我们是七点吃早餐,但放假期间就改到八点了。

  (16)I’m not sleeping well. I want to take a holiday. 近日我睡觉不好。我想休假。

  3)用于描写。现在进行时常用来描写一种状态,往往显得生动,具有感情色彩。如:

  (17)I am missing you dreadfully. 我非常思念你。

  (18)She is always helping me in the kitchen. 她总是帮我干厨房活。(表表扬)

  (19)Now, that boy is again whistling his infernal melodies. 喏,那小子又打口哨吹起他那些该死的曲儿来了。(表厌恶)

  这种现在进行时由于具有描写性,所以它有时在句中可以和形容词并列。如:

  (20)He is unconscious and groaning. 他失去了知觉。不停地呻吟着。

  4)用于阐释或归纳。现在进行时常用来阐释或归纳前面说的话。这种现在进行时的语气往往较强。如:

  (21)When I say that, I’m thinking of the students. 我这样说是为学生着想。(表原因,解释when I say that)

  (22)He is busy. He is writing a letter. 他有事。他在写信。(描写前句)

  (23)She was silent, she was saying much. 她默不作声,这反而意义深长。(表结果,有归纳或总结之意)

  5)与状语连用。现在进行时除与now,at present等时间状语连用外,还常与only,merely,simply,really,actually,certainly,fast,rapidly,slowly,finally,steadily,constantly,continually,always,for ever,all the time等词语连用。如:

  (24)I am only joking. 我只是开个玩笑。

  (25)John is always coming late. 约翰老是迟到。

  (26)I’m simply loving it here. 我简直爱上了这儿的一切。

  (27)Trade between the two countries is finally beginning to take off. 两国之间终于开始进行贸易了。

  6)用于从句。现在进行时可用于状语、宾语、定语等从句。如:

  (28)We are suffering while they are expanding. 我们受苦,他们却在兴旺发达。(用于时间状语从句)

  (29)If he is doing this, he is doing wrong. 假如他在做此事,那他就做错了。(用于条件状语从句)

  [注]除非是为了表强调和对比,主句与状语从句应避免都使用进行时态。

  (30)You don’t know what you are talking about. 你在说什么,你自己也不知道。(动词know后的宾语从句的谓语动词常用现在进行时)

  (31)They talk and they don’t realize what they’re saying. 他们肯说,但他们却不知道自己说些什么。(用于宾语从句,此处的现在进行时are saying,不一定表现在)

  (32)The man who is standing there is my uncle. 站在那里的那个人是我的叔叔。(用于定语从句)

  (33)What’s that you’re holding in your hand? 你手里拿着的是什么?(用于定语从句)

  (34)Sound is produced when the air which is being forced up from the lungs puts the vocal chords into vibration. 从肺部发生的气,震动了声带,即发出声音。(用于定语从句,现在进行时is being forced up从属于现在一般时puts,并不表说话时的现在)

  7)无限动词用于现在进行时。无限动词常用现在一般时表现在,但如为了表现生动,亦可用现在进行时。如:

  (35)There’s a lady in the picture. She’s lying in a couch. 画中有一位贵妇人。她躺在睡椅上。

  (36)What are you waiting for? 你等什么呢?(当代英语在此似乎很少用现在一般时wait)

  9)静态动词用于现在进行时。静态动词常用现在一般时表现在,但也可用现在进行时表临时性、能动性或生动性。如:

  (37)We are having a cold wave these days. 这些天我们正遇上了寒流。(临时性)

  (38)They’re seeing an English film now. 他们正在看一部英语电影。(能动性,seeing等于watching)

  (39)How are you feeling today? 你今天感觉如何?(生动亲切)

  “am,is,are+现在分词”亦表临时性。如:

  (40)You are not being polite. 你这可不大客气呀。

  有时则表“有意如此”。如:

  (41)Jeremy was being slow, and I remember wondering why he was being slow. S杰里米有意慢慢腾腾(平时并非如此),我记得曾对此感到纳闷。

