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薄冰英语语法 第七章 动词的时态(32-46)

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  十、过去进行时

  7.32过去进行时的形式

  过去进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I was working. Was I working? I was not working. Was I not working?

  He (She,It) was working. Was he (she,it) working? He (She,It) was not working. Was he (she,it) not working?

  We were working. Were we working? We were not working. Were we not working?

  You were working. Were you working? You were not working. Were you not working?

  They were working. Were they working? They were not working. Were they not working?

  口语中否定式常用缩略式:

  否定式 疑问否定式

  I wasn’t /’wznt/ working. Wasn’t I working.

  He (She,It) wasn’t working. Wasn’t he (she,it) working?

  We weren’t /wnt/ working. Weren’t we working?

  You weren’t working. Weren’t you working?

  They weren’t working.

  They weren’t working. Weren’t they working?

  7.33 过去进行时的基本用法

  过去进行时表示过去某一时间正在进行的动作。过去进行时过去一般时一样,也常和表过去的时间状语连用。如:

  (1)I was practising the violin at eight o’clock yesterday evening. 昨晚八点钟我在练小提琴来着。

  (2)When I called him, he was having dinner. 我给他打电话的时候,他正在吃晚饭。

  如果时间状语是一时段,过去进行时所表的动作则须贯穿整段或大部分时间。如:

  (3)They were expecting you yesterday. 他们昨天一直在等你。

  (4)While we were having breakfast, John was talking on the phone. 我们在吃早饭的时候,约翰在打电话。

  过去进行时可用来打开话头,这种过去进行时也多与时间状语连用。如:

  (5)We were talking about you this morning. Your book is terrible. 我们今天早上谈论你来着。你写的书糟透了。

  (6)Miss Smith was praising you today, John. 今天史密斯小姐夸你来着,约翰。

  过去进行时表过去时还有以下一些情况。

  1)时间状语的省略。当上下文清楚时,可省去时间状语。如:

  (7)Oh, I was talking to myself. 噢,我是在自言自语。(指刚才)

  (8)We reached the lake just as the sun was rising above it. 我们抵达湖边时,太阳刚刚升起。(时间由上下文决定)

  这种过去进行时所表的动作发生的时间有时不很确定,但一般不会离现在很远。如:

  (9)I was talking with Tom and he said he was all for it. 我和汤姆谈来着,他说他完全赞成。

  (10)—Did you hear the news? 你听到那个消息了吗?

  —Yes, I was reading about it in the newspaper. 是的,我是从报纸上看到的。

  这种时间不确定的过去进行时用于某些心理活动的动词时可表委婉客气。如:

  (11)I was wondering if I must ask you one more question. 我不知道我是不是还须要再向你提一个问题。

  (12)I was thinking it might be a good idea to keep the window open. 我看还是把窗户开着的好。

  2)与时间状语连用。过去进行时可与soon,the next moment,in minutes,minutes later等时间状语连用,表示一个新的动作刚刚开始,颇有点像转换镜头似的。如:

  (13)Soon the whole town was talking about it. 不久镇上的人就都谈论起这件事了。

  (14)Ten minutes later he was standing at the window, smoking. 十分钟后,他已站在窗前,抽着烟。

  有时亦可不用时间状语。如:

  (15)The man sat down, and the judge was calling another name and another man was rising to his feet. 那个人坐下来,法官接着叫下一个名字,于是另一个人站了起来。

  3)表原因。过去进行时可用来申述原因或用作借口,这种用法常用在口语中。如:

  (16)She went to her doctor yesterday. She was having a lot of trouble with her skin. 她昨天去看病了。她患了很麻烦的皮肤病。

  (17)—Have you finished your homework, Mary? 你的作业做完了吗,玛丽?

