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薄冰英语语法 第八章 被动语态

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  第八章 被动语态

  8.1 语态的含义和种类

  语态(voice)是动词的一种形式,用以表示主语和谓语之间的关系。

  英语的语态分为主动语态(active voice)和被动语态(passive voice)。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者。如:

  (1)Yesterday! I parked my car outside the school. 昨天我把我的汽车停在学校外边。

  被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。如:

  (2)A sound of piano is heard in the adjoining room. 听到邻居房间里有钢琴声。

  被动语态常由助动词be加及物动词的过去分词构成。被动语态可以用于各种时态,但较常用的有下列十种:

  1)现在一般时

  (3)Xiao Wang, you are wanted in the office. 小王,办公室有事找你。

  (4)I am not so easily deceived. 我不是轻易上当受骗的。

  2)过去一般时

  (5)I was invited to the concert. 我应邀参加了音乐会。

  (6)Our house was built in 1969. 我们家的房子建于1969年。

  3)将来一般时

  (7)We hope that an agreement will be arrived at. 我们希望会达成一项协议。

  (8)This matter will be looked into in the future. 这件事将来是要查明的。

  4)过去将来一般时

  (9)He said that the bridge would be built next year. 他说这座桥明年将建成。

  (10)Another half-hour and all doors would be locked—all lights extinguished. 再过半小时,所有的门都要上锁—所有的灯都要熄灭。

  5)现在完成时

  (11)My car has been repaired. 我的汽车已修好了。

  (12)The party has been planned since the new year. 这聚会自新年起就已筹划了。

  6)过去完成时

  (13)The portieres that hung across the folding doors had been taken down for the summer. 折门上面的门帘夏天已经取下来。

  (14)Tootie looked at the lanterns that had been lighted and placed near the opening. 图蒂望着那些已经点着并放在洞口附近的提灯。

  7)将来完成时

  (15)The new books will have been entered in the register before another parcel arrives. 这些新书在下一批书到来前将登记完毕。

  (16)This class will have been taught by Mr. Brown for two years by next summer. 到明年夏天,这个班将由布朗先生教毕二年了。

  8)过去将来完成时

  (17)The headmaster said the article would been completed translated by six o’clock. 校长说这篇文章将在6点钟以前翻译完毕。

  (18)He said that the bridge would have been completed before July. 他说这桥将于7月前完成。

  9)现在进行时

  (19)This question is being discussed at the meeting. 这个问题正在会上讨论。

  (20)The children are being taken care of by their aunt. 孩子们现在正由姑母照看着。

  10)过去进行时

  (21)When I called, tea was being served. 我来拜访时,正值上茶之际。

  (22)With his fingers, he gently searched the crown and brim of his hat to be sure it wasn’t being crushed. 他用手指轻轻地摸找帽顶和帽边,以肯定它没有被压坏。

  [注一]完成进行时态一般不用被动语态。它们的被动意义可用完成时态来表示,如He has been being examined.(他已被考过。)一般应代之以He has been examined。将来进行时与过去将来进行时一般也不用被动语态。其被动意义可用一般时态来表示,如He will be being examined while we are there.(他将在我们在那里时被考。)可代之以He will be examined while we are there。

  [注二]关于非限定动词的被动语态见本书第十章有关各节。

  被动语态除常用be加过去分词构成外,还可用“get+过去分词”结构。这种结构多用在口语中,后面一般不接by短语。如:

  (23)Hundreds of people get killed every year by traffic on the roads. 每年都几百人死于道路交通事故。

  (24)The boy got hurt on his way to school. 这男孩在上学的路上受伤了。

  被动语态可含有情态动词,其结构是“情态动词+be+过去分词”。如:

  (25)This must be done as soon as possible. 这件事必须尽快做。

  (26)What’s done cannot be undone. 覆水难收。

  (27)These stairs are very dangerous. They should be repaired. 这楼梯很危险,应该修理了。

  (28)Cross the road very carefully. Look both ways, or you might be knocked down. 过马路要非常小心,要看两边,不然会被车撞倒的。

  有不少短语动词相当于及物动词,所以这些短语动词亦有被动语态。如:

  (29)Many interesting experiments are carried out in our laboratory. 我们实验室做了许多有趣的实验。

  (30)Boxing was gone in for here in the early 1950s. 20世纪50年代初期,这里拳击很盛行。

  有些由“动词+名词+介词”构成的短语动词,其结构比较松散,变成被动语态时也可以将名词和其后的介词拆开(使介词和其后的宾语合成一介词短语)。这种被动语态常用于正式文体中。如:

  (31)Mess had been made of the house. 家里乱作一团。(主动句是:The owner had made mess of the house.)