  某些静态动词的现在进行时亦有“开始”的含义。如:

  (42)I’m forgetting my French. 我的法语荒疏了。

  (43)How are you liking Beijing? 你觉得北京如何?(问初步印象)

  有些表心理活动的静态动词的现在进行时可表委婉、客气。如:

  (44)I’m hoping that you will come and have a chat with me. 我倒希望你来聊聊天。

  7.29 现在进行时表将来

  现在进行时除表现在外,还可以表将来。现在进行时表将来时常有“意图”、“安排”(但不是固定不变的)或“打算”的含义。这种现在进行时比较生动,给人一种期待感。它常表最近或较近的将来。所用动词多是转移动词。如:

  (1)I’m going. 我要走了。

  (2)I’m leaving tomorrow. 我明天要走了。

  (3)When are you starting? 你什么时候动身?

  表将来的现在进行时除用于转移动词外,亦可用于某些非转移动词。如:

  (4)I’m meeting you after class. 课后我找你。

  (5)What are you doing next Sunday? 下星期天你打算干什么?

  (6)She is buying a new bike soon. 她不久将买一辆新自行车。

  但偶尔也表较远的将来。如:

  (7)When I grow up, I’m joining the army. 我长大了要参军。

  表将来的现在进行时有时含有“决心”的意思,多用在否定结构中。如:

  (8)I’m not going. 我不走了。

  (9)I’m not waiting any longer. 我不再等了。

  有时也用在肯定结构中。如:

  (10)I’m backing cut. 我要打退堂鼓了。

  用这种现在进行时与对方讲话时可变成命令,不过语气比较温和。如:

  (11)You’re staying. 你留下吧。

  (12)Don’t forget: you are part too. 不要忘记:你也要参加。

  同现在一般时一样,现在进行时也可在时间、条件或原因状语从句中表将来。如:

  (13)When you are passing my way, please drop in. 你什么时候路过我家,请进来坐。(用于时间状语从句)

  (14)If they are not doing it, what am I to do? 假如他们不干,那我该怎么办呢?(用于条件状语从句)

  (15)She’s going to the dentist tomorrow because she’s having a tooth filled. 她明天要去看牙医,因为她要补牙。

  表将来的现在进行时也可用在间接引语中,表示说话人相信它将是事实。如:

  (16)He said he is going tomorrow. 他说他明天走。

  表将来的现在进行时有时从属于将来时态。如:

  (17)On election night we’ll be telling you what’s happening in various places in this country. 到了选举的夜晚,我们将把全国各地的情况告诉大家。(is happening从属于将来进行时will be telling)

  (18)When I have the time, I’ll come down to the school to see how you’re both doing. 我有空时,会来学校看你们俩的学习情况的。(are doing从属于will come down)

  7.30 现在进行时表过去

  现在进行时在时间上横跨着过去、现在和将来,所以这不但可表现在和将来,也可以表离现在较近的过去。如:

  (1)What are you talking about? 你这是说些什么呀?

  (2)I’m forgetting my umbrella! 我差点儿把伞忘了!

  (3)Every word I’m telling you is true. 我跟你说的每一句话都是实话。

  7.31 现在进行时表经常

  有时现在进行时并不表具体时间,而是泛指一切时间。这种现在进行时比较生动,也比较口语化。如:

  (1)Whenever I see him, he’s reading. 我无论什么时候看到他,他都在读书。

  (2)Let a person go away with small acts of dishonesty, and soon he is committing greater ones. 放过一个人的小的欺骗行为,他不久就会进行大的欺骗勾当。

  (3)When children are doing nothing, they are doing mischief. 孩子闲着无事时就会淘气。(这里主句与从句皆用进行时态为了强调)

  表客观事实的句子用现在进行时也是为了生动,往往和表经常的副词连用。如:

  (4)The river is constantly flowing in to the sea. 此河不断流入大海。

  (5)The earth is a ball that is always turning round. 地球是一个球体,它不停地旋转。


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