  —No, I was helping my mother in the kitchen all day yesterday. 没有,我昨天一整天都帮妈妈干厨房活来着。

  4)表背景。过去进行时可用来为一个或一系列动作的发生提供背景。如:

  (18)It was snowing as the medical team made its way to the front. 医疗队奔赴前线时,天正下着雪。

  (19)The procession was going. He was standing amidst the crowd looking on. Suddenly a thundering explosion was heard. A turmoil followed. 队伍在前进。他站在人群中观看。突然间爆发出一声巨响。街上乱成一片。

  下面例句中的过去进行时亦表背景,但这种过去进行时常用在主句中,后接的when从句中的谓语动词常用过去一般时,表意外之事。如:

  (20)I was leaving the office when the telephone rang. 我正要离开办公室,电话铃响了。

  (21)He was crossing the street when he was hit by a bike. 他横过马路时被自行车撞了。

  5)表愿望。过去进行时有时可表过去未实现的愿望或打算,助动词was须重读。如:

  (22)I was coming. 我本要来的

  (23)I was reading a paper yesterday. 我昨天本要读论文的。(was须重读,否则会误会为真事)

  (24)Oh dear! I was writing him a letter this morning and forgot all about it. 哎呀!我本打算今天上午给他写信来着,后来就全给忘了。

  7.34 过去进行时表其它时间

  过去进行时除表过去时间外,还可表过去的过去、过去的将来和现在的将来。如:

  (1)The boy who was standing there ran away. 刚才站在那里的那个男孩跑了。(表过去的过去)

  (2)He quickly swallowed the food he was chewing. 他很快地将所咀嚼的食物咽了下去。(表过去的过去)

  (3)He asked the organization to reduce his salary to the original amount he was receiving. 他要求组织将他的工资减少到原来的水平。(表过去的过去)

  (4)He told her that he was leaving soon. 他告诉她他快走了。(表过去的将来)

  (5)I was meeting my sister at the station the next day. 第二天我要到车站接妹妹去。(表过去的将来)

  (6)He said he was coming this evening. 他说他今天晚上来。(表将来)

  (7)Was it next Sunday they were coming? 他们说是下星期天来吗?(表将来)

  十一、将来进行时

  7.35 将来进行时的形式

  将来进行时构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I shall be working. Shall I be working? I shall not be working. Shall I not be working?

  He (She,It) will be working. Will he (she,it) be working? He (She,It) will not be working. Will he (she,it) not be working?

  We shall be working. Shall we be working? We shall not be working. Shall we not be working?

  You will be working. Will you be working? You will not be working. Will you not be working?

  They will be working. Will they be working? They will not be working. Will they not be working?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’ll be working. I shan’t be working.

  I’ll not be working. Shan’t I be working?

  He (She,It) ’ll be working. He (She,It) won’t be working.

  He (She,It)’ll not be working. Won’t he (she,it) be working?

  We’ll be working. We shan’t be working.

  We’ ll not be working. Shan’t we be working?

  You’ll be working. You won’t be working.

  You’ ll not be working. Won’t you be working?

  They’ll be working. They won’t be working.

  They’ ll not be working. Won’t they be working?

  [注]在当代英语中,一律用will(或缩略式’ll)。

  7.24将来进行时的基本用法

  将来进行时的基本用法是表示在将来某一时间正在进行的动作。这个时态一般不表意愿,常表已安排好之事,给人一种期待之感。它一般只表离现在较近的将来,与表将来时间状语连用。如:

  (1)What will you be doing this time tomorrow? 你明天这时候将做什么?

  (2)I’ll be taking my holidays soon. 我不久将要度假了。

  (3)The train will be leaving in a second. 火车马上就开。

  间或也可以表较远的将来。如:

  (4)Maybe nobody will be smoking in fifty years. 50年后,也许就没有人吸烟了。

  如上下文已清楚地表明了将来时间,时间状语亦可省去。如:

  (5)They will be meeting us at the station. 他们会在车站上接我们的。

  (6)You’ll be hearing from me. 你就等我的信吧。

  将来进行时表将来时还有以下一些情况:

  1)表事情的发展。将来进行时常表事情的正常发展,是由客观情况决定的。如:

  (7)I’ll be seeing Mr. Smith tomorrow. 我明天将见到史密斯先生。

  (8)—Would it be any trouble for you to post this letter? 给我邮寄一下这封信对你方便吗?

  —No, not at all. I shall be going out presently. 方便,很方便。我反正就要出去。

  有时这种时态含有一种附带的意思,语气较为委婉。如:

  (9)Will you be seeing Mary this evening? 你今晚会见到玛丽吗?(附带的意思可能是:如果你今晚看到她的话,那就请你捎个信儿给她好吗?)