  (32)Good use is made of the library. 这图书馆的利用率很高。(主动句是:They make good use of the library.)

  8.2主动语态变被动语态

  主动语态变为被动语态,可分为下列三种情况:

  1)“主+ 谓+宾”句型变为被动语态时,先将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语(宾语如为人称代词,须将宾格变为主格);然后将主动结构中谓语动词的主动语态变为被动语态;最后在谓语动词的被动语态之后加by,再将主动结构中的主语置于介词by之后(如为人称代词,须将其主格变为宾格)。如:

  (1)Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in 1876. 亚历山大•格雷厄姆•贝尔于1876年发明了电话。(主动结构)

  (2)The telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876. 电话是亚历山大•格雷厄姆•贝尔于1876年发明的。(被动结构)

  (3)The manager has not signed the papers. 经理没有在这些文件上签字。(主动结构)

  (4)The papers have not been signed by the manager. 这些文件还没有由经理签字。(被动结构)

  被动结构中的by短语,如无必要指出,则可省去。如:

  (5)I posted that letter last night. 我昨晚把那封信投邮了。(主动结构)

  (6)That letter was posted last night. 那封信是昨晚投邮的。(被动结构)

  如宾语是—that从句,变为被动语态时可用it作被动句的形式主语。如:

  (7)The know that he is an expert. 他们认为他是一位专家。(主动结构)

  (8)It is known that he is an expert. 人们认为他是一位专家。(被动结构)

  或把主动句中宾语从句的主语变为被动句的主语,宾语从句中的谓语部分变为不定式短语。如:

  (9)He is known to be an expert. 他被认为是一位专家。(被动结构)

  [注一]将主动句变为被动句时,偶尔可把by短语放在过去分记词之前,如He was by someone known to have worked for the German fascists.(有人知道他曾为德国法西斯干过事。)这里将by someone移至过去分词known之前显然是由于known和其后的to have worked的关系更为密切。有时by短语也可放在主语补语之后,如Tea drinking is considered one of the pleasures of life by the Chinese.(喝茶被中国人认为是一种人生乐趣。)。

  [注二]在较古的英语中,被动句中也可用of短语代替by短语。现仍见于少数一些说法中。如:

  ①He was beloved of everybody. 他受到大家的爱戴。

  ②He was devoured of a long dragon. 他被一长龙吞噬了。

  被动结构中的by短语并不一定总是代表动作的执行者,它有时也可表方式或原因。如:

  (10)A policeman is known by the clothes he wears. 警察可以从他穿的服装认出来。

  (11)I was very much flattered by his asking me to dance a second time. 我对他再次请我跳舞感到高兴。

  2)“主+ 谓+宾+宾”句型(一般地说一为间接宾语,一为直接宾语)变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的一个宾语变为被动结构中的主语,另一宾语不变。这一保留不变的宾语叫做保留宾语(retained object)。如将主动结构中的直接宾语变为被动结构中的主语,间接宾语之前则应加介词to(可省去)或for(一般不可省)。如:

  (12)He told her a long story. 他给她讲了一个长故事。(主动结构)

  (13)She was told a long story. 她听了一个长故事。(被动结构)

  (14)A long story was told to her. 有人对她讲了一个长故事。(被动结构)

  (15)Mother bought me a new coat. 母亲给我买了件新上衣。(主动结构)

  (16)I was bought a new coat. 有人给我买了件新上衣。(被动结构)

  (17)A new coat was bought for me. 有人给我买了件新上衣。(被动结构)

  [注]被动句中强调间接宾语时,其前的介词to不可省去,如Ample warning was given to then, not to me.(受到严厉警告的是他们,不是我。)。

  上述句型中的两个宾语有时都是直接宾语。变为被动结构时,一般皆将主动结构中指人的宾语变为主语。如:

  (18)The teacher asked the students a very unusual question. 教师向学生提了一个很不寻常的问题。(主动结构)

  (19)The students were asked a very unusual question. 学生被问了一个很不寻常的问题。(被动结构)