  (10)I’ll be finishing it . 我一会儿就完了。(附带的含义可能是:过一会儿你就会拿到它了)

  2)表原因、结果和可能。如:

  (11)Please come tomorrow afternoon. Tomorrow morning I’ll be having meeting. 请你明天下午来吧。明天上午我有一个会。(表原因)

  (12)You’d better borrow my bike. I won’t be needing it. 你最好借我的自行车吧。我不用。(表原因)

  (13)It’s no use trying to see him at six this evening, because he’ll be giving a lesson then. 今晚六点钟去找他不行,他那时要讲课。(表原因,后接because从句)

  (14)If you don’t write, they will be wondering what has happened to you. 你若不写信,他们就会怀疑你出了什么事。(表结果,与条件从句连用)

  (15)If I fail to appear by 7o’clock, I will not be coming at all. 如果我七点钟不到,我就不会来了。(表结果,与条件从句连用)

  (16)Stop the child or he will be falling over. 抓住那孩子,要不他会掉下去。(表结果,不用条件从句)

  (17)He will be telling you about it tonight. 他今晚会告诉你这件事。(表可能)

  (18)The roses will be coming out soon. 玫瑰花很快就会开的。(表可能)

  (19)I suppose you will be leaving soon. 我估计你快走了吧。(表可能,用于suppose之后)

  3)表委婉。如:

  (20)Will you be needing anything else? 你还需要什么吗?

  (21)If you will be wanting anything, just let me know. 你如需要什么,尽管告诉我。

  4)与将来一般时连用,表稍靠后的安排。如:

  (22)My duties will end in July and I will be returning to Arizona in the US. 我的工作七月结束,之后我将回到美国亚利桑那州。

  (23)My brother’ll have to take care of you. I’ll call him today and he’ll be expecting you. 我的兄弟一定会关照你的。我今天先给他打个电话,然后他就会等你去。

  [注]在下面的句子中,will是情态动词,意谓“大概”或“一定”,不表将要而表现在,常与now连用。如:

  ①They’ll be watching television now. 他们现在大概在看电视呢。

  ②It’s six o’clock. He won’t be working now. 现在六点。他不会在工作。

  十二、过去将来进行时

  7.37 过去将来进行时的形式

  过去将来进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 否定式

  I should be working. I should not be working.

  He (She,It) would be working. He (She,It) would not be working.

  We should be working. We should not be working.

  You would be working. You would not be working.

  They would be working. They would not be working.

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式

  I’d be working. I shouldn’t be working.

  I’d not be working.

  He (She,It) ’d be working. He (She,It) wouldn’t be working.

  He (She,It)’ d not be working.

  We’d be working. We shouldn’t be working

  We’ d not be working.

  You’d be working. You wouldn’t be working.

  You’ d not be working.

  They’d be working. They wouldn’t be working.

  They’ d not be working.

  [注]在当代英语中,一律用would(或缩略式为’d)。

  7.38 过去将来进行时的基本用法

  过去将来进行时表示在过去将来某一时间正在发生的动作。它常和表过去将来的时间状语连用,但上下文清楚时,时间状语亦可省略。和将来进行时一样,它也常表计划中的事,不表意愿或打算。它还有一个特点,即常用在宾语从句(尤其是间接引语)中。如:

  (1)John told us that Mary would be coming next day. 约翰告诉我们玛丽第二天来。

  (2)I never realized that some day I would be living in China. 我从未想到将来有一天会在中国居住。

  (3)She said she would be setting off on the 10 o’clock train. 她说她将乘10点钟的火车走。

  过去将来进行时有时也可用在其它从句中。如:

  (4)The new name he would be using was Jack Jones. 他将用的新名是杰克•琼斯。(用在定语从句中)

  (5)He would pay the rest as he would be leaving France. 其余款项,他将在离开法国时付清。(用在状语从句中)

  过去将来进行时也可用在独立句中。如:

  (6)The car started. Ellen James would be driving off to the university. 车子发动了。埃伦•詹姆斯要开车到大学去。

  十三、现在完成进行时

  7.39 现在完成进行时的形式

  现在完成进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I have been working. Have I been working? I have not been working. Have I not been working?

  He (She,It) has been working. Has he (she,it) been working? He (She,It) has not been working. Has he (she,it) not been working?

  We have been working. Have we been working? We have not been working. Have we not been working?

  You have been working. Have you been working? You have not been working. Have you not been working?

  They have been working. Have they been working? They have not been working. Have they not been working?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’ve been working. I haven’t been working.

  I’ve not been working. Haven’t I been working?

  He(She,It)’s been working. He (She,It)hasn’t been working.

  He(She,It)’ s not been working. Hasn’t he been working?

  We’ve been working We haven’t been working.

  We’ ve not been working Haven’t we been working?

  You’ve been working. You haven’t been working.

  You’ ve not been working Haven’t you been working?

  They’ve been working. They haven’t been working.

  They’ ve not been working Haven’t they been working?

  7.40 现在完成进行时的基本用法

  现在完成进行时表示动作从过去某一时间开始一直延续到现在或离现在不远的时间。其动作是否继续下去,则由上下文而定。这个时态多用于无限动词,如:live,learn,lie,stay,sit,wait,stand,rest,study等,并常和al this time,this week,this month,all night,all the morning,recently等状语以及since(自从)和for(经历)所引导的状语短语或从句连用(since和for连用时,动作常会继续下去)。如:

  (1)What have you been doing all this time? 这半天你干什么来着?(动作可能继续下去)

  (2)I’ve been writing letters all this morning? 我写了一上午信。(动作不再续下去)

  (3)He is ill. He’s been lying in bed for three weeks. 他在病中,已卧床三个星期了。(动作会续下去)

  (4)I’ve been puzzling ever since I set eyes on you where I saw you before. 自从我以前在那个地方看见你之后,我一直在纳闷儿。(动作可能还在继续)

  现在完成进行时和一切进行时态一样,往往含有一种临时性。如:

  (5)How long have you been living here? 你在这里住了多久啦?(如用现在完成时have lived则无临时的意义)

  有时现在完成进行时仅仅比较口语化。如:

  (6)My mother has been teaching English for twenty years. 我的母亲教授英语已20年了。

  使用现在完成进行时还有以下一些情况。

  1)表重复。有时现在完成进行时所表的动作并不是一直在不停地进行,而是在断断续续地重复。这时现在完成进行时即可用于非无限动词。如:

  (7)I have been bidding goodbye to some places today. 我今天到几个地方告别了。

  (8)He’s been scoring plenty of goals this season. 在这个足球季节里,他踢进了许多球。

  (9)You’ve been saying that for five years. 这话你已经说了有五年了。

  2)有感情色彩。现在完成进行时和一切进行时态一样也可以带有感情色彩。如:

  (10)Too much has been happening today. 今天真是一个多事的日子。

  (11)Fiddlesticks! Who’s been telling you such stuff? 乱弹琴!谁和你说的这些胡话?

  3)时间状语的省略。现在完成进行时在上下文清楚时亦可不用时间状语。这种现在完成进行时多指“刚才”或“近来”发生的动作,一般不再继续,并往往含有一种直接的结果。如:

  (12)You’ve been working too hard. 你的工作太辛苦了。(直接结果可能是:你一定很累了)

  (13)Who’s been insulting you? 谁欺侮你了?(对方可能在哭)

  (14)We have been cleaning the classroom. 我们打扫教室来着。(刚打扫过,直接结果可能是:我们身上有灰。如用现在完成时have cleaned则不一定是刚才打扫的,也可能是昨天打扫的,其结果是:教室很清洁,可以用了)

  有时说话人道出了直接结果。如:

  (15)My hands are dirty. I’ve been painting the door. 我的手脏,我在漆门来着。

  (16)What have you been eating to get as fat as this. 你吃什么啦,怎么这么胖?

  4)在当代英语中,可用否定结构。如:

  (17)Since that unfortunate accident last week, I haven’t been sleeping at all well. 自从上周发生了那次不幸事故之后,我一直睡得很不好。

  (18)He hasn’t been working for me and I haven’t has that much contact with him. 他并没有给我工作过,我和他没有过那许多接触。

  十四、过去完成进行时

  7.41 过去完成进行时的形式

  过去完成进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I had been working. Had I been working? I had not been working. Had I not been working?

  He (She,It) had been working. Had he (she,it) been working? He (She,It) had not been working. Had he (she,it) not been working?