  偶尔也可将主动结构中指物的宾语变为主语,但指人的保留宾语之前一般不可加任何介词。如:

  (20)He will forgive you your offence. 他将宽恕你的无礼。(主动结构)

  (21)Your offence will be forgiven you. 你的无礼将得到宽恕。(被动结构)

  3)“主+谓+复合宾语”句型(含有一个宾语加宾语补语)变为被动结构时,只将主动结构中的宾语变为被动结构中的主语,宾语补语不变。如:

  (22)They chose Tom captain. 他们选汤姆为队长。(主动结构,宾语补语为名词)

  (23)Tom was chosen captain. 汤姆被选为队长。(被动结构)

  (24)In spring, all the islanders paint their houses white. 春天的时候,所有岛民都把他们的房子涂成白色。(主动结构,宾语补语为形容词)

  (25)Their houses are painted white. 他们的房子被涂成白色。(被动结构)

  (26)They recognized him as a genius. 他们认为他是一个天才。(主动结构,宾语补语为介词短语)

  (27)He was recognized as a genius. 他被认为是一个天才。(被动结构)

  (28)We asked the teacher to explain the difficult sentences again. 我们要求教师再解释一下这些难句。(主动结构,宾语补语为不定式)

  (29)The teacher was asked to explain the difficult sentences again. 教师被要求再解释一下这些难句。(被动结构)

  (30)I found him lying on the floor. 我发现他躺在地板上。(主动结构,宾语补语为现在分词)

  (31)He was found lying on the floor. 他被发现躺在地板上。(被动结构)

  (32)We found all our seats occupied. 我们发现所有我们的位子都被占了。(主动结构,宾语补语为过去分词)

  (33)All our seats was found occupied. 所有我们的位子发现都被占了。(被动结构)

  但在下列情况下,主动句一般不能变为被动句:

  1)谓语是:

  a)及物动词leave,enter,reach,resemble,become(适合) suit,benefit,lack等。

  b)不可拆开的take place,lose heart,change colour,belong to,consist of等短语动词。

  2)宾语是:

  a)反身代词、相互代词、同源宾语、不定式、动名词等。

  b)虚词it,如cab it,foot it等。

  c)身体的某一部分,如shake one’s head等。

  d)某些抽象名词,如interest(兴趣)等。

  8.3 被动语态的用法

  英语里多用主动语态,但用被动语态的场合也不少,似乎要比汉语用得广泛。英语的被动语态常用于下列几种场合:

  1)当我们不知道动作的执行者时。如:

  (1)Printing was introduced into Europe from China. 印刷术是由中国传入欧洲的。

  (2)Look! There’s nothing here. Everything has been taken away. 看!这里什么也没有。一切都被拿走了。

  2)当我们不必要提出动作的执行者时。如:

  (3)I was born in 1960. 我生于1960年。

  (4)Such things are not done twice. 这种事不可再做。

  3)当我们强调或侧重动作的承受者时。如:

  (5)She is liked by everybody. 她为人人所喜欢。(强调she)

  (6)A good time was had by all. 大家都玩得很痛快。(侧重a good time)

  4)当我们出于礼貌避免说出动作的执行者时。如:

  (7)Where can you be reached? 哪里可以和你接头?(避免说出“我”)

  (8)You’ll be contacted. 我们会和你联系的。(避免说出“我们”)

  5)当我们出于行文的需要时。如:

  (9)The film was directed by Xie Jin. 该电影由谢晋导演。(上文谈的是该影片)

  (10)Helen was sent to the school by her parents when she was nine. 海伦九岁时被父母送到这座学校。(上文谈的是海伦)

  6)有些动词习惯上常用被动语态。如:

  (11)It’s done! (可缩略为Done!)成啦!(现在一般时被动式表动作已完成)

  (12)He is said to be a good teacher. 他被认为是一个好教师。

  (13)The line of flags was slung between two trees. 一列国旗挂在两树之间。

  (14)He was born in 1919. 他生于1919年。

  (15)She is reputed to be the best singer in Europe. 她被誉为是欧洲最佳歌手。

  [注]被动语态便于论述客观事实,故常用于科技文章、新闻报道、书刊介绍及景物描写。

  8.4 含被动意义的主动语态

  有些不及物动词(其主语大都指物)的主动语态可以表示被动意义。这种不及物动词有下列几种:

  1)某些连系动词。如smell,taste,sound,prove,feel等。

  (1)The flowers smell sweet. 这花儿很香。

  (2)The food tastes nice. 这食物的味道好。

  (3)That sounds very reasonable. 这话听上去很有道理。

  (4)The story proved quite false. 这一套话证实完全是假的。

  2)某些与can’t,won’t等连用的不及物动词,如move,lock,shut,open等。

  (5)It can’t move. 它不能动。

  (6)The door won’t shut. 这门关不上。

  3)某些可和well,easily等副词连用的不及物动词,如read,write,wash,clean,draw,burn,cook,photograph等。

  (7)The cloth washes well. 这种布料好洗。

  (8)The poem reads smoothly. 这首诗读起来很流畅。

  (9)The cistern doesn’t clean easily. 这水槽不容易弄干净。

  (10)This kind of rice cooks more quickly than that kind. 这种米做饭比那种熟得快。

  4)某些可用于“主+谓+主补”结构中的不及物动词,如wear,blow等。

  (11)This material has worn thin. 这种布料已穿薄了。

  (12)The door blew open. 门给吹开了。

  有些不及物动词的进行时亦具有被动意义。如:

  (13)Corn is selling briskly. 谷物畅销。

  [注] 上述不及物动词有些亦可用作及物动词,但二者有所不同。如:

  ①The door opened. 门开了。

  ②The door was opened. 门被打开了。

  例①强调the door本身内在的特性,表明“门”本身可开可关,不强调动作的执行者;例②则相反,强调“门被人打开了”,与门本身的特性无关。

  8.5 被动语态与系表结构的区别

  所谓系表结构,在此乃指“连系动词+用作表语的过去分词”结构。它与被动语态的形式完全一样,于是就有一个如何区别它们的问题。总的来说,它们有以下几点不同:

  1)被动语态中的过去分词是动词,表动作;系表结构中的过去分词相当于形容词,表状态。前者可用by短语表动作的执行者,后者则一般不用by短语。如:

  (1)The composition was written with great care. 这篇作文写得很用心。(被动语态)

  (2)The composition is well written. 这篇作文写得好。(系表结构)

  (3)These articles are sold quickly. 这些货物售得快。(被动语态)

  (4)These articles are all sold out. 这些货物全售出了。(系表结构)

  (5)Such questions are often settled through negotiations. 这类问题通常通过谈判解决。(被动语态)

  (6)The question is settled. 这个问题解决了。(系表结构)

  2)系表结构一般只用于现在一般时与过去一般时。被动语态则除可用于上述两种时态之外,还可用于其它时态。如:

  (7)I have been driven to it. 我是被迫至此。(被动结构)

  (8)The flowers will be planted next week. 下周种花。(被动结构)

  3)系表结构中的过去分词可被very所修饰;被动语态中的过去分词可用much修饰。试比较:

  (9)He was very agitated. 他很激动。(系表结构)

  (10)He was much agitated by the news. 他听到消息后很激动。(被动结构)

  4)系表结构有主动意义,被动结构只有被动意义。现将具有主动意义的系表结构举例说明如下:

  a)过去分词表心理、感情,如:

  (11)She is resolved to become a ballet dancer. 她决心当一名芭蕾舞演员。

  (12)I am quite puzzled. 我感到十分困惑。

  b)过去分词是反身动词,如:

  (13)The open square was bathed in light. 宽阔的广场淋浴在阳光中。(主动式是bathed itself)

  (14)The way was lost between the trees. 小路消失在树林之中。(主动式是lost itself)

  c)过去分词与介词搭配,如:

  (15)He was puzzled about it. 他为那件事感到困惑。

  (16)Are you interested in this subject? 你对这门课感兴趣吗?

  (17)We were surprised at the news. 我们对那消息感到惊讶。

  (18)She was scared out of her wits. 她吓得不知所措。

  (19)The child is accustomed to sleeping alone. 这孩子习惯独自睡了。

  [注]过去分词有时可后接with,也可后接by。一般来说,by强调动作,with强调状态,试比较:seized by a man 被人捉住,seized with a fever 发烧;covered by a lid 被盖子盖住,covered with a lid 为盖子所盖住

  5)有时只能从上下文才能加以区别。如:

  (20)The door was closed. 门关上了。

  (21)The road was mended. 路修好了。

  独立地看,上述两例,既可是被动结构,也可是系表结构。遇到这种情况,则应根据上下文去理解。


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