  We had been working. Had we been working? We had not been working. Had we not been working?

  You had been working. Had you been working? You had not been working. Had you not been working?

  They had been working. Had they been working? They had not been working. Had they not been working?

  口语中常用缩略式:

  肯定式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I’d been working. I hadn’t been working.

  I’ d not been working. Hadn’t I been working?

  He(She,It)’d been working. He (She,It)hadn’t been working.

  He(She,It)’ d not been working. Hadn’t he been working?

  We’d been working We hadn’t been working.

  We’ d not been working Hadn’t we been working?

  You’d been working. You hadn’t been working.

  You’d not been working Hadn’t you been working?

  They’d been working. They hadn’t been working.

  They’d not been working Hadn’t they been working?

  7.42 过去完成进行时的基本用法

  过去完成进行时表示动作在过去某一时间之前开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。动作是否继续下去,概由上下文而定。和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时也必须以一过去时间为前提。如:

  (1)I had been looking for it for days before I found it. 这个东西,我找了很多天才找着。

  (2)They’d only been waiting for the bus a few moments when it came. 他们只等了不多一会儿,公共汽车就来了。

  (3)The telephone had been ringing for three minutes before it was answered. 电话响了三分钟才有人接。

  如果上下文清楚,过去时间也可省去。如:

  (4)He was tired. He’d been working all day. 他累了。他工作了一整天。

  (5)The doctor asked what he had been eating. 医生问他吃什么来着。

  和过去完成时一样,过去完成进行时亦可后接具有“突然”意义的when从句(此句用过去一般时)。如:

  (6)I had only been reading a few minutes when he came in. 我刚看了几分钟书他就进来了。

  (7)She’d only been studying her lesson for ten minutes when her little sister interrupted her. 她温习功课不过十分钟,她的小妹妹就把她打断了。

  十五、将来完成进行时

  7.43 将来完成进行时的形式

  将来完成进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 疑问式 否定式 疑问否定式

  I shall have been working. Shall I have been working? I shall not have been working. Shall I not have been working?

  He (She,It) will have been working. Will he (she,it) have been working? He (She,It) will not have been working. Will he (she,it) not have been working?

  We shall have been working. Shall we have been working? We shall not have been working. Shall we not have been working?

  You will have been working. Will you have been working? You will not have been working. Will you not have been working?

  They will have been working. Will they have been working? They will not have been working. Will they not have been working?

  7.44 将来完成进行时的基本用法

  将来完成进行时表示动作从某一时间开始一直延续到将来某一时间。是否继续下去,要视上下文而定。这个时态常和表示将来某一时间的状语连用。如:

  (1)I shall have been working here in this factory for twenty years by the end of the year. 到今年底,我将在这个工厂工作了20年了。

  (2)If we don’t hurry up the store will have been closing before we get there. 咱们如不快一点儿,等我们到了那儿,店门就会关了。

  (3)The play I coming off in August. By then the play will have been running for three months. 这个剧将于8月停演。到那时为止,这个剧将连演三个月了。

  [注]在下面的句子中,will是情态助动词,有“大概”或“我料想”的含义。如:

  ①You’ll have been wondering all this time how my invention works. 我想你这些时候一直想知道我的发明是怎样工作的吧。

  ②They will have been having a holiday yesterday. 他们昨天大概是在度假来着。

  十六、过去将来完成进行时

  7.45 过去将来完成进行时的形式

  过去将来完成进行时的构成形式如下:

  肯定式 否定式

  I should have been working. I should not have been working.

  He (She,It) would have been working. He (She,It) would not have been working.

  We should have been working. We should not have been working.

  You would have been working. You would not have been working.

  They would have been working. They would not have been working.

  7.46 过去将来完成进行时的基本用法

  过去将来完成进行时表动作从过去某一时间开始一直延续到过去将来某一时间。动作是否继续下去,由上下文决定。如:

  (1)He said that by the end of the Spring term he would have been studying English for three years. 他说到了春季(即下)学期末,他将学了三年英语了。

  [注]在下面句子中的would是情态动词,有“大概”或“一定”的含义。如:

  ①“What interesting job have you found?” Helen asked him; he knew she would have been thinking about it. “你找到什么有趣的工作啦?”海伦向他问道。他知道海伦一定会一直想这件事的。